User talk:Mariomassone

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Great work! Chrisrus (talk) 21:20, 27 December 2011 (UTC)


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for raising the profile of Late Pleistocene Canidae 07:08, 17 January 2015 (UTC)William Harristalk •


Wolf page update - relationship with the Dog[edit]

Hi Mario.

I have further developed the results of the Freedman studies and have updated the Origin of the domestic dog page. Today I have also updated the Gray wolf page - please feel free to cut it down to size as to what is of interest to a wolf reader.

The work looked at 3 Eurasian wolves but did not look at a North American wolf because its purpose was to determine a likely point of "domestication", however the findings are much wider. Some if it is sensational: Dogs and wolves then diverged 14,900 years ago, the 3 wolf populations diverged from each other 13,400 years ago. What this means in terms of the species Canis Lupus and her sub-species I do not know, but as I have said before, we just quote what the science is telling us and let others ponder its meaning.

I understand that Wayne is doing further work with a dog, gray wolf, red wolf, coyote and golden jackal.

Of interest, Thalmann published the genetic material from 3 Beringian wolves and I have updated that page, but I have not found evidence of anybody sequencing Dire wolf remains as yet, which might prove interesting. I have also amended the Dire wolf page to include its oldest remains found at 250,000 years ago, cited in Dundas.

(I keep you posted on these matters because I know that you are passionate about wolf-related subjects, and that you run an ever-watchful and critical eye over there on the Wolf page!)

Regards, William Harris (talk) 20:47, 13 December 2014 (UTC)

Rather than guess and wait, I sent RKW an email with some questions. He kindly replied, and the answer to this one I am sure you will be happy with:
"Well we feel the data of mitogenomes and nuclear complete genomes support a divergence time between dog and wolf of more than 15,000 years ago, and that dogs derive from a variety of wolf that otherwise left no living descendants today. What that wolf might be called, whether it is Canis lupus variety or another species is uncertain because no formal taxonomic analysis of these past wolves have been done, but I think it is likely to be the same species (lupus) as several ancient DNA studies have shown dramatic turnover in carnivore populations during the late Pleistocene. I attach our paper discussing one variety of Canis lupus, the megafaunal wolf, in North American and attached is another that takes a parallel track."
He also sent back 3 studies, two of which I have seen before.[1][2][3]
His work with Leonard is most revealing:
"The distinctness of the Pleistocene American wolves from recent American wolves is further supported by a comparison of our sequences of ancient eastern-Beringian wolves to much shorter 57 bp sequences of Pleistocene Old World wolves. None of these ancient Old World sequences were identical to any modern wolf, and they differed from recent North American and European haplotypes by 1–10 bp 2%–18%). However, three (dated 30,000 BP and 28,000 BP from Ukraine, and 33,000 BP from Altai) had the same sequence found in six eastern-Beringian wolves (haplotypes PW1–PW4). Another haplotype from a 44,000 BP wolf from the Czech Republic matched those of two ancient Beringian wolves (haplotypes PW5 and PW9)"
The study ends with: "Thus, there may be other extinctions of unique Pleistocene ecomorphs yet to be discovered."
My thoughts from this are that:
  1. the wolf and dog sharing an immediate common ancestor is not completely correct, it would have been a more distant ancestor
  2. the immediate ancestor of the dog was an ecomorph of Canis Lupis, a megafaunal wolf that was a specialist in bringing down megafauna, while Canis Lupis remained the generalist of the family, and the ultimate survivor of the species as megafauna became extinct
  3. we also find in Leonard that SOME Beringian wolves had relatives found in Europe - I have no doubt that they ranged across all of Eurasia, we just haven't found (or identified) other samples yet - and although Thalmann may state that the Beringian wolf was not an ancestor of the dog based on his testing of 3 of them, they may not have been the right three!
  4. who the dog's ancestor is we still are not sure as we have yet to find a fossil, we lean towards Canis Lupus, and there is some indication that it was the Beringian-type ecomorph, although it may have been another ecomorph because there was much diversity at that time
  5. Druzhkova Origin of the domestic dog#Druzhkova et al. convinces me that the Altai dog was a proto-dog 33,000 years ago - a dog's skull with wolf-sized carnassials - and the divergence was underway at least back then.
Now, how to capture some of this on the Dog and Wolf pages??!! Regards, William Harris (talk) 10:33, 16 December 2014 (UTC)
Mario, nice work reducing the Wolf/Relationship with the dog section - I was too close to this work to be able to distil it in any sensible way. My next direction from here will be to further develop the Beringian wolf page using more of Leonard's findings so we have a more complete picture of megafaunal wolves, and to highlight the linkage with their European cousins that were found in the Ukraine and Czech. William Harris (talk) 06:57, 19 December 2014 (UTC)

Cave bear diff from 2009[edit]

Hi there, I was reading through Cave bear and found this odd sentence: "Originally thought to belong to dragons, unicorns, apes, canids or felids, Esper postulated they actually belonged to polar bears." I was very confused as to why dragons and unicorns would be mentioned in there, as I thought that by 1774 (the date listed in the previous sentence) people would know that they were mythical. I initially expected it to be vandalism, until I realized that it had been in there since 2009, and that the person who added it was you, an active editor in this subject area.

Digging deeper, I managed to find a source corroborating your addition, saying that the scientific community at the time considered that the skeleton may have belonged to a dragon or unicorn!

After all that, I felt that I needed to tell someone about my strange experience, and I hope that you will at least find it mildly humorous. I am making a small change to make it clearer that this is not vandalism, but genuinely belongs in the article.

Keep up the good work! --Sennsationalist (talk) 13:58, 15 December 2014 (UTC)

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Explain[edit]

Please explain this series of edits. There was no explanation given on the talk page for the blanking, nor was I, the creator of the article, notified before you enacted this change. At this point, I consider the blanking to be vandalism and have reverted the changes. SilverserenC 08:06, 18 December 2014 (UTC)

I have also reverted your unexplained blankings of Kenai Peninsula wolf, Mogollon mountain wolf, and the Yukon wolf. SilverserenC 08:20, 18 December 2014 (UTC)
Simple: All these subspecies are now considered to be synonymous with Canis lupus occidentalis and Canis lupus nubilus by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, with a lot of the information posted now being more relevant to those subspecies. Furthermore, the maximum weight given for the Kenai Peninsula wolf is laughable, and the only source given is an obscure website. As an owner of both Goldman and Mech's works, I can't find a single instance of them giving such an elevated weight. Regards. Mariomassone (talk) 10:19, 18 December 2014 (UTC)
The Fish and Wildlife Service is not the worldwide arbiter on species distinction. For example, what's the opinion of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature on the subject? Also, even if they all agreed on the change, that wouldn't invalidate the history of the subspecies in the past and everything about them prior. You say the information in relevant to those two other subspecies, but did you even move any of it? Because it looks to me like you just deleted a bunch of referenced information, especially when talking about the decades long history of the Northern Rocky Mountains wolf. SilverserenC 19:52, 21 December 2014 (UTC)
If you can provide information from the IUCN on the validity of these forms, I'd be glad to see it. Furthermore, a lot of the information provided in the Northern Rocky wolf article seems to convolute information specific to that subspecies and info on the wolves introduced there in the 1990s, making no distinction. The vast majority of wolves in YNP can be traced back to that introduction, and not the indigenous form, therefore why post-1994 historical information is provided which makes no distinction between the two, is an odd way of going about the topic. Lastly, you may want to check out the reference for the animal's weight, as it appears to be a dead link.Mariomassone (talk) 19:59, 21 December 2014 (UTC)

References[edit]

Beringian wolf[edit]

Hello Mario, I have further developed the Beringian wolf page, largely based on Leonard. I have structured it to allow future comparisons with their European cousins of that time.

It was never my intention to get involved with either the Dog page (there are more than enough people interested in keeping that up to date) nor the Wolf-related pages (there are a number of people with specialised knowledge and interest to keep them up to date). My interest is specifically about the Origin of the domestic dog, and although I have made some contribution to the other pages relative to the dog, I do not have a WATCH in place on them. However, when it comes to the ancestor of the dog, I find myself drawn into the "megafaunal wolves" - it would appear that because of their shortened, wider muzzle compared to other wolves that there is a link to the ancestor of the dog. (Plus my own view that they were more fearless than other wolves, which started them on their evolutionary path in the first place, and any large predator that hunts megafauna in packs will have little fear of small groups of skinny bipeds that wander the landscape who don't even have their own fur to keep warm, which places both species in position for the next step.)

I am considering creating a Wikipedia page specifically on the "Megafaunal wolf", that would have links to the Gray wolf and Beringian wolf pages - plus the Dire wolf page as a bonus - and developed with the information we now have available from a number of sources that indicates a Eurasian and Beringian wide ecomorph that arose specifically as a response to the availability of megafauna. I would like to know your views on this before I proceed. Regards, William Harris (talk) 20:53, 21 December 2014 (UTC)

Thanks for your support and I shall progress the article. I was redeveloping the Origin of the domestic dog page - no doubt you have noticed - and I have completed the DNA Evidence (which indicates one thing) and the Archeological Evidence (which tends to indicates another). My next topic is the Morphological Evidence. I concur with your assessment: as I read past research articles by prominent authorities on the morphology of their diggings, they catalogue what they have found as dog-like, wolf-like, and in some promising cases simply unknown large canid. Sadly, for others when a skull is found that looks like a dog and is large, it is catalogued under wolf because it is large - the concept of a specimen being a large dog (or on its way to becoming a dog), or a megafaunal ecomorph of a wolf, has not been considered in the past but I am sure it will from now on. (PS: You may be aware that Leonard, Thalmann, Freedman and a bunch of others are all ex-RKW PhD students - he is setting the agenda now.) Regards, William Harris (talk) 01:03, 22 December 2014 (UTC)
Thanks for the amendments, and I will use multiple citations of the same reference from here on. I had used Leonard's phrases direct but the new version flows much better. One point: I note that you have changed a Leonard-supplied phrase to "Conceivably, the robust ecomorph was also present in western Beringia (Russia) during the Late Pleistocene, but specimens from that area have not been discovered." Leonard stated that they "were not available", indicating that they may have been found but they could not get samples from the Russians at the time of the study (possibly too much paper-work to fill out!). I recall (from Wang, Xiao Ming & Tedford, R. H. - Dogs: their fossil relatives and evolutionary history) that they had a major area of interest on the other side, but I did not note its name. I have just discovered in a search today that our Russian friends have found their own unusual wolf with "robust" jaws to skull as reported at: http://zmmu.msu.ru/rjt/articles/ther8_2%20107_113%20Baryshnikov%20et%20al.pdf in which they state in the conclusion "The examination of the fossil bones of the wolf and brown bear from the Taimyr Peninsula provides the possibility to suggest these animals to consume carcasses of large animals in the Late Pleistocene of the Siberian arctic zone. This conclusion quite corresponds to the data on the mammoth steppe, occupying the vast territories of the Northern Eurasia, Alaska, and Yukon Territory, to have a high biological productivity, being characterized in the diversified megafauna (wooly mammoth, wooly rhino, steppe bison, musk-ox, and several species of horses and deer) (Guthrie, 1982, 2001)."
I will amend the page to what Leonard said and include this new reference. I think we will both be amazed at how many of these big-biters have already been found across the Holarctic once I really start looking for references soon. Regards, William Harris (talk) 20:03, 22 December 2014 (UTC)
Hi Mario, my article on the "Megafaunal wolf" is taking shape in my sandbox. You might be interested in the "Cave wolf" (Canis lupus spelaeus) whose remains have been found across Europe. It fits the description of a megafaunal wolf, and despite all of the specimens found it has been little studied and with no DNA analysis! I have not published an article in Wikipedia before, and seek your guidance under which Wikiproject the article might be assigned to. I notice that your Beringian Wolf page was initiated under Wikiproject Mammals? (Please be aware that if you had not written that page, I would never have known what a Beringian wolf was!!) Regards, William Harris (talk) 20:39, 4 January 2015 (UTC)
Thanks for the news article on dogs in the Americas - I will track down the research and see what I can glean. I know that you will get back to me when you can, and there is no rush. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/269724002_DNA_analysis_of_ancient_dogs_of_the_Americas_Identifying_possible_founding_haplotypes_and_reconstructing_population_histories
I have added an entry on the dog origin - archaeology regarding a wolf burial in the Baikal region, Siberia, at 8,230 BP. My entry is much abridged, and does not tell his full story from the research paper cited there. The wolf was described as a "tundra wolf" who was about 9 years old and most of his teeth were broken, due to their harsh life in the region. Other wolves at the time appeared to have had a very tough 7 year life expectancy. Someone had cared for this boy well into his old age, arranged for the hunting of what wolves were eating at that time (we know from his collagen analysis) while humans were eating a fish and grain diet, and cut up his meat for him so someone was taking a lot of trouble over him. When he died, he was ritually buried on his side in a curled up position. Somebody must have marked the centre of the curl (with a post above the ground and a cut mark for how deep down?). A number of years later, that spot only was dug without disturbing the wolf skeleton and a skull (the owner?) was carefully placed at the same level so that when it was covered, the wolf skeleton was curled around the skull, as if protecting it. Somebody loved this boy and had arranged for his skull to be buried with him. Other writers have since suggested he may have been a shaman's wolf. The amazing thing is, the wolf's DNA does not match any wolf DNA deposited in Genbank, extant or extinct!! Regards, William Harris (talk) 08:45, 10 January 2015 (UTC)

Hi Mario, the Megafaunal wolf page is now live and you might like to plug it in somewhere on the Gray wolf page. Based on what I have read, I am regarding him as an ectomorph of the Gray wolf until a research paper shows me the genetic evidence that indicates that he is not! Regards, William Harristalk • 12:19, 29 January 2015 (UTC)

PS - The researchers keep looking for the magical specimen that is the one step between the wolf and the dog. I believe that they need to be looking for two steps, and that is what has confused the issue: what do you call an ecomorph of an ecomorph - is it still the same species? I believe that the Megafaunal wolf was the grandfather - in comparison to extant wolves his grandson would have a shorter and broader palate, would have reduced carnassials as he no longer needs large ones to bring down megafauna, would still obsess over bones, and have a front-leg dew-claw that was originally developed to get a good grip on muskox-bones when chewing them to pieces - does that ring a bell with you? (Perhaps the researchers don't own a very large dog, because I see that image on my back lawn regularly and all of the bone is consumed!) My next article will be on what I believe to be his descendant - the father of the dog. Regards, William Harristalk • 22:28, 29 January 2015 (UTC)
The Megafaunal wolf page has been assessed as C-quality, low-importance under Wikiprojects: Dogs, Mammals, and Palaeontology. Thanks for supplying your graphics! I have dropped in a taxabox for C. l. spelaeus against the Europe section for the Cave wolf; depending on how the researchers go in the near future, it may become the taxabox for the entire page. Mitochondrial DNA is easier to obtain from fossils than nuclear DNA, however nuclear DNA would give a very clear picture of ancestry. A team somewhere in the world is probably working on that right now. Regards, William Harristalk • 07:49, 2 February 2015 (UTC)
Now to really rattle your imagination. See my other creation on the Zhoukoudian wolf. After some searching I have only today found what I had expected - citations to show that he has been found in Yakutia, far north-east Siberia (i.e. part of Beringia). Ancestor of the Megafaunal wolf, anyone? The gene that led to the "short-faced wolf". Regards, William Harristalk • 12:20, 2 February 2015 (UTC)

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German wolves[edit]

Overdorf, Jason. "German has a Serious Wolf Problem: It's getting so bad that some sheep are too afraid to even breed". GlobalPost. Retrieved December 28, 2014.  FYI. 7&6=thirteen () 15:36, 28 December 2014 (UTC)

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Assistance Sought re Scottish Wildcat image.[edit]

Please authenticate source of Scottish Wildcat image standing on a branch and snarling found previously via Wiki. 1902 The Living Animals of this World. I would like to use it in my memoirs. It appears to be in public domain re year. Although I found there are three publications for that period I do not know which one and the publishers vary. Your help would be appreciated as this links my origins when ancestors arrived in Scotland. Your reply on this page would suffice. Thank you in anticipation and of course I would add the confirmed credit next to the image. Cattanache86.183.26.48 (talk) 15:12, 10 January 2015 (UTC)

Happy to oblige! Are you referring to this? https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Felis_silvestris_grampia_defensive.png If so, it comes from volume one of The living animals of the world, published by New York, Dodd, Mead and Company. Details can be seen here: https://archive.org/details/livinganimalsofw01cornrich

Barnstar for Mario[edit]

For your quiet work in the background by creating the Beringian wolf page, the Pleistocene coyote page - and I am sure there are others that I am not aware of yet - all created while you also kept the wolf-related pages under vigilance.
We have travelled a long way together you and I, since I first upset you last October with something called Thalmann..........
Keep updating those biters! William Harristalk • 07:20, 17 January 2015 (UTC)

Paleolithic dog[edit]

Hi Mario, the Paleolithic dog page has been created. Of interest from the Germonpre 2009 study that initially looked at them: they took fossil canids from across Europe that had the potential to be Paleolithic dogs i.e. short and wide muzzles. Some were identified as Paleolithic dogs, and some were identified as wolves. Seven Belgium wolves underwent mDNA analysis and gave 7 different haplotypes - they are so diverse that it is difficult to construct a family tree for them. Additionally, she indicates that they had the same morphology as the Beringian wolves and cites Leonard! Regards, William Harristalk • 10:13, 11 February 2015 (UTC)

Pleistocene wolf[edit]

Hi Mario, given that you did a good job on the Pleistocene coyote, another quick and interesting project might be the "Pleistocene wolf". I came across this fascinating gem, but cannot find a place for it:

In 2009, a study of Mitochondrial DNA analysis of 7 fossil Pleistocene wolf skulls found in caves in Belgium yielded unique DNA sequences, indicating that ancient Belgium large canids carried a substantial amount of genetic diversity. Furthermore, there is little evidence for phylogeographic structure as they do not form a homogenous genetic group.[4] Seven wolves with 7 different haplotypes, and cannot be matched! (I would dearly love to be able to travel back in time to Pleistocene Europe with a tranquillizer gun and bring back wolf blood samples for multi-analysis.) Feel free to remove my comments from cluttering up your Talk page - we usually communicate on single-issue topics to do with Late Paleolithic canids as they arise, and I don't think that other readers passing through will have the same level of interest in reading them. Regards, William Harristalk • 22:29, 12 February 2015 (UTC)

Your GA nomination of Threads[edit]

Hi there, I'm pleased to inform you that I've begun reviewing the article Threads you nominated for GA-status according to the criteria. Time2wait.svg This process may take up to 7 days. Feel free to contact me with any questions or comments you might have during this period. Message delivered by Legobot, on behalf of Jaguar -- Jaguar (talk) 23:20, 22 February 2015 (UTC)

Your opinion solicited[edit]

If you would, please do comment about dealing with recent leopard attacks, here: Talk:Leopard_attack. We'd like your input/opinion. Chrisrus (talk) 04:46, 24 February 2015 (UTC)

Your GA nomination of Threads[edit]

The article Threads you nominated as a good article has been placed on hold Symbol wait.svg. The article is close to meeting the good article criteria, but there are some minor changes or clarifications needing to be addressed. If these are fixed within 7 days, the article will pass; otherwise it may fail. See Talk:Threads for things which need to be addressed. Message delivered by Legobot, on behalf of Jaguar -- Jaguar (talk) 20:20, 24 February 2015 (UTC)

Revert at Gray wolf[edit]

If there were a statement in the Reproduction section of an article on flies stating that a scholar from four centuries ago said maggots were spontaneously generated from rotting meat, without referring to the modern understanding that they hatched from eggs laid by flies, would you revert the removal of that information? Or similar references to imbalance of humors causing illness, or fires coming from release of phlogiston?

The history of science is taught in all the schools, so I doubt anyone would add any of the above hypothetical examples. The history of linguistics and etymology, on the other hand, aren't. I'm not expecting you to be an expert on etymology, but could you at least source your etymologies from etymological references? The information I removed was referenced from a book by a biologist and a zoologist, which in turn cited a scholar whose works shouldn't be taken as reliable sources except for historical purposes (according to Edward Topsell#Superstitions about actual animals, Topsell also reported that lemmings graze in the clouds and weasels give birth through their ears). Chuck Entz (talk) 17:16, 7 March 2015 (UTC)

Lupification of Homo sapiens[edit]

Hi Mario, I have added a new section that you might enjoy reading: Origin of the domestic dog#Human-dog coevolution. Regards, William Harristalk • 22:07, 16 March 2015 (UTC)

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The article Threads you nominated as a good article has failed Symbol oppose vote.svg; see Talk:Threads for reasons why the nomination failed. If or when these points have been taken care of, you may apply for a new nomination of the article. Message delivered by Legobot, on behalf of Jaguar -- Jaguar (talk) 20:21, 17 March 2015 (UTC)

Let dogs and wolves rejoice![edit]

Hi Mario, first it was Thalmann and about 30 others in 2013, then it was Freedman and about 30 others in 2014, now it is that well-liked and smooth-talking American Greger Larson and about 30 others in 2015. He has managed to talk his way into $3m and calmed all of the previous warring parties for undertaking a huge analysis of all of those ancient wolf-like and dog-like fossils and bones that are sitting around in drawers, unloved and forgotten about! Paper(s) due 2015-16. http://domestication.org.uk/projects/deciphering-dog-domestication-through-combined-ancient-dna-and-geometric-morphometric Regards, William Harristalk • 09:49, 6 May 2015 (UTC)

And so it begins: doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.04.019 I will arrange some words on the appropriate pages once I have fathomed the supplementary materials. Regards, William Harristalk • 08:53, 25 May 2015 (UTC)
But that is not the big thing, the big thing is in the sups - this boy is a Megafaunal!!William Harristalk • 10:25, 25 May 2015 (UTC)
Old man Canis Lupus had 3 daughters - the gray wolf has a new sister and she will have some impact on the Gray wolf page. I have updated the Origin of the domestic dog page - please see under Genetic Evidence/North Asia. My issue with the Gray wolf page for some time now is that although the Gray wolf is from the Canis lupus line, Canis lupus is more than the gray wolf. Although the Gray wolf page reports that the cl lineage goes back quite some time, the new research indicates that the gray wolf itself appears to be only 40,000 years old (something hinted by Freedman 2014). However this is relayed, it is going to upset a few people. Your thoughts please? Regards, William Harristalk • 20:41, 26 May 2015 (UTC)
Changes made to the Gray wolf page; feel free to amend. We could have also added the "Goyet dog" and its two relations from Thalmann 2013 (one was big and its sequence compared to 3 Beringian wolf sequences, but no match, however this indicates to me that the skull morphology must have looked the same which is why the comparison was made i.e. a megafaunal). Thalmann reported these Goyets as "an ancient sister group to all modern dogs and wolves", and either an "aborted domestication episode or a phenotypically distint, and not previously recognized, population of gray wolf." I have not considered them for the Gray wolf page in any further detail than what we have there already because Thalmann's analysis could not confirm it as Cl - he deposited it in Genbank under "Canis species". In the light of the Taymry wolf, we might give that further consideration. Also on matters Beringian, you might be interested in this little gem and that is only 2.5 pages long: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/46 Regards, William Harristalk • 22:42, 28 May 2015 (UTC)
Saw your entry on the GW page, the study's supplementary material Table S3 (on the extended PDF:http://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdfExtended/S0960-9822%2815%2900432-7 ) shows that dog breeds relationships to the two wolves fall on a continuum line between one or the other but the authors did not spell that out in the main article. What is confirmed strongly are 5 breeds below. As a result, I have made this amendment below to a couple of lines on the Origin of the domestic dog page - some dog breeds show more admixture with the GW and you might like to make amendment to GW as appropriate:
A comparison of the ancestry of the Taymry wolf lineage to the dog lineage indicated that the Taymry wolf shared more alleles (i.e. gene expressions) with dogs than with gray wolves. There was indication that some modern dog breeds have a closer association with either the Gray wolf or the Taymry wolf due to admixture. The Sarloos wolfdog showed more associated with the Gray wolf and is in agreement with documented historical crossbreeding with wolves in this breed. For the Taymyr wolf, there was clear evidence of a relationship with those breeds that are associated with high latitudes - the Siberian husky and Greenland dog that are associated with arctic human populations, and to a lesser extent the Shar Pei and Finnish spitz.
I also have an amendment ready for the Dog Page, Origin and I am just waiting for its acceptance on the Origin of the domestic dog talk page. (You have asked what happened to the lead-in on the Dog page? Until the Wikipedia:Dog Project people "man-up" and take some responsibility and exercise some control for that area, I will no longer fight that battle as it is too frustrating. My only interest on that page now is the leadin paragraph under the two sections that I have significantly redeveloped - Origin, and Behavior. Your edit was refreshing, but sadly short-lived.) Regards, William Harristalk • 22:04, 29 May 2015 (UTC)

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Gray wolf - One wolf, two haplogroups[edit]

There is a paragraph that I would like included in the Gray wolf page. It stems from what I said on the Talk:Beringian wolf page regarding the Pilot study a while ago. I think it would best fit as a new section between 2.1.1 Ancestry and the current 2.1.2 Subspeciation. I think the information is of note and relevant to the GW page, is a prelude for sub-speciation, and is the first step in a plan to stamp the Beringians very clearly to readers as gray wolves - now more important when we have the Taymry wolf prowling out there across the phylogeographic tundra. For your comments/amendments please?

2.1.2 Two haplogroups
See also: Beringian wolf
In 2010, a study compared the mDNA haplotypes of 947 contemporary gray wolves from across Europe with the published sequences of 24 ancient wolves from western Europe dated between 1,200-44,000 years BP. The study found that the haplotypes represented two haplogroups and referred to them as haplogroup 1 and 2. The 947 European wolves revealed 27 different haplotypes with haplogroup 1 forming a monophyletic clade and all other haplotypes forming haplogroup 2. Comparison with further gray wolves revealed that haplogroups 1 and 2 can be found spread across Eurasia but only haplogroup 1 can be found in North America. The ancient wolf samples from western Europe all belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting a long-term predominance in this region. A comparison of current and past frequencies indicated that in Europe haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 but in North America haplogroup 2 became extinct and was replaced by haplogroup 1 after the LGM.[5]

I have also left you a message above under 20. Let dogs and wolves rejoice. Regards, William Harristalk • 09:09, 29 May 2015 (UTC)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leonard. J. A., Vilà, C., Fox-Dobbs. K., Koch, P. L., Wayne. R. K., Van Valkenburgh, G. (2007), Megafaunal extinctions and the disappearance of a specialized wolf ecomorph, Current Biology 17:1146–1150 online OCT14
  2. ^ http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/104
  3. ^ Germonpréa, Mietje; Sablin, Mikhail V. (February 2009). "Fossil dogs and wolves from Palaeolithic sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia: osteometry, ancient DNA and stable isotopes". 
  4. ^ Germonpré, Mietje; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Stevens, Rhiannon E.; Hedges, Robert E.M.; Hofreiter, Michael; Stiller, Mathias; Despre´s, Viviane R. (2009). "Fossil dogs and wolves from Palaeolithic sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia: osteometry, ancient DNA and stable isotopes". Journal of Archaeological Science 36 (2): 473–490. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2008.09.033. 
  5. ^ Pilot, M. G.; Branicki, W.; Jędrzejewski, W. O.; Goszczyński, J.; Jędrzejewska, B. A.; Dykyy, I.; Shkvyrya, M.; Tsingarska, E. (2010). "Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe". BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 104. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-104. PMC 2873414. PMID 20409299.  edit

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