User talk:137.111.13.4

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Welcome![edit]

{ Hello, and welcome to Wikipedia!

Someone using this IP address, 137.111.13.4, has made edits to the page Gerald Muench, which have been reverted. If you did this, in the future please try to contribute in a more constructive manner. If you'd like to experiment with the syntax, please do so in the sandbox rather than in articles. If you did not do this, you may wish to consider getting a username to avoid confusion with other editors.



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Again, welcome! Randykitty (talk) 14:13, 14 January 2014 (UTC) |}

C9orf72[edit]

Would you please use template:cite journal? If you have any questions, please leave a note on my talk page. Cheers Jim1138 (talk) 04:25, 11 March 2014 (UTC)

Korean romanisation[edit]

Revised Romanization of Hangeul[edit]

The Romanization of Hangeul (Korean: 한글의 로마자 표기법; literally Roman letter notation of Hangeul), also known as RR transliteration (Revised Romanization transliteration) was the official Hangeul romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by Ministry of Education replacing the older International Phonetic Notation of Korean phonology (Korean: 조선어음의 만국 음성부호 표기), from 1959 until 1984.

Consonant letters[edit]

Hangul
Romanization g gg n d dd r m b bb s ss ng j jj ch k t p h

Vowel letters[edit]

Hangul
Romanization a ae ya yae eo e yeo ye o wa wae oe yo u weo we wi yu eu eui i

Kontsevich system[edit]

The Kontsevich system (Russian: Система Концевича/Sistema Kontsevicha) for the Cyrillization of the Korean language was created by the Russian scholar Lev Kontsevitch (Russian: Лев Концевич) on the basis of the earlier system designed by Aleksandr Holodovich (Russian: Александр Холодович). It is currently the main system of transcribing Korean words into the Russian language.

Cyrillization systems for Korean were developed domestically in both North and South Korea; Kontsevich carried out work on the systemisation of these rules. In contrast with some systems of romanization of Korean, the transcription is based primarily on the pronunciation of a word, rather than on its spelling.

Consonants[edit]

Initial[edit]
Hangul
Cyrillic к н т р м п с ч чх кх тх пх х кк тт пп сс чч -
McCune–Reischauer k n t r m p s ch ch' k' t' p' h kk tt pp ss tch -
Revised Romanization g n d r m b s j ch k t p h kk tt pp ss jj -
Final[edit]
Hangul
Cyrillic к н т ль м п т т т к т п т к - - т - нъ
McCune–Reischauer k n t l m p t t t k t p t k - - t - ng
Revised Romanization k n t l m p t t t k t p t k - - t - ng
Medial consonant rules[edit]

Some letters are transcribed differently in the middle of a word when following certain other letters.

Next initial→
Previous ending↓
к н т р м п с ч чх кх тх пх х -
к кк нн кт нн нм кп кс кч кчх ккх ктх кпх кх г
н нг нн нд лл нм нб нс ндж нчх нкх нтх нпх нх н
ль льг лл льтт лл льм льб льсс льчч льчх лькх льтх льпх рх р
м мг мн мд мн мм мб мс мдж мчх мкх мтх мпх мх м
п пк мн пт мн мм пп пс пч пчх пкх птх ппх пх б
нъ нг нн нд нн нм нб нс ндж нчх нкх нтх нпх нх нъ

Vowels[edit]

Hangul
Cyrillic а я о ё о ё у ю ы и э йя е йе/-е ве ви ый/-и ва во вэ ве
McCune–Reischauer a ya ŏ o yo u yu ŭ i ae yae e/-ë ye oe wi ŭi wa wae we
Revised Romanization a ya eo yeo o yo u yu eu i ae yae e ye oe wi ui wa wo wae we


Revised Romanization of Korean[edit]

The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; lit. Roman letter notation of national language) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, replacing the older McCune–Reischauer system.

Vowel letters[edit]

Hangul
Romanization a ae ya yae eo e yeo ye o wa wae oe yo u wo we wi yu eu ui i

Consonant letters[edit]

Hangul
Romanization Initial g kk n d tt r m b pp s ss - j jj ch k t p h
Final k k n t - l m p - t t ng t - t k t p t

The revised romanization transcribes certain phonetic changes that occur with combinations of the ending consonant of a character and the initial consonant of the next, for example Hanguk → Hangug-eo. The significant changes are highlighted:

next initial →
previous ending ↓ g n d r m b s j ch k t p h
k g kg ngn kd ngn ngm kb ks kj kch k-k kt kp kh, k
n n n-g nn nd ll, nn nm nb ns nj nch nk nt np nh
t d, j tg nn td nn nm tb ts tj tch tk t-t tp th, t, ch
l r lg ll, nn ld ll lm lb ls lj lch lk lt lp lh
m m mg mn md mn mm mb ms mj mch mk mt mp mh
p b pg mn pd mn mm pb ps pj pch pk pt p-p ph, p
ng ng- ngg ngn ngd ngn ngm ngb ngs ngj ngch ngk ngt ngp ngh

McCune–Reischauer[edit]

McCune–Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune–Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. A variant of McCune–Reischauer is used as the official system in North Korea.

Guide[edit]

This is a simplified guide for the McCune–Reischauer system. It is often used for the transliteration of names but will not convert every word properly, as several Korean letters are pronounced differently depending on their position.

Vowels[edit]
Hangul
Romanization a ae ya yae ŏ e* ye o wa wae oe yo u we wi yu ŭ ŭi i
* e – written as ë after ㅏ and ㅗ
Consonants[edit]
Hangul
Romanization Initial k kk n t tt r m p pp s ss - ch tch ch' k' t' p' h
Final k k n t - l m p - t t ng t - t k t p t
  • The consonants digraphs (ㄳ, ㄵ, ㄶ, ㄺ, ㄻ, ㄼ, ㄽ, ㄾ, ㄿ, ㅀ, ㅄ) only exist in finals. These digraphs are transcribed by their actual pronunciation.
Initial consonant of the next syllable

(†)

K

N

T

(R)

M

P

S

CH/J

CH'

K'

T'

P'

H
Final
consonant
ㅇ NG NG NGG NGN NGD NGN NGM NGB NGS NGJ NGCH' NGK' NGT' NGP' NGH
ㄱ K G KK NGN KT NGN NGM KP KS KCH KCH' KK' KT' KP' KH
ㄴ N N N'G NN ND LL NM NB NS NJ NCH' NK' NT' NP' NH
ㄹ L R LG LL LD LL LM LB LS LCH LCH' LK' LT' LP' RH
ㅁ M M MG MN MD MN MM MB MS MJ MCH' MK' MT' MP' MH
ㅂ P B PK MN PT MN MM PP PS PCH PCH' PK' PT' PP' PH

† An initial consonant before a vowel to indicate absence of sound.

Basically, when deciding whether g or k, b or p, d or t and j or ch is used, use g, b, d or j if it is voiced, and k, p, t or ch if it is not. Pronunciations such as these take precedence over the rules in the table above.

North Korean variant[edit]

In North Korea's variant of McCune–Reischauer, aspirated consonants are not represented by an apostrophe, but instead by adding an "h". For example, 평안 is written as Phyŏngan. With the original system this would be written as P'yŏngan.[citation needed]

South Korean variant[edit]

In South Korea's variant of McCune–Reischauer, in official use from 1984 to 2000, 시 is written as shi instead of the original system's si, and others like 샤, 셔 and so on, where the pronunciation is deemed closer to a /ʃ/ sound than a /s/ sound, are romanised with sh instead of s. The original system deploys sh only in the combination 쉬, as shwi.

ㅝ is written as wo instead of the original system's in this variant. Because the diphthong w (ㅗ or ㅜ as a semivowel) + o (ㅗ) does not exist in Korean phonology, the South Korean government omitted a breve in .

Hyphens are used to distinguish between ㄴㄱ and ㅇㅇ in this variant system, instead of the apostrophes in the original version. Therefore, apostrophes are used only for aspiration marks in the South Korean system.

Additionally, assimilation-induced aspiration by an initial ㅎ is indicated, e.g. 직할시 (直轄市; "a directly governed city") is written as chik'alshi, which under the official system is chikhalsi.

Yale romanization of Korean[edit]

The Yale romanization of Korean places primary emphasis on showing a word's morphophonemic structure. This distinguishes it from the other two widely used systems for romanizing Korean, the Revised Romanization of Korean (RR) and McCune–Reischauer. These two usually provide the pronunciation for an entire word, but the morphophonemic elements accounting for that pronunciation often cannot be recovered from the romanizations.

ISO/TR 11941[edit]

ISO/TR 11941:1996 is a Korean romanization system used in ISO. It is not commonly used.

It is very similar to Yale Romanization. Transcription rules follow.

Consonants[edit]

k/g kk/gg ks/gs kh/k lk/lg
t/d tt/dd th/t lth/lt
p/b pp/bb ps/bs ph/p lp/lb lph/lp
c/j cc/jj ch/c nc/nj
s ss ls
m lm
–, ng h lh nh
r/l n

Vowels[edit]

a ae ya yae wa wae
eo e yeo ye weo we
o oe yo
u yu
eu
i yi wi

See also[edit]

Korean phonology[edit]

Sounds of Korean[edit]

Consonants[edit]

The Korean consonants
Bilabial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Velar Glottal
Nasal /m/ /n/ /ŋ/[1]
Plosive
and
Affricate
plain /p/ /t/ /t͡ɕ/ /k/
tense /p͈/ /t͈/ /t͡ɕ͈/ /k͈/
aspirated /pʰ/ /tʰ/ /t͡ɕʰ/ /kʰ/
Fricative plain /sʰ/ /h/
tense /s͈/
Liquid /w/1 /l/ /j/1

1 The liquids /w/ and /j/ are represented in Korean writing by modifications to vowel symbols (see below).

The IPA symbol ◌͈ (a subscript double straight quotation mark, shown here with a placeholder circle) is used to denote the tensed consonants /p͈/, /t͈/, /k͈/, /t͡ɕ͈/, /s͈/. Its official use in the Extensions to the IPA is for 'strong' articulation, but is used in the literature for faucalized voice. The Korean consonants also have elements of stiff voice, but it is not yet known how typical this is of faucalized consonants. They are produced with a partially constricted glottis and additional subglottal pressure in addition to tense vocal tract walls, laryngeal lowering, or other expansion of the larynx.

Vowels[edit]

The short vowel phonemes of Korean. The long vowel phonemes of Korean.
The basic Korean vowels
Monophthongs /i/ ,  /e/ ,  /ɛ/ ,  /a/ *,  /o/ ,  /u/ ,  /ʌ/ ,  /ɯ/ ,  /ø/
Vowels preceded by intermediaries,
or Diphthongs
/je/ ,  /jɛ/ ,  /ja/ ,  /wi/ ,  /we/ ,  /wɛ/ ,  /wa/ ,  /ɰi/ ,  /jo/ ,  /ju/ ,  /jʌ/ ,  /wʌ/

^* ㅏ is closer to a near-open central vowel ([ɐ]), though a is still used for tradition.

Allophones[edit]

/s/ is aspirated [sʰ] and becomes an alveolo-palatal [ɕʰ] before [j] or [i] for most speakers (but see North–South differences in the Korean language). This occurs with the tense fricative and all the affricates as well. At the end of a syllable, /s/ changes to /t/ (Example: beoseot (버섯) 'mushroom').

/h/ may become a bilabial [ɸ] before [o] or [u], a palatal [ç] before [j] or [i], a velar [x] before [ɯ], a voiced [ɦ] between voiced sounds, and a [h] elsewhere.[citation needed]

/p, t, t͡ɕ, k/ become voiced [b, d, d͡ʑ, ɡ] between voiced sounds.

/m, n/ frequently denasalize to [b, d] at the beginnings of words.

/l/ becomes alveolar flap [ɾ] between vowels, and [l] or [ɭ] at the end of a syllable or next to another /l/. Note that a written syllable-final 'ㄹ', when followed by a vowel or a glide (i.e., when the next character starts with 'ㅇ'), migrates to the next syllable and thus becomes [ɾ].

Traditionally, /l/ was disallowed at the beginning of a word. It disappeared before [j], and otherwise became /n/. However, the inflow of western loanwords changed the trend, and now word-initial /l/ (mostly from English loanwords) are pronounced as a free variation of either [ɾ] or [l]. The traditional prohibition of word-initial /l/ became a morphological rule called "initial law" (두음법칙) in South Korea, which pertains to Sino-Korean vocabulary. Such words retain their word-initial /l/ in North Korea.

All obstruents (plosives, affricates, fricatives) at the end of a word are pronounced with no audible release, [p̚, t̚, k̚].

Plosive stops /p, t, k/ become nasal stops [m, n, ŋ] before nasal stops.

Hangul spelling does not reflect these assimilatory pronunciation rules, but rather maintains the underlying, partly historical morphology. Given this, it is sometimes hard to tell which actual phonemes are present in a certain word.

One difference between the pronunciation standards of North and South Korea is the treatment of initial [r], and initial [n]. For example,

  • "labor" – north: rodong (로동), south: nodong (노동)
  • "history" – north: ryŏksa (력사), south: yeoksa (역사)
  • "female" – north: nyŏja (녀자), south: yeoja (여자)

Morphophonemics[edit]

Grammatical morphemes may change shape depending on the preceding sounds.

Canonical IPA[edit]

Below is a chart of the Korean alphabet's symbols and their canonical IPA values:

Consonants
Hangul
RR b d j g pp tt jj kk p t ch k s h ss m n ng r, l
IPA p t t͡ɕ k t͡ɕ͈ t͡ɕʰ s h m n ŋ ɾ, l
Vowels
Hangul
RR i e oe ae a o u eo eu ui ye yae ya yo yu yeo wi we wae wa wo
IPA i e ø ɛ a o u ʌ ɯ ɰi je ja jo ju ɥi we wa

IPA for Korean[edit]

Korean consonants
IPA Hangul RR English approximation
b[2] b ball
d[3] d doll
[4] j gee
ɡ[5] g gall
h h hall
j ㅖ, ㅒ, ㅑ,
ㅛ, ㅠ, ㅕ[6]
y you
k ㄱ, ㅋ[7] g, k kid
kk skin
ㅋ, ㅎㄱ k cup
l ㄹ, ㄴ[8] l lip
m ㅁ, ㅂ[9] m mall
n ㄴ, ㄹ,
ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ[10]
n not
ŋ ㅇ, ㄱ[11] ng king
p ㅂ, ㅍ[12] b, p paint
pp spit
ㅍ, ㅎㅂ p paint
ɾ r like Scots r or American ladder
s like see, but aspirated (with more breath)
ss see
ɕʰ[13] s she
ɕ͈[14] ss see
t
ㄷ, ㅌ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ[15]
d
t
tall
tt stall
ㅌ, ㅎㄷ t tall
j cheek
tɕ͈ jj badge
tɕʰ ㅊ, ㅎㅈ ch cheek
w ㅜ, ㅗ[16] w wall
Korean vowels and diphthongs
IPA Hangul RR English approximation
a a beta
spa
e e set, Spanish queso
rays, Portuguese peixes
ɛ ae bet, Italian bella
ɛː says, French fête
i i mean
o o core
u u moon
ʌ eo mud
əː between pearl (RP) and pull, with spread lips
ɯ eu like moon, but with spread lips
ɯː
ɰi ui like wee, but with spread lips

See also[edit]


101.117.49.242 (talk) 12:57, 27 August 2014 (UTC)

  1. ^ only at the end of a syllable
  2. ^ Allophone of /p/ between voiced sounds.
  3. ^ Allophone of /t/ between voiced sounds.
  4. ^ Allophone of /tɕ/ between voiced sounds.
  5. ^ Allophone of /k/ between voiced sounds.
  6. ^ Spelled by doubling the short line on the vowel.
  7. ^ ㅋ is [k] at the end of a syllable.
  8. ^ ㄹ is [l] at the end of a syllable. ㄹㄴ and ㄴㄹ may be [l:].
  9. ^ ㅂ is [m] before [n] or [m].
  10. ^ ㄹ may be [n] at the start of a word. ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ are [n] before [n] or [m].
  11. ^ ㅇ is only [ŋ] at the end of a syllable. ㄱ is [ŋ] before [n], [m] or [ɾ].
  12. ^ ㅍ is [p] at the end of a syllable.
  13. ^ Allophone of /s/ before /i/ and /j/.
  14. ^ Allophone of /s͈/ before /i/ and /j/.
  15. ^ All are [t] and RR t at the end of a syllable.
  16. ^ Spelled ㅜ before [ʌ], [e], [i]; ㅗ before [ɛ], [e], [a]