User talk:MLWilson

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Contact[edit]

Please contact me YadaWonk1 (talk) 02:36, 4 February 2010 (UTC)

Collaboration article[edit]

Great to see you over at MetaCollab.net! The summary sentence of the collaboration article is much better now! i gave it one more tweek - adding creativity to the end as per Oxford's (online unabridged second edition) definitions of collaborate, collaborator, and collaboration - all of which add 'esp. in literary, artistic, or scientific work'. I look forward to doing a bit more work on the page and discussing collaboration in general - i have one week left on my phd (which is on collaboration actually) - <eeek!> better get back to work! (i've duplicated this message on your metacollab talk page as well). Cheers! Mark Elliott 00:17, 29 April 2007 (UTC)

The Military history WikiProject Newsletter: Issue XV (May 2007)[edit]

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hey[edit]

you :)  immunity  talk  05:28, 22 July 2007 (UTC)

Military history WikiProject coordinator selection[edit]

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Military history WikiProject coordinator elections[edit]

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Milhist coordinators election has started[edit]

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Image copyright problem with Image:Defense Threat Reduction Agency emblem.jpg[edit]

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The Military history WikiProject Newsletter : Issue XXVII (May 2008)[edit]

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The Military history WikiProject Newsletter : Issue XXVIII (June 2008)[edit]

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The Military history WikiProject Newsletter : Issue XXIX (July 2008)[edit]

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Nominations for the Military history WikiProject coordinator election[edit]

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The Military history WikiProject Newsletter : Issue XXX (August 2008)[edit]

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The Military history WikiProject Newsletter : Issue XXXI (September 2008)[edit]

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Test[edit]

1. Soviet Efforts a. Equipment i. Mid-1950s, Since the mid 1950s the USSR had been Afghanistan’s major supplier of economic aid and military equipment and training, at an estimated cost of2.5 billion up to 1973 and over $1 billion in 1973-8. 1 ii. December 1978, Treaty of Friendship and Good Neighborliness. 1 b. Training i. Size 1. 1979, The number of Soviet civil and military advisers increased from about 3,000 before the revolution to about 4,500 (other estimates ranged between 1,500 and 30,000). Large sums were made available for economic development, new military equipment was supplied (including t-62 tanks, MiG-21 fighters and Mi-24 helicopter gunships), and it was rumored that Soviet pilots were flying combat missions and military advisers were employed at the company level. 1 2. 14 December 1979, State Department noted that there were about 4,000 military ‘advisers’ in Afghanistan. On 18 Deember the number had risen to 5,000 (1,000 of them combat forces), and they were fanning out to key positions. 2. Afghan Security Forces size a. Army i. Size 1. 1978, 100,000 [3 armd divs, 10 inf divs., 3 mountain inf bdes, 1 arty bde, 3 arty regts., 2 cdo regts] with 150,000 in reserves and military service equaling 2 years. 2. 1979, 80,000 [same as 1978] with 150,000 in reserves and military service equaling 2 years. 1978-79, It was clear that the Afghan army could not win a final victory over the rebels. Originally 80,000 strong, the army was composed of ill-trained conscripts and frequent purges apparently reduced the officer and NCO corps while increasing its party loyalties (it has been estimated that 4,000 of the 8,000 serving in April 1978 were replaced within eighteen months). 1 3. 1980, 32,000 [3 corps HQ, 10 inf divs, 3 armd bdes, 3 mountain inf bdes, 1 arty bde, 3 arty regts, 3 cdo regts, 1 para regt] with 150,000 in reserves and military service equaling 2 years. The regime also tried to revitalize the Afghan Army and restore it to its pre-1978 strength of some 100,000 men, resorting to a number of expedients, which included financial inducements and forced recruitment. Desertion and defection to the insurgents continued to frustrate these efforts. In July the 14th Armoured Division, based at Ghazni, reportedly mutinied, and by September the Afghan Army was a demoralized and ineffective force estimated to number no more than 30,000 men. The disarray of the Afghan armed forces compelled Soviet troops to assume an increasingly large share of the ground fighting. …Afghan officials were reported to operate under the direction of Soviet advisers and experts who permeated every level of the bureaucracy and were involved in all major governmental decisions. 4. 1980-1981, The continuing weakness of the Afghan Army remained the most important factor in the military situation. It had suffered under the purges of the Taraki and Amin regimes and in fighting the rebels, and since the Soviet invasion there had been mutinies, desertions and evasion of service. As a result, by the end of 1980 its strength had fallen to between 25,000 and 30,000, or about one third its former size. Considerable efforts were made to boost voluntary recruitment and to extend the period of service by conscripts. On 7 January 1981 a new general conscription law reduced the age of liability for military service from 22 to 20. In theory, this should have almost doubled the size of the largely conscript army, but widespread evasion of conscription continued. On 30 August another measure recalled all reservists under the age of 35 who had been released before 22 October 1978 – an unpopular step clearly taken under strong Soviet pressure. The regular army and police forces were supported by various militias, notably the Social Order Brigades, formed on the initiative of the Democratic Yough of Afghanistan organization. Their use was greatly extended during the summer of 1981, and they were employed on guard duties at government buildings, bridges, roads, schools, mosques and even farms. … Officially, Afghan forces attended to all internal security tasks. According to Peshawar-based resistance groups, however, Soviet forces were extensively employed on internal security duties throughout Afghanistan, and it is likely that these duties were expanded in 1981. 5. 1981, 35,000 (perhaps 26,000 conscripts) [3 corps HQ, 11 Inf divs, 3 armd bdes, 2 mountain inf bdes, 1 arty bde, 3 arty regts, 3 cdo regts, 1 para regt] with 150,000 in reserves with an obligation to age 40; and military service equaling conscription; 2 years, may be extended to 30 months. Reports from defectors regularly stressed the predominance of Soviet advisers in all ministries, and the creation of the new department the new department ..been a means of reinforcing their position so as to increase government efficiency. On the other hand, Party leaders complained that ministry employees relied too heavily on the advisers and refused to take responsibility for decisions. 6. 1982, Substantial inducements, in the form of extra pay, educational credits and land grants, were offered to conscripts 7. 1983, 40,000 (mostly conscripts) [3 corps HQ, 11 inf divs, 3 armed divs (under strength bdes), 1 mech inf bde, 2 mountain inf regts, 1 arty bde with 3 arty regts, 2 cdo regts, 1 para bn] with no formal reserve force identified; call-up from ex-servicemen, Youth League and regional tribes from age 20 to age 40. Military service equaled conscription to age 39; 3 yrs+. 8. 1984, 40,000 (mostly conscripts). [no change except for 11 inf divs are under strength, there is 3 cdo regts instead of 2, and there is no 1 para bn] with no change for reserves; and military service equaling conscription 15-55; 3 years+ (non-combatants, 4 years). 9. 1985, same. [no change except instead of 2 cdo regts, says has 1 cdo bde: 3 cdo regts (bns; 1 para).] No change for reserves; Military service equaled males 15-55: volunteers 2 years, conscription 3 years+, non-combatants 4 years. 10. 1986, 45,000 (mostly conscripts). [3 corps HQ, 3 armd divs (understrength bdes), 11 inf divs (understrength bdes), 1 mech inf div/bde, 1 cdo bde (1 cdo and 1 para regt), 2 mountain regts, 1 AA bde. Non-combatants 4-5 years. Actual strength suspect. Divs reported to average 2,500 (about quarter strength). Desertion is common. The Soviet High Command in Afghanistan effectively controls Afghan forces; it is not possible to differentiate between Soviet and Afghan Forces’ holdings of identical equipment. 11. 1987, 45,000 (mostly conscripts). [3 corps HQ, 3 armd divs (understrength bdes), 12 inf divis (understrength bdes), 1 mech inf div/bde, 1 cdo bde (1 cdo and 1 para regt), 2 mountain regts, 1 aa bde]. Terms of service: Males 15-55: volunteers 2 years, conscription 3 years+, non-combatants 4-5 years. 12. 1988, 50,000 (mostly conscripts). [same]. Terms of service is same. 13. 1989, 50,000 (mostly conscripts). [4 corps HQ, 3 armd div (understrength bde), 14 inf div (understrength bde), 1 special guard div (6 bde incl presidential guard, cdo units), 1 mtn div (2 mtn regt), 1 mech inf div/bde, 2 cdo bde, 1 arty bde, 1 AD arty bde.Terms of service is same. 14. 1990, 50,000 (mostly conscripts). [4 corps HQ, 1 security zone. 16 inf div. 3 armd bde, 1 Special Guard div, 3 indep Special Guard bde, 1 mech inf div/bde, 5 cdo bde, and 1 arty bde. 15. 1991, 40,000 (mostly conscripts). [5 corps HQ, 16 inf div, 3 armd bde, 5 Special Guard bde, 1 mech inf div/bde, 5 cdo bde, 1 arty bde. 16. 1992, Following the fall of the Najibullah government in April 1992 the bullk of the armed forces broke up with only the Northern corps retaining its structure, the rest appear to have transferred their allegiance to their local Mujaheddin group. ii. Expenditures: 1. 1978, Defense expenditure at $60.7 m with an estimated 1977 GNP at $2.3 bn. 2. 1979, Defense expenditures at $61 million. 3. 1980, Defense expenditures at $61 million with an estimated 1979 GNP at $2.0 bn. 4. 1981, Defense expenditure at $63.8 million with an estimated GNP in 1979 at $3.4 bn. 5. 1983, Estimated defense expenditures in 1980 at $207.708 million with an estimated FMA in 1980/1 at $300 million and an estimated GNP in 1980/1 at $2.668 bn and 1981/2 at $2.40bn. 6. 1984, Estimated defense expenditures in 1980 at $207.510 million and in 1981 at 326.087 million with an estimated FMA at #300 million in 1980/1. 7. 1985, Estimated defense expenditures in 1983 was $296.443 million and in 1984 at $209.486 million. Estimated FMA…Total Soviet military assistance since 1980 not known. US. Western, friendly Islamic states’ assistance to Afghan rebels est $600 million 1979-84, $200-280 million in 1985. 8. 1986, Defense budget in 1984 was 209.486 million, in 1985 was $286,996 million. FMA says total Soviet military assistance since 1980 not known. US, Western, friendly Islamic states’ assistance to Afghan rebels est at $600 m 1979-84, $200-350 m in 1985. GDP in 1984/5 was $3.018 bn, in 1985/6 was 3.205 bn. 9. 1987, Defense budget: 1984: $209.49 million, 1985: $286.96 million. FMA says Total Soviet military assistance since 1980 unknown. US, Western and friendly Islamic states’ assistance to Afghan rebels est at over $500 million in 1986. 10. 1988, Defense budget: 1984: $209.49 million, 1985: $286.56 million. FMA says no details of Soviet military aid known; but economic assistance from CMEA officially estimated at $223 million in 1988. 11. 1989, Defense budget: 1985: $286.56 million. 12. 1990 13. 1991, FMA for 1990 estimated at $3.5-$4.5 billion iii. Equipment 1. 1978, 200 T-34, 500 T-54/-55, T-62 med, 40 PT-76 lt tks; BMP MICV; 400 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152 APC; 900 76mm, 100mm, 122mm and 152MM guns/how; 100 120mm mor, 50 132mm multiple RL; 350 37mm, 85mm, 100mm towed, 20 ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; Sagger, Snapper ATGW; SA-7 SAM. 1 2. 1979, 200 t-34, 500 T-54/-55, 100 T-62 med, 60 PT-76 lt tks; BMP MICV, 400 BTR—40/-50/-60/-152 APC; 900 76 M, 100mm, 122mm and 152mm guns and howitzers; 100 120mm mortars; 50 132mm multiple RL; Sagger, Snapper ATGW; 350 37mm, 85mm, 100mm towed, 20 ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; SA-7 SAM. 2 3. 1980, 200 T-34, 900 T-54/-55, 100 T-62 med, 60 PT-76 lt tks; BMP MICV, 800 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152 APC; 900 76mm, 100mm, 122mm and 152mm guns and howitzers; 100 120mm mortars; 50 132mm MRL; 76mm, 100mm ATK guns; Sagger, Snapper ATGW; 350 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm towed, 20 ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; SA-7 SAM. 3 4. 1981, 200 T-34, 900 T-54\-55, 100 T-62 med, 60 PT-76 lt tks; BMP-1 MICV, 800 BTR-40/-50/-60/\152 APC; 900 76mm, 100mm guns; 122mm and 152mm howitzers; 82mm, 100 120mm, 160mm mortars; 50 BM-13-16 132mm MRL; 82mm RCL; 76mm, 100mm ATK guns; Snapper ATGW; 350 23mm, 37mm, 57mm and 100mm towed, 20 ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; SA-7 SAM. 5. 1983, 50 T-34, 500 T-54/-55, 100 T-62 MBT; 60 PT-76 lt tks; BMP-1 MICV; 800 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152 APC; 900 76mm, M-1944 100mm guns and M-30 122mm, D-1 152mm how; 82mm, 100 120mm, 160mm mor; 50 BM-13-16 132mm MRL; 82mm RCL; 76mm, 100mm ATK guns, 350 23mm, 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm towed, 20 ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns. 6. 1984, 50 T-34, 300 T-54/-55, 100 T-62 MBT; 60 PT-76 lt tks; 40 BMP-1 MICV; 400 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152 APC; 900 76mm, M-1944 100mm guns and M-30 122mm, D-1 152mm howitzers; 82mm, 100 120mm, 160mm mortars; 50 BM-13-16 132mm MRL; SPG-9 73mm, 82mm RCL; 76mm, 100mm ATK guns; 350 23mm, 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm towed, 20 ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns. 7. 1985, Tks: 50 T-34, 300 T-54/-55, 100 T-62; lt: 60 PT-76. AFV: MICV: 40 BMP-1. APC: 400 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152. Arty: guns: 900 76mm, M-1944 100mm; how: M-30 122mm, D-1 152mm; MRL: 50 BM-13-16 132mm; mor: 82mm, 100 120mm, 160mm. ATK: RCL: SPG-9 73mm, 82mm; guns: 76mm, 100mm. AD: guns: 350 23mm, 37mm, 57mm, 85mm nd 100mm towed, 20 ZSU-23-4 SP. 8. 1986, Tks: 50 T-34, 300 T-54/-55, 100 T-62: lt: 60 PT-76. AFV: MICV: 40 BMP-1: APC: 550 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152. Arty: guns: 76mm: 950; 100mm: M-1944: how: 122mm: M-30; 152mm: D-1;; MRL 132mm: 50BM-13-16;; mor: 82mm; 120 mm: 100; 160mm. ATK: RCL: 73mm: SPG-9, 82mm: guns: 76mm, 100mm. AD: guns: 550 23mm, 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm towed, 20 ZSU-23-4 SP. 9. 1987, Tks: 50 T-34, 300 T-54/-55, 100 T-62: lt: 60 PT-76. AFV: MICV: 40 BMP-1/-2: APC: 700. BTR-40/-50/-60/-70/-152. Arty: 800: guns: 76mm; 100mm: M-1944: 130mm: M-46. how: 122mm: M-30; 152mm: D-1. MRL: 132mm: 50 BM-13-16. Mor: 600: 82mm: 107mm; 120mm: 100; 160mm. ATK: RCL: 73m: SPG-9; 82mm. guns: 76mm; 100mm. AD: guns: 550 14.5mm; 23mm: 20 ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm towed. 10. 1988, MBT: 450: 50 T-34, 300 T-54/-55, 100 T-62. Light tanks: 60 PT-76. MICV: 40 BMP-1/-2. APC: 700. BTR-40/-50/-60/-70/-152. Towed Arty: 1,000+: 100mm: M-1944; 122mm: M-30; 130mm: M-46; 152mm: D-1. MRL: 132mm: 50 BM-13-16. Mortars: 1,000+: 107mm; 120mm: 100; 160mm. RCL: 73mm: SPG-9; 82mm. Atk guns: 76mm; 100mm. Ad guns: 600+ 14.5mm; 23mm: 20 ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm towed. 11. 1989, MBT: 620: 50 T-34, 400 T-54/-55, 170 T-62. Light Tanks: 60 PT-76. AIFV: 250 BMP-1/-2. APC: 850 BTR-40/-50/-60/-0/-80/-152. Towed Arty: 1,000+: 100mm: M-1944; 12mm: M-30, D-30; 130mm: M-46; 152mm: D-1. MRL: 122mm: BM-21; 132mm: 50 BM-13-16. 220mm: BM-27 reported. Mortars: 1,000+: 82mm: M-37; 107mm; 120mm: 100 M-43; 160mm: M-43. SSM: 2+ Scud launchers. RCL: 73mm: SPG-9; 82mm: B-10. Atk Guns: 76mm: 100mm. Ad guns: 600+ 14.5mm; 23mm: 20 ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm towed. b. Air Force i. Size 1. 1978, 10,000 with 12,000 in reserves. 1 2. 1979, 10,000 with 12,000 in reserves. 2 3. 1980, 8,000 with 12,000 in reserves. 4. 1981, 8,000 with 12,000 in reserves. 5. 1983, 7,000 (includes Air Defense Command). 6. 1984, 6,000 (including Air Defense Command). 7. 1985, 7,000 (including Air Defense Command). 8. 1986, 5,000 (including Air Defense Command). 9. 1987, 5,000 (including Air Defense Command). 10. 1988, 5,000 (including Air Defense Command). 11. 1989, 5,000 (including Air Defense Command). 12. 1990, 8,000 (including Air Defense Command). 13. 1991, 5,000 (including Air Defense Command). 14. 1993, Air Force organization and loyalty following the fall of the government is uncertain. ii. Equipment 1. 1978, 144 combat aircraft. [1 AD div: 1 sam bde (3 bns with 48 SA-2), SA-3, 1 AA bde (2 bns with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns), 1 radar bde (3 bns). 3 lt bbr sqns with 30 Il-28. 6 FGA sqns: 4 with 50 MiG-17, 2 with 24 Su-7BM. 3 interceptor sqns with 40 MiG-21. 2 tpt sqns with 10 An-2, 10 Il-14, 2 Il-18. 3 hel sqns with 18 Mi-4, 13 Mi-8. Trainers included 20 MiG-15/-17UTI/-21U, 2 Il-28U. AA-2 Atoll AAM]. 1 2. 1979, 169 combat aircraft. [1 AD div: 1 SAM bde (3 bns with 48 SA-2), SA-3, 1 AA bde (2nbs with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns), 1 radar bde (3bns). 3 lt bbr sqns with 30 Il-28. 6 FGA sqns; 4 with 80 MiG-17, 2 with 24 SU-7BM. 3 interceptor sqns with 35 MiG-21. 2 tpt sqns with 8 An-2, 10 An-26, 10 Il-14, 2 Il-18. 3 hel sqns with 18 Mi-4, 22 Mi-8, 12 Mi-24. Trainers included 20 MiG-15/-17UTI/-21U, 2 Il-28U, L-39. AA-2 Atoll AAM]. 2 3. 1980, perhaps 160 combat aircraft. [1 AD div: 1 SAM bde (3bns with 100 SA-2), SA-3; 1 AA bde (2bns with 3737mm, 85mm, 100mm guns), 1 radar bde (3 bns). 3 lt bbr sqns with Il-28. 8 FGA sqns: 2 with MiG-19, 4 with MiG-17, 2 with Su-7BM. 3 interceptor sqns with MiG-21. 2 tpt sqns with An-2, An-26, An-24, Il-18. 4 hel sqns with Mi-4, Mi-8, Mi-24. Trainers include MiG-15/-17UTI/-21U, Il-28U, L-39. AAM: AA-2 Atoll]. 4. 1981, perhaps 120 combat aircraft, some 15 armed helicopters. [1 AD div: 1 SAM bde (3bns with 120 SA-2), 115 SA-3; 1 AA bde (2 bns with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns); 1 radar bde (3 bns) 3 lt bbr sqns with 20 Il-28. 7 FGA sqns: 2 with MiG-19, 4 with 45 MiG-17, 1 with 15 Su-7BM. 3 interceptor sqns with 20 MiG-21. 2 tpt sqns with some 10 An-2, 10 An-26, 2 An-24, 1 Il-18D. 4 hel sqns with up to 5 Mi-4, 22 Mi-8, 15 Mi-24. Trainers include MiG-15/-17UTI/-21U, Il-28U, Yak-18, L-39C. AAM: AA-2 Atoll]. 5. 1983, perhaps 150 combat aircraft, some 30 combat helicopters. [1 AD div: 2 SAM bdes (each 3 bns) with 120 SA-2, 115 SA-3; 1 AA bde (2 bns) with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm, guns; 1 radar bde (3 bns). 3 lt bbr sqns with 20 Il-28. 7 FGA sqns: 4 with some 50 MiG-17, 2 with 25 Su-7B Fitter A, 1 with 12 Su-17 Fitter C. 3 interceptor sqns with some 40 MiG-21. 2 tpt sqns with some 10 An-2, 15 An-26, 12 An-14, 2 Il-18D. 4 hel sqns with up to 12 Mi-4, 30 Mi-8, 30 Mi-24. Trainers include MiG-15/-17UTI/-21U, Il-28U, Yak-18, L-39C. 6. 1984, perhaps 150 combat aircraft, some 20 armed helicopters. [1 AD div: 2 Sam bdes (each bns) with 120 SA-2, 115 SA-3; 1 AA bde (2bns) with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns; 1 radar bde (3bns). 1 lt bbr sqn with some 15 Il-28 (status unclear). 12 FGA sqns: 4 with some 40 MiG-17, 3 with 35 MiG-21 Fishbed, 4 with 48 Su-7B Fitter A, 1 with 12 Su-17 Fitter C. 1 OCU with MiG-15/-17/-19/-21/-23UTI/U, Il-18U. 2 attack hel sqns with some 20 Mi-24. 4 tpt sqns: 1 VIP with 2 Il-18D, 4 An-24 Coke; 3 with some 10 An-2, 10-15 An-26. 1 tpt hel regt (4 sqns) with some 12 Mi-4, up to 40 Mi-8. 1 flying school with Yak-18, L-39C]. 7. 1985, perhaps 150 combat aircraft, some 30 armed helicopters. [AD: 1 div; 2 SAM bdes (each 3 bns) with 120 SA-2, 115 SA-3; 1 AA bde (2 bns) with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns; 1 radar bde (3bns). Lt bbrs: 3 sqns with some 20 Il-28. FGA: 10 sqns: 4 with some 50 MiG-17, 3 with 40 MiG-21 Fishbed, 2 with 25 Su-7B Fitter A, 1 with 12 Su-17 Fitter C. OCU: 1: MiG-15UTI/-17\-19/-21/-23U, Il-18U. Attack hel: 2 sqns: 1 VIP with 1 Il-18D, 12 An-14 Clod; 2 with some 10 An-2, 15 An-26, An-30; hel: 1 regt (3 sqns) with some 12 Mi-4, up to 30 Mi-8. Flying school: Yak-18, L-39C. 8. 1986, Some 115 combat aircraft, some 13 armed helicopters. Lt bbrs: 1 regt (3 sqns) with some 18 Ilyushin Il-28. FGA: 3 regts. 1 with some 30 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17; 1 with 30 MiG-21 Fishbed; 1 with 15 Sukhoi Su-22 Fitter A, 20 Su-22 Fitter J. OCU: 1: 6 MiG-15UTI, MiG-17/-19/-23U, 2 MiG-21U, Il-28U. Attack hel: 1 regt: some 13 Mil Mi-25. TPT: ac: 1 regt: 1 VIP sqn with 2 Il-18D, 12 Antonov An-14; 2 sqns with some 10 An-2, 30 An-26, An-30; hel: 1 regt with some 12 Mi-4, up to 25 Mi-8.Flying school: Yakovlev Yak-18, Aero L-39C. AD: 1 div (probably Soviet): 2 Sam bdes (each bns) with 115 SA-2, 110 SA-3; 1 AA bde (2 bns) with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns; 1 radar bde (3 bns). 9. 1987, Some 117+ combat aircraft, some 13 armed helicopters. Lt bbrs: 1 regt (3 sqns) with some 18 Il-28. FGA: 95 ac, 3 regts: 1 with some 30 MiG-17; 1 with 30 MiG-21 Fishbed; 1 with 15 Su-22 Fitter A, 20 Su-22 Fitter J. OCU: 1: 6 MiG-15UTI, MiG-17/-19/-23U, 2 MiG-21U, Il-28U. Attack hel: 1 regt: some 13 Mi-25. Tpt: ac: 1 regt: 1 VIP sqn with 2 Il-18D, 12 An-14; 2 sqns with some 10 An-2, 30 An-26, An-30; hel: 1 regt with some 12 Mi-4, up to 25 Mi-8. Flying school: Yak-18, L-39C. AD: 1 div(probably Soviet): 2 SAM bdes (each 3 bns) with 115 SA-2, 110 SA-3; 1 AA bde (2 bns) with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns; 1 radar bde (3 bns). 10. 1988, Some 140 combat aircraft, 65 armed helicopters. Light bombers: 1 regt (3 sqn) with some 18 Il-28. FGA: 3 regt: 1 with some 30 MiG-17; 1 with 20 MiG-19; 1 with 15 Su-7B Fitter A, 20 Su-22 Fitter J. Fighters: 1 regt with 30 MiG-21F. OCU: 6 MiG-15UTI, MiG-17, 2 MiG-21U, Il-28U. Attack Helicopters: 2 regt: 1 with some 30 Mi-25; 1 with 35 Mi-8. Transport: 1 regt: 1 VIP sqn with 2 Il-18D, 1 An-24; 2 sqn with some 10 An-2, 12 Il-14, 30 An-26, 6 An-12. Training: Yak-11, Yak-18, L-29, L-39C. AD: 1 div (probably soviet): 2 SAM bde (each 3 bn) with 155 SA-2, 110 SA-3; 1 AA bde (2 bn) with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns; 1 radar bde (3 bn). 11. 1989, 193 combat aircraft, 74 armed helicopters. FGA: 10 sqn (3 regt): 3 with 40 MiG-17, 1 with 15 MiG-23, 4 with 60 Su-7B, 2 with 30 Su-22. Fighter: 1 regt with 30 MiG-21F. Attack Helicopters: 8 sqn with 25 Mi-8, 35 Mi-17, 14 Mi-25. Transport: Aircraft: 1 VIP sqn with 2 Il-18D, 1 An-24; 2 sqn with 10 An-2, 12 An-12, 40 An-26, 12 Il-14. Helicopters: 12 Mi-4. Training: 18 L-29, 6 MiG-15UTI, 20 MiG-19, 18 MiG-21, Yak-11, Yak-18. AD: 1 div: 2 SAM bde (each 3 bn) with 115 SA-2, 110 SA-3; 1 AD arty bde (2 bn) with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns; 1 radar bde (3 bn). 12. 1990, 188 combat aircraft, 90 armed helicopters. 13. 1991, 253 cbt aircraft, 90 armed helicopters. 14. 1992, FGA: 30 MiG-23, 80 Su-7/-17/-22. Fighter: 80 MiG-21F. Armed Helicopters: 25 Mi-8, 35 Mi-17, 20 Mi-25. Transport aircraft: 2 Il-18D; 50 An-2, An-26, An-32. Helicopters: 12 Mi-4. Training: 25 L-39, 18 MiG-21, Air Defense: SAM: 115 SA-2, 110 SA-3, guns 37mm, 85mm, 100mm. c. Police i. Paramilitary forces: Gendarmerie 1. Size a. 1978, 30,000 1 b. 1979, 30,000 2 c. 1980, 30,000. d. 1981, 30,000. Border forces; Ministry of Interior: Khad (secret police), ‘Defense of the Revolution’ Forces; Pioneers; Afghan Communist Party Guards, Khalqi Youth Militia (at least on bn), Pashtun tribal militia (border guard). e. 1983, 30,000. Border Force. Ministry of Interior: Khad (secret police); Sarandoy ‘Defense of the Revolution’ forces: largely ex-military to age 55 org in provincial regts; regional ‘Revolution Defense Groups’ (Civil Defense); Pioneers Afghan Communist Party Guards; Khalqi Youth Militia; Pashtun Tribal Militia. f. 1984, same g. 1985, Gendarmerie (Sarandoy ‘Defense of the Revolution’): 30,000; Border Force: largely ex-military to age 55 org in provincial regts. Ministry of Interior: Khad (secret police). Regional militias included ‘Revolution Defense Groups’ (Civil Defense), Pioneers, Afghan Communist Party Guards, Klhaqi Youth, tribal. h. 1986, Border Guard (under Army) some 7,000; 9 ‘bdes’, 60 bns. Ministry of Interior: Sarandoy (Defense of the Revolution) some 7,000. Khad (secret police) some 35,000. Regional militias incl, Village militia, Pioneers, Afghan Communist Party Guards, Khalqi Youth, tribal, National Fatherland Front. i. 1987, Border Guard (under Army) some 7,000; 9 ‘bdes’, 60 bns. Ministry of State Security: Khad; secret police some combat units. Regional militias incl, Defense of the Revolution (GPS), Village militia, Pioneers, Afghan Communist Party Guards, Khalqi Youth, tribal bdes (Ministry of Tribes and Nationalities), National Fatherland Front. Ministry of Interior: Sarandoy (Defense of the Revolution) estimated at 30,000. j. 1988, Border Guard (under Army) some 7,000; 9 ‘bde’, 60 bn. Khad (Ministry of State Security); 70,000; some cbt units. Regional Militias: 100,000+. Incl Defense of the Revolution (GPS), Village militia, Pioneers, Afghan Communist Party Guards, Khalqi Youth tribal bdes (Ministry of Tribes and Nationalities), National Fatherland Front. Sarandoy (Ministry of Interior): estimated at 30,000. k. 1989, Border Guard (under Army): some 7,000; 7 ‘bde’. WAD (KHAD) (Ministry of State Security): 70,000; some 27,000 in cbt units. Regional militias: 100,000+ incl same… l. 1990, Border Guard (under Army) some 20,000; 10 ‘bde’. WAD (KHAD) (Ministry of State Security) estimated at 25,000. Regional Militias: 32,000+ incl Defense of the Revolution (GPS) and tribal militias. Sarandoy (Ministry of Interior): 20,000. m. 1991, Border Guard (under Army) some 3,000; 10 ‘bde’. WAD (KHAD) (Ministry of State Security): estimated at 12,000. Tribal Militias: 60,000+. Sarandoy (Ministry of Interior): estimated at 12,000. d. Khad 3. Population size a. 1978, 20,470,000 1 b. 1979, 21,370,000 2 c. 1980, 14,800,000 d. 1981, 15,360,000 e. 1983, 15,500,000 (including exiles). f. 1984, 14-17,000,000 (including exiles). g. 1985, 14-17,000,000. h. 1986, 14-17,000,000. i. 1987, 15,531,000. j. 1988, 15,942,000. k. 1989, 16,362,000 l. 1990, 20,352,000 m. 1991, 20,836,000 n. 1993, 21,320,000 4. Antigovernment size a. Size i. 1984, Perhaps 90,000 guerrillas (possibley20,000 intermittently active) supported by some 15 exile political groups (6 active). ii. 1985, Perhaps 90,000 guerrillas (possibly 20,000 intermittently active) supported by about 110,000 ‘reserves’ in some 37 exile political groups (7 active. iii. 1986, Perhaps 130,000 guerrillas (possibly 30,000 intermittently active) supported by about 110,000 ‘reserves’ in some 37 exile political groups (7 ‘official’; 30 regional ‘unofficial’). iv. 1987, Perhaps 130,000 guerrillas (70,000 trained, possibly 30,000 intermittently active) supported by about 110,000 ‘reserves’. v. 1988, Afghan resistance is a broad national movement. The military elements, ‘mujahedin’ fighters, comprise numerous groups most affiliated to one of the seven parties of the Peshawa-based Resistance Alliance. It is not possible to give accurate strengths. vi. 1989, Afghan resistance is a broad national movement. The military elements, ‘mujahedin’ fighters, comprise numerous groups affiliated to either one of the seven parties of the Peshawar-based Resistance Alliance or one of the predominantly Shia groups based in Iran. It is not possible to give accurate strengths; however of the Peshawar groups some 40,000 are reported to be active, supported by a further 120,000. vii. 1990, same. viii. 1991, same. 5. OEF Efforts a. American b. Coalition 6. Force Size Comparisons a. Soviet i. 5 January 1980, 50,000. ii. February 1980, 70-80,000. iii. 1980, 85,000. iv. 1981, 85,000. v. 1983, 105,000 (some 10,000 MVD, KGB). vi. 1984, 115,000 (some 10,000 MVD, KGB). vii. 1985, 115,000 (some 10,000 MVD, KGB). viii. 1986, 118,000 (some 10,000 MVD, KGB). ix. 1987, 116,000 (some 10,000 MVD, KGB). x. 1988, some 105,000 (as at 1 June 1988, withdrawal continues). 1 Army HQ, 3 motor rifle 1 AB div; 2 motor rifle, 1 air aslt, 1 arty bde, 270 cbt hel. xi. 1989, some advisers. b. American c. Coalition

 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “Strategic Survey 1979.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1978-1979.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1979-1980.” London. All armed security forces sizes uncertain due to civil unrest.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1980-1981.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “Strategic Survey 1980-1981.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “Strategic Survey 1981-1982.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1981-1982.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “Strategic Survey 1981-1982.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1983-1984.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1984-1985.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1985-1986.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1986-1987.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1987-1989.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1988-1989.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1989-1990.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1990-1991.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1991-1992.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1992-1993.” London.
 International Institute of Strategic Studies. “The Military Balance 1979-1980.” London. Actual armed security forces strength suspect due to defections. Equipment was lost, and there confusion between Soviet and Afghan holdings of identical equipment.

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Military Historian of the Year[edit]

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User group for Military Historians[edit]

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