User talk:My name is Prunella/Archive 1

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Archive 1 | Archive 2


The truth on Libya, Greece, Iraq and Scotland that User:Tangereens hid of the Football Hooligan page.

Over view

The emergent casual culture that transformed the complexion of British football hooliganism in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and his work presents a new angle and a challenge to those who claim hooligans, and ex-hooligans, are without education and style.

Early history

Football and violence can be traced back to the Middle Ages in England. In 1314, Edward II banned football (which then was a violent free-for-all involving rival villages fly-hacking a pig's bladder across the local heath) because he believed the disorder surrounding matches might lead to social unrest or even treason.[1]

The first recorded instances of football hooliganism in the modern game took place in the 1880s in England, a period when gangs of supporters would intimidate neighbourhoods, as well as attack referees and opposing supporters and players. In 1885, after Preston North End beat Aston Villa 5-0 in a friendly match, the two teams were pelted with stones; attacked with sticks, punched, kicked and spat at. One Preston player was beaten so severely that he lost consciousness. Press reports of the time described the fans as "howling roughs".[1] The following year, Preston fans fought Queen's Park fans in a railway station; the first recorded instance of football hooliganism away from a match. In 1905, several Preston fans were tried for hooliganism, including a "drunk and disorderly" 70 year old woman, following their match against Blackburn Rovers.[1]

Between the two world wars, there were no recorded instance of football hooliganism, but it started attracting widespread media attention in the late 1950s due to its re-emergence in Latin America. In the 1955-56 English football season, Liverpool and Everton fans were involved in a number of train-wrecking incidents. By the 1960s, an average of 25 hooligan incidents were being reported each year in England.[1]

South America

Argentina

In 1968, over 70 people died when crowds attending a football match in Buenos Aires stampeded after youths threw burning paper on to the terraces.[2] A 2002 investigation into football hooliganism in Argentina stated that football violence had become a national crisis, with about 40 people murdered at football matches in the preceding ten years. In the 2002 season, there had been five deaths and dozens of knife and shotgun casualties. At one point the season was suspended and there was widespread social disorder in the country. The first death in 2002 was at a match between fierce rivals River Plate and Boca Juniors. The match was abandoned and one fan was shot dead. Boca, one of the largest clubs in Argentina, may have the largest hooligan element in the country, with their self-styled leader, Rafael Di Zeo, claiming in 2002 that they had over 2,000 members. Every major and minor football club in Argentina have Barra brava groups, some of whom are violent. The Boca group, known as La Doce (player number 12) have a long history of violence. In 2002, Diego Maradona, was alleged to remain friends with the group's leaders, in spite of their reputation.[3]

In February 2002, one fan was killed and 12 people injured, including six police officers when fans of Racing Club de Avellaneda and Club Atlético Independiente clashed. An Indpendiente fan was shot dead and another fan was shot in the back and hospitalised when about 400 rival fans fought outside Racing Clubs Estadio Juan Domingo Perón in Avellaneda before the match. Between 70 and 80 people were arrested as a result. The match started late when Independiente fans threw a smoke bomb at Racing Club goalkeeper, Gustavo Campagnuolo. That same weekend, 30 people were arrested and 10 police officers injured when fighting broke out at a match between Estudiantes de La Plata and Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata in La Plata.[4]

The Argentine government announced emergency security measures in March 2002 because the violence continued, with three people dead and hundreds injured in two weeks. The government announced stiffer penalties for offenders, including longer jail sentences for possession of firearms or fireworks at stadiums. A survey in the national newspaper Clarin showed 62 percent or poll respondents wanting the football league season to be suspended following a weekend of violence at matches. At one match between River Plate and Nueva Chicago, over 12 people were hospitalised with rubber bullet injuries received when the police tried to break up fighting between rival fans. It was announced that 152 people had died since the 1930s up to that point due to football-related violence in Argentina.[5]

In 2005, a footballer, Carlos Ezcurra, was shot and seriously wounded by a police officer, when rival fans were rioted during the Primera B match between local Mendoza rivals San Martin and Gody Cruz. At half-time, fans had thrown rocks onto the pitch, and just before the end of the match, fans from both clubs invaded the pitch and started fighting. The players who had stayed on the pitch, including Ezcurra, tried to calm the fans, and he was shot when police tried to stop the fans by firing rubber bullets.[6]

Brazil

Football hooliganism in Brazil appears to be relatively low key compared to some countries. On 4 March, 1971, a fight broke out at a match in Salvador, killing four and injuring 1,500.[7]

In December 2000, fighting between rival supporters during the final of the 2000 Copa João Havelange between Vasco da Gama and São Caetano led to a fence collapsing and over 60 injuries at the Estádio São Januário in Rio de Janeiro. Hundreds of fans in the upper terrace had pushed forward trying to escape from the fighting. Fans lower down were pushed into a perimeter fence which under the weight, collapsed, and fans spilled onto the pitch. Fans had panicked when fighting broke out with people falling on top of each other. Many were treated on the pitch, with helicopters taking over 50 people to local hospitals. The match was abandoned 90 minutes later by the governor of Rio de Janeiro state, Anthony Garotinho. This was despite calls by the police, who had wanted to bring in military police to encircle the pitch, to that ensure fans did not interrupt the match.[8][9]

Fans of local rivals Ponte Preta and Guarani clashed and rioted at a match in Campinas in 2002. Violence had been expected, and just before kick-off, fans started fighting. Police tried to intervene but were pelted by stones. As the fighting continued inside the stadium, a railing collapsed and numerous fans fell over 13 ft (four metres) into a pit between the stands and the pitch. Over 30 people were injured.[10]

Peru

On 24 May 1964, more than 300 football fans died and another 500 were injured in Lima, Peru in a riot during an Olympic qualifying match between Argentina and Peru.[11][12]

Central America

El Salvador and Honduras

El Salvador and Honduras had a brief, six day, conflict in 1969 dubbed Football War, due to three matches between the two countries that inflamed an already tense political situation. The three matches were an elimination series to decide which country would qualify for the 1970 World Cup finals. Fights broke out during the first match in Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras. The situation worsened though at the second match in San Salvador, the capital of El Salvador. Fans from Honduras were attacked during and after the match, and the Honduran flag and national anthem were insulted. This incident was the catalyst that provoked the hostilities and which gave the war its name. Tensions grew worse between the two countries. Actions against Salvadoran residents in Honduras became increasingly violent. An unknown number of Salvadorans were killed or injured, and tens of thousands began fleeing the country. The media in both countries contributed to a growing climate of near-hysteria, and on 27 June 1969, Honduras broke diplomatic relations with El Salvador. Followed on the morning of 14 July 1969 by the outbreak of the brief war.[13]

Mexico

Football hooliganism in Mexico appears to be low key, but there have been some incidents, such as small-scale fighting between fans of Monterrey and Morelia at a Primera División match in Monterrey in 2003.[14] In June 1998, one man died and several people were injured when Mexican football fans rioted after the Mexico national football team lost to Germany in the World Cup, a result that eliminated Mexico from the tournament.[15] After the match, hundreds of riot police were brought in to restore order because fans were looting and rioting. Fans then clashed with the police, and many fans were injured or arrested. Mexican fans in the United States rioted after the match in Huntington Park, Los Angeles and 40 people were arrested.

Europe

Croatia

Football hooliganism in Croatia has seen riots over inter-ethic resentments and the politics that were reignited by the breakup of the Yugoslav federation in the 1990s.[16] Two of the most well known hooligan firms are Torcida (Hajduk Split) and Bad Blue Boys (Dinamo Zagreb).[17] However, the groups are not just hooligan firms, in that they are more like the South American Torcida supporters groups and Ultras groups, with organised Tifos and so on.

On 13 May 1990, and before the break up of Yugoslavia, Serbian club Red Star Belgrade were in Zagreb to play Dinamo Zagreb at the Maksimir Stadium. Red Star brought over 3,000 fans to the game with the late Željko Ražnatović (known as Arkan) a Serbian para-military leader being a prominent member. Before the match a number of small scale fights broke out between the Red Star Delije supporters headed by Arkan and Dinamo Zagreb Bad Blue Boys. At the match opposing fans started taunting each other with chants, before Red Star fans, all in the South Stand, started to rip out the seating to throw at Dinamo fans. The Yugoslav police present in the stadium, all Serb controlled, and stood at the opposite end of the stadium facing the Dinamo ultras in the North Stand, were alleged to have simply watched as the Red Star fans finally tore down a fence in the South Stand dividing them from Dinamo fans and attacked them, some using knives. The local Croatian ultras, who were all in the North Stand, reacted by ripping down the fence between them and the pitch, and thousands invaded the pitch, with Dinamo fans attacking the police, and some fans getting through the police ranks to attack the Red Star fans. Police reinforcements soon arrived with armoured vehicles and water cannons. The fighting however lasted for over an hour and hundreds of people were injured. The Red Star players all fled to their dressing room. However, some Dinamo players remained on the pitch, including Zvonimir Boban who kicked a policeman who was hitting a fan on the ground with a truncheon. Boban knocked the officer off his feet. The reaction to Bobans actions was swift. He became a hero in Croatia and a villain in Serbia. He was received a six month suspension from the Serbian dominated Yugoslav FA, and the police brought criminal charges against him, although he was never prosecuted. In 2005, the Zagreb daily newspaper Večernji list marking the 15th anniversary of the event wrote, "The game that was never played will be remembered, at least by the soccer fans, as the beginning of the Patriotic War, and almost all of the contemporaries will declare it the key in understanding the Croatian cause."[16]

Ethnic tension between Croatians and Serbs has also seen fights at a football match in Australia. On 13 March 2005,Sydney United (who have a large Croatian following, and were established by Croatian immigrants) and Bonnyrigg White Eagles (who have a large Serbian following and were established by Serbian immigrants) met in Sydney in the New South Wales Premier League. Shortly before kick off about 50 fans clashed. Two police officers were injured, and five fans arrested, with two being charged with assault. Football NSW held an inquiry into the events. Both clubs denied that the fight was racially motivated or that there was any ethnic rivalry.[18]

On 13 June 2006, there were ethnic riots in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina after the 2006 FIFA World Cup match between Croatia and Brazil in Germany. One person was shot, six police officers injured and 26 people arrested. The fighting started after the match, when Croatian fans started attacking shop windows and vehicles in the Spanish Square in Mostar, and a group of mostly Bosniaks from the Eastern part of Mostar clashed with them. The fighting lasted for hours before riot police finally threw tear gas to break up the groups.[19]

Denmark

Hooliganism in Denmark appears to be low level, with some football-related violence, but on a smaller scale than in some countries. In Denmark, the non-violent roligan fan culture has grown, which has led to a reduction in hooligan activity.[20][21] A study on football in Denmark by H Eichberg, in the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, included a section analyzing the differences between roligans and hooligans.[22]

England

Football hooliganism in England only became recognised by the government as a serious social issue, and widely reported on by the media in the 1960s. However, football hooliganism dates back to the 1880s.[1] What were then termed as roughs caused trouble at matches in the early years of modern day football. Local derby matches would usually have the worst trouble. However, in an era when the visiting fans were not the norm, home roughs would attack the referees as well as the away teams players.[23]

Between the two World Wars, football hooliganism diminished to a great extent. However, in the early 1960s, hooliganism started to be reported at football matches. A climate grew of what was deemed to be a moral panic about the behaviour of young people with increased crime rates among juveniles, the emergence of what was also seen as threatening youth cultures such as the Teddy Boys, and in the mid 1960s the Mods and the Rockers; and football matches started to witness regular fights among fans, and the emergence of more organised hooliganism.[23]

Groups of fans started to form themselves on match days into groups, mostly drawn from local working class areas. They tended to all stand together on one group, usually at the goal-end terrace of their home football ground, which they began to identify as their territory. The development of these "ends" helped bring about national gang rivalries, focussed primarily around their local football club. With the growth of fans travelling to watch their local club play away matches these gangs would become known as hooligan firms and focus their attention during matches at intimidating or chanting toward opposing fans.[23] - Some hooligans travelled to games on the Football Specials train services.

In 1960s Britain, and to some extent in subsequent decades and also in other countries, the skinhead and suedehead styles were popular among football hooligans. Eventually, the police started cracking down on people wearing typical skinhead clothing styles, so some hooligans changed their image. In the late 1970s, many British hooligans started wearing expensive European designer clothing, to avoid attracting the attention of authorities,. The subculture revolving around this clothing style became known as casual. Clothing lines popular with British football casuals have included: Pringle, Fred Perry, Le Coq Sportif, Aquascutum, Burberry, Lacoste, Timberland, Henri Lloyd, Lonsdale and Ralph Lauren. A BBC report in 2002 suggested that the most popular label among casuals was Stone Island.[citation needed]

During the 1970s, organised hooligan firms started to emerge with clubs such as Birmingham City (Zulus), Chelsea (Headhunters), Leeds United A.F.C. (Leeds Service Crew) Manchester United (Red Army), Millwall (Bushwackers), Portsmouth (6.57 Crew) and West Ham United (Inter City Firm); and to a lesser extent lower league clubs such as Blackpool (Rammy Arms Crew), Bristol City (city service firm) and Burnley (Suicide Squad) had serious problems with hooliganism and each had an organised firm. Two events in 1973 ushered in a dark era in football hooliganism. Manchester United were relegated to the 2nd Division and the Red Army caused mayhem at grounds up and down the country. And together with the stabbing to death of a young Blackpool fan by a Bolton Wanderers fan behind the Kop at Bloomfield Road during a 2nd Division match,[24] crowd segregation and fencing was introduced at grounds in England.[25] An episode (Series 1, Episode 5) of BBC drama of Life on Mars highlighted the emerging problem of football hooliganism in 1973 in the build up to the Manchester derby match.

In March 1985 Millwall fans were involved in large scale rioting at Luton after Millwall lost to Luton Town. The then Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher's immediate response was to set up a "War Cabinet" to combat football hooliganism.[26]

Football's problems escalated in May 1985 with 39 deaths in the Heysel Stadium disaster. During the European Cup Final between Liverpool and Juventus at the Heysel stadium in Brussels 39 Juventus fans were crushed to death. Just before kick off Liverpool fans broke through a line of police officers and ran toward the Juventus fans in a section of the ground containing both English and Italian fans. When a fence separating them from the Juventus fans collapsed, some English and Italians started fighting and many Italians tried to escape the fighting, and a wall collapsed on them as they tried to escape.[27][28]

As a result of the Heysel Stadium disaster, English clubs were banned from all European competitions until 1990, with Liverpool banned for an additional year.[29]

On 11 May 1985 a 15 year old youth died when a wall collapsed at the St Andrews stadium when fans rioted at a match between Birmingham City and Leeds United match. Fans started fighting when Birmingham took the lead and riot police were called in to stop Leeds fans pulling down fencing. It was estimated that more than 1,000 fans became involved in the riot that ensued.[30] The fighting that day were described by Justice Popplewell, during the Popplewell Committee investigation into football in 1985 as more like "the Battle of Agincourt than a football match".[26]

The Popplewell Committee was originally set up to investigate two incidents at English grounds on 11 May 1985 - the fire at Bradford City's Valley Parade (which was not hooligan related) in which 56 people died and the riot at the Birmingham City versus Leeds United match.[31] However, given the other events of 1986 and the growing rise in football hooliganism during the early 1980s an interim report from Justice Popplewell's Committee stated that unless the hooligan problem was addressed, "football may not be able to continue in its present form much longer". A membership scheme was suggested that would exclude away fans.[26]

It was not until the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, in which 96 fans died,[28] that the government acted, bringing in the Football Spectators Act 1989 in the wake of the Taylor Report.[32] Although, as the Hillsborough Justice Campaign notes, "the British Judicial system has consistently found that violence or hooliganism played no part whatsoever in the disaster".[33]

On 15 February 1995, England played Ireland in a friendly at Lansdowne Road in Dublin. The Irish were 1 - 0 up when just before half time, some English fans started to throw items down into the stand below and rip up seats. Battles broke out between police and fans, and as a result, fifty people were injured. The match was abandoned.

English and German fans have a longstanding rivalry, and began to fight each other in the late 1980s. This subsequently brought English and German fans' reputations to an all time low in the late 1990s.[34][35][36][37][38][39] Other occasional clashes have occurred with a few other teams since the mid 1980s.[40] France 98 was marred by violence as English fans clashed with the North African locals of Marseille, which led to up to 100 fans being arrested.[41]

In the 2000s, English football hooligans often wear either clothing styles that are stereotypically associated with the thuggish chav subculture, such as those from the labels Prada, Lacoste, Le Shark and Burberry. This has encouraged Prada and Burberry to withdraw certain garments over fears that their brands are becoming linked with hooliganism.[42] English hooligans have become more advanced in the way they plan their fights, often using Internet message boards, mobile phones and text messages. These hooligans often post messages on other hooligan sites to tempt rival gangs into meeting up for fights.[43] Sometimes people at the fights post live commentaries on the Internet.[44]

Football violence in British stadiums declined after the introduction of the Football Spectators Act, and in the 2000s much of the trouble occurred away from grounds and at major international tournaments.[23] At Euro 2000, the England team was threatened with expulsion from the tournament, due to the poor behaviour of the fans.[45] Following good behaviour in the Korea-Japan 2002 and Portugal 2004, the English reputation has improved.[46] At the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, there were limited incidences of violence, with over 200 preventative arrests in Stuttgart (with only three people being charged with criminal offences).[47] However, 400 others were taken into preventative custody.[48] During that day, Police believe that on average each rioter consumed or threw 17 litres of alcohol.[48]

Despite hooliganism declining domestically, death threats by English hooligans have become more common in the 2000s. Rio Ferdinand was the target of death threats from Leeds United fans,[49] as was Peter Ridsdale.[50] Swedish referee Anders Frisk quit his position after receiving death threats from Chelsea F.C. fans.[51] Reading players Ibrahima Sonko and Stephen Hunt also received death threats from Chelsea fans in 2006.[52]

The Hull City Psychos are a football hooligan firm linked to the English Football League club, Hull City.

It has been documented that most English hooligans are in their late teens or early twenties, although it is not uncommon for older hooligans to take part (usually as leaders). They usually come from working class backgrounds, mainly employed in manual or lower clerical occupations, or (to a lesser extent) are working in the grey market or are unemployed.[23]

France

In March 2006 it was stated that football hooliganism in France, which appears to be at least partly rooted in social conflicts and a rise in racism, had risen dramatically over the past year, and that much of it was being blamed on the fans of Paris St. Germain (PSG) who often fight each other over racial divides.[53] PSG are known to have a minority of far right racist fans, with black players receiving racist chants and insults and gangs of white fans fighting black and Arab fans during and after matches.[54][55] The hooligan problem at PSG deteriorated in the 1990s as the club itself was competing well in European competitions, reaching the UEFA Champions League 1994-95 semi-final and winning the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup 1995-96, and being runners-up in the same competition the following year. Against this backdrop the PSG hooligans fought with hooligans from Belgium, England, Germany, Italy, Scotland.[56]

In early 2006 it was stated that at PSG's Parc des Princes stadium, their fans divide along racial lines in two different sections of stands — the Kop of Boulogne (KOB) behind one goal and the Tribune d’Auteuil behind the other. Boulogne is nearly entirely Caucasian and Auteuil is multiracial. And fans often fight each other, with in the 2005-05 season, two all-white hooligan groups — the Independents and the Casual Firm — having fought with increasing ferocity with the multiethnic group, called Tigris Mystic.[56]

One report stated that interviews with gang members and repeated visits to the stadium for PSG matches found that racist hooligans operate openly and with almost total impunity. That stadium hosted some matches during the 1998 World Cup, which France won with a team dominated by black players, many from former colonies in Africa.[56]

In October 2000, PSG stated that they were prepared to close a stand used by visiting fans after an Olympique de Marseille fan was seriously injured after being hit by a seat thrown from another stand in the Parc des Princes. It was also stated that although relatively few fans travel to away matches in France, when compared to some other countries, the often bitter rivalry between PSG and Marseille sometimes turned violent.[57]

On 24 May 2001, fifty people were injured when fighting broke out at a match between PSG and Turkish club, Galatasaray at the Parc des Princes stadium. UEFA launched an immediate investigation with the possibility of serious penalties on the club.[58] PSG were initially given a record $571,000 fine, but it was reduced on appeal to $114,000 after the French club insisted that it had taken precautions to prevent a possible outbreak of fan violence during the match. Galatasaray, initially fined $114,000 by UEFA, eventually had its penalty reduced to $28,500.[59]

In May 2001, six PSG fans, identified as members of an official Supporters Club, were arrested and charged with assault, carrying weapons, throwing missiles on the pitch and racism. The six were alleged to have deliberately entered a part of the Parc des Princes stadium where French fans of Turkish origin were standing, in order to attack them. The six were banned from all football stadiums for the duration of their trial. Footage from surveillance cameras at Parc des Princes stadium had helped investigators to identify the fans involved in the violence.[59]

Initial reports after the match reported that there had been 56 injuries, of which, 55 were French. The impression from that being that it was the Galatasary fans who had been the main cause of, and had started the fighting. However, Turkish press reports, would imply that there was a disaster waiting to happen in the Parc des Princes Stadium and if one side had not started it the other would have done. And that photographic evidence would prove that the figure of 55 French and one Turkish injury were absurd. Pictures clearly showing that both sets of fans were fighting, and Galatasary fans were being beaten, by PSG fans, with sticks. The sticks being taken from flags and banners waved by fans. However, reports from before the match stated that Galatasary fans had been prevented from taking any flags or banners into the stadium on sticks, all of which were removed before they entered. Yet PSG fans were allowed to take flags and banners on sticks into the stadium, the report also stated. The Turkish press accused the security, media and PSG club of attempting to cover this up.[60]

On 24 November 2006 a PSG fan was shot dead by police and another seriously injured during fighting between PSG fans and the police, after a PSG lost 4-2 to Israeli club Hapoel Tel Aviv in the Parc des Prince in a UEFA Cup match. 100 PSG fans chased a French fan of Hapoel of Jewish origin, shouting racist and anti-semitic slogans. A black plain clothes police officer who tried to protect the French fan of Hapoel, was also attacked. He then fired tear gas, before he drew his gun and, amid scenes of chaos, one fan was shot dead and another seriosuly injured. The Hapoel fan and his family were given increased protection by the local authorities in the Paris suburb of Sarcelles in case of reprisal attacks. Reports stated that the PSG fans had chanted "filthy Jew" at the Hapoel fan and "filthy black" at the police officer, and that they also gave Nazi salutes and made monkey noises. The French Interior Minister, Nicolas Sarkozy held a crisis meeting with the president of the French Football League, Frederic Thiriez to discuss the incident and the wider issue of racism and violence in French football. The director-general of the French police, Michel Gaudin, insisted that measures they had recently taken against football hooliganism had already begun to have an effect, with racist incidents involving football fans dropping to six that season from nineteen over the same period in the previous season. Gaudin also stated that approximately 300 known hooligans could face being banned from football matches.[54] The French newspaper, Le Parisien called the attack on the Hapoel fan a cocktail of racism, anti-semitism and human beastliness.[55]

The fan who was shot, was linked with the Boulogne Boys, a group of fans who modelled themselves on British hooligans in the 1980s. The groups name coming from the Kop of Boulogne (KOB), one of the two main Home fan stand at the Parc des Prince. The KOB themselves held a silent memorial march attended by 300 and accused the police office of murdering the fan. They cited bias in the French press who had only given a "one-sided" account of the incident.[54]

French President Jacques Chirac condemned violence that led up to the shooting, stating that he was horrified by the reports of racism and anti-Semitism. And French Prime Minister, Dominique de Villepin called for new, tougher measures to deal with football hooligans. Prosecutors opened an inquiry into the incident, to determine whether the officer involved should face criminal charges.[61][62]

Before a home match against Sochaux on 4 January 2006, two Arab youths were punched and kicked by white fans outside the entrance to the KOB. It was alleged that the stewards, all white, stood chatting and did not intervene. During the match racist insults were aimed at black players. One PSG player of Indian origin, Vikash Dhorasoo, who is also a French international, was told by one fan to "“go sell peanuts in the metro".[56]

On 7 March 2006, three PSG supporters were convicted for unfurling a racist banner at a match in February 2005, that was being held as part of an anti-racism campaign. The fans were banned from the stadium for three years, and fined between US$90 and $1,200.[56]

Prior to the 2006 World Cup Finals in Germany, concerns were raised that the competition would attract far-right groups and racist thugs. One report cited how the "seething ethnic hatred and beer-fueled ethnic brawls at Parc des Princes are a chilling reminder of how the “beautiful game” still manages to draw out the ugliest in human nature".[56]

In February 2007 Lille OSC fans were involved in disturbances with Manchester United fans at their UEFA Champions League match in Lille. Both clubs were fined by UEFA.[63]

Germany

Football hooliganism in Germany has at times been linked to neo-Nazism. Leading up to the 1998 World Cup finals, German football hooligans were reputed to have one of the worst reputations in Europe, with fans of the German national team often being linked to far right groups[64]

In June 1998, after a FIFA World Cup match in Lens, France, between Germany and Yugoslavia, a French policeman, Daniel Nivel, received massive head injuries when he was repeatedly kicked and hit with a weapon during violent clashes with German fans. Following the incident in Lens, German football hooligans were warned to stay away from Germany's next match in the tournament against Mexico in Montpellier. German police contacted many of the known 2,000+ German hooligans to warn them they would be arrested if they travelled to France. Police were concerned that neo-Nazi groups would try to cause trouble in Montpellier.[65]

As a result of the incident in Lens, France, a German fan was arrested in July 1998 and charged with attempted murder and causing serious injury.[66][67] In November 1999, four more Germans were convicted for their part in the beating of the French policeman, who had suffered brain damage from the assault. The main defendant, Andre Zawacki, was found guilty of attempted murder and sentenced to ten years in jail. The other three defendants were convicted of grievous bodily harm and given jail sentences of between six months and three-and-a-half years.[68] In May 2001, Markus Warnecke, the German fan who was accused of leading the attack, was found guilty of deliberate violence leading to the policeman's injuries at a French court and jailed for five years. Warnecke was also banned from France for ten years, and from all sports facilities for five years.[69]

In March 2005, German football fans fought with police and rival fans before, during and after a friendly match between Germany and Slovenia in Celje, Slovenia. The German Football Association (DFB) apologised for the behaviour. German fans had damaged cars and shops, shouted racist slogans, and fought with both the police and rival fans. German officials had warned the local authorities that 200 to 250 known hooligans were in Celje for the match. As a result, 52 people were arrested; 40 Germans and 12 Slovenians.[70][71]

Following a low key 2-0 defeat to Slovakia in Bratislava, Slovakia, German hooligans fought with the local police. Six people were injured and two were taken into custody. The DFB again apologised for the fans who had again chanted racist slogans. The match had been watched by a sparse crowd of 9,000 in a stadium that holds over 30,000.[72]

In June 2006, Germany beat Poland in a World Cup Finals match in Dortmund, a result that meant Germany qualified for the second round in the finals. The match was marred by violent clashes between German and Polish fans. The police detained over 300 people in Dortmund after clashes broke out prior to the match. German fans threw chairs, bottles and fireworks at the police as they tried to move fans out of the city centre. Smaller groups of German and Polish fans fought with each other in separate clashes. Of the 300 arrested, 120 were known hooligans.[73]

In October 2006, Theo Zwanziger (president of the DFB) and Werner Hackmann (president of Bundesliga) held a crisis meeting following violence atseveral German lower-division matches. A special task force was established to deal with violence and racism in German football stadiums. The worst incident took place at a Third division (North) match between the Hertha BSC Berlin B-team and Dynamo Dresden. At that game, 23 policemen were injured after Dynamo Dresden fans tried to invade the pitch, and threw missiles (including gas cartridges and plastic seats) at police. The police responded with batons and pepper spray. At a Second Division match between FC Augsburg and 1860 Munich, 21 people were arrested and police used pepper spray to disperse fans. In addition, 70 amateur and youth matches in Siegen-Wittgenstein were called off when referees refused to take to the pitch, fearing for their safety.[74]

In February 2007 in Saxony, all German lower league matches, from the fifth division downward were cancelled after about 800 fans attacked 300 police officers (injuring 39 of them) after a match between Lokomotiv Leipzig and Erzgebirge Aue II.[75]

Greece

In April 2007 all sports stadiums were closed down in Greece for two weeks following the death of a fan in a pre-arranged fight between hooligans in Athens on 29 March. The fight involbed 500 fans of rival Super League Greece clubs Panathinaikos and Olympiacos, both of whom are based in Athens. The Greek government immediately suspended all team sports in Greece and severed the ties between teams and their Supporters Clubs.[76]

After a Second Division match on 15 April 2007, between Kallithea and Messiniakos, about fifty fans attacked the Messiniakos coach, Eduardo Amorin and other members of the teams coaching staff. On the same day a Third Division between Panetolikos and Ilioupoli was stopped for thirty minutes when players and fans clashed following a Panetolikos disallowed goal. Two players and a coach were sent to hospital.[77] On 18 April rival fans clashed with each other and riot police in Ioannina during and after a Greek Cup semi final match between local rivals PAS Giannina and Larissa. There was trouble during the game which Larissa won 2-0, and after fans set fire to rubbish bins and smashed shop windows with police firing tear gas in order to disperse them.[76]

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Italy

Hooliganism in Italy started in the 1970s, and increased in the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s, becoming a serious problem for Italian football. Italian ultras have very well organized groups that fight against other football supporters and the Italian Police and Carabinieri, using also knives and baseball bats at many matches of Serie A and lower championships.

Football hooliganism in Italy often has parochial and political connotations.[78] Many team supporters consider other team supporters as enemies, and some clubs associated with hooliganism are Atalanta B.C., Brescia Calcio, Hellas Verona F.C., A.S. Livorno Calcio, AS Roma, S.S. Lazio, S.S.C. Napoli, Salernitana Calcio 1919, S.S. Cavese 1919, Taranto Sport, Calcio Catania, U.S. Città di Palermo, Internazionale, F.C. Messina, as well as several clubs in lower championship series. Now the major clubs, such as A.C. Milan and Juventus F.C. are less related with hooliganism.

Common actions by Italian hooligans have included pitch invasions and the throwing of objects onto the field or against opponents. These weapons include stones, heavy marbles, staves, Molotov cocktails, flares, fireworks, firecrackers, paper firebombs, stadium seats, taps stolen from the stadium toilets, flagpoles, pipes, knives, baseball bats, nightsticks, and traffic signs. These riots have forced referees to suspend many matches. Italian hooligans usually hold flags and sing football chants that encourage violence and riots, and some songs are racist against black players and include ethnic slurs.

In 1999, four supporters of Salernitana Calcio 1919 died on a train in a fire caused by fireworks, In 2001, a scooter was thrown down in San Siro Stadium, Milan. On February 2, 2007, rioting resulted in all Italian football fixtures being suspended, after a police officer was killed during a match between Calcio Catania and U.S. Città di Palermo (see 2007 Catania football violence). At first it was alleged that the officer was killed by a homemade bomb, but it was later reported that damage to his liver was caused by blunt force trauma. An additional 120 people, including police and Carabinieri, were wounded.

In February 2001, AS Romas fans, angered by the closure of gates into the ground, fought with police just before their UEFA Cup match against Liverpool. Police responded by firing tear gas. Five Liverpool fans were stabbed.[79] In December 2001, police had to use tear gas after fighting broke out at a Champions League match between AS Roma and Liverpool. Four Liverpool fans were stabbed.[80]

In March 2006 three fans of English club Middlesbrough were stabbed before the club's UEFA Cup clash against AS Roma in Rome. The attack was blamed on Roma ultras.[81]

In January 2007, the president of the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) threatened to halt all league football in the country after a weekend of violence. An official of amateur club Sammartinese died when he was caught up in a fight between players and fans in Luzzi at a match between Sammartinese and Cancellese. In Florence, a Livorno fan needed 20 stitches in his head after being attacked by Fiorentina fans. About 100 Atalanta fans who tried to attack coaches carrying Catania fans, fought with police. And a Serie D game between Genzano and Normanna was suspended early in the second half after a linesman was hit by a drum thrown from the stands.[82]

In February 2007 the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) suspended all football matches indefinitely following the killing of a policeman at the Serie A Sicilian derby match between Catania and Palermo. The match had to be suspended after an hour when tear gas that had been used by police to break up fighting outside the ground drifted onto the pitch. The fighting was alleged to have started when Palermo fans could not get into the ground until the second half. After the match fans fought with the police outside the ground, with about 100 people treated for injuries. The policeman, Officer Filippo Raciti, died when he was struck in the face by a small explosive as the police were trying to deal with the fighting outside the ground.[83]

On 4 April 2007 AS Roma and Manchester United fans were involved in clashes during UEFA Champions League match. Roma and Manchester United fans were separated in one area of the ground by a plastic barrier, with riot police positioned only on the English fans side. After each goal both sets of fans surged toward the barrier, with at one stage the riot police repeatedly striking Manchester United fans with batons and shields. No Roma fans were similarly struck by the riot police as they had no presence on the Roma fans side of the barrier. One Manchester United fan was stabbed on his way to the match, and eleven fans taken to hospital. Two Roma fans also received hospital treatment. Despite UEFA promising to investigate the incident, and the British Home Office Minister, Vernon Coaker, calling for answers to whether the Italian police were justified, the head of Rome police, Achille Serra, claimed that the police action was justified and that there would be no inquiry, unless he was shown evidence of alleged police brutality. And this, despite live TV pictures during the match, showing riot police apparently indiscriminately hitting and beating Manchester United fans whilst taking no action against Roma fans.[84]

thumb|right|200px|TV images showed the violent clashes (SKY Sports)

On February 2 2007, football violence occurred between football supporters and the police in Catania, Italy. The clashes occurred during and after the Serie A match between Catania and Palermo football clubs, also known as the Sicilian derby. Police officer Filippo Raciti, 40,[85] was killed.[86][87]


The 2007 AS Roma–Manchester United conflict occurred on 4 April 2007 at the Stadio Olimpico during the 2006-07 UEFA Champions League quarter-final match between AS Roma and Manchester United. In the conflict, missiles were thrown over a perspex barrier separating the two sets of supporters, which prompted the Italian riot police to enter and attempt to subdue the hostile crowd. The incident has been controversial, as the police and team supporters on both sides view the causes of and reactions to the melee differently.

right|thumb|150px|Manchester United fan hurling a ripped up seat at riot police.

Netherlands

It is a common belief that football hooliganism in the Netherlands began in earnest after largescale rioting between supporters of Feyenoord and English club Tottenham Hotspur at the 1974 UEFA Cup Final.[citation needed] Since then, several Netherlands clubs have been associated with hooliganism, such as AFC Ajax, Feyenoord, Nac Breda,PSV Eindhoven, FC Utrecht, FC Den Bosch, ADO Den Haag and FC Groningen. The biggest rivalry is between Ajax and Feyenoord.[citation needed] On 16 June, 1990, English fans were arrested for brawling in Amsterdam before a friendly match.[88] The most violent football hooligan encounter has been the Battle of Beverwijk on 23 March, 1997, in which several people were seriously injured and Carlo Picornie was killed.[89] On 26 April, 1999, 80 football fans were arrested when Feyenoord supporters rioted after a cup match with NAC Breda.[90] The 2002-03 season was marked by continued fighting between fans of Ajax and FC Utrecht, and between fans of Ajax and Feyenoord.[91] In 2006, a riot broke out between Dutch and French football fans.[92]

Norway

Hooliganism is a rather new and rare phenomenon in Norway.[citation needed] Teams such as Vålerenga I.F., Lillestrøm S.K., Hamarkameratene, Tønsberg, S.K. Brann, Viking F.K. and Fredrikstad F.K. are said to have some form of hooligan firms or casuals. In Oslo, there are sometimes incidents of hooliganism related to inter-city matches (Vålerenga, FC Lyn Oslo, Stabæk I.F. and Lillestrøm S.K.) and matches between Vålerenga and Brann.[citation needed] There have been incidents of racism, such as when the black American player, Robbie Russell, was spat at by angry Brann fans, while playing for Sogndal in a Norwegian Premier League match.[citation needed]

Poland

Poland was the first Eastern Europe country to see a rise in football hooliganism.[citation needed] Arranged football hooligan fights in Poland are known as ustawka. They became common in Poland in the late 1990s.[citation needed]. On 30 March, 2003, it was reported that Polish police arrested 120 people because rival football supporters fought during a match between Slask Wroclaw and Arka Gdynia.[93] During the riot, hooligans pelted police officers with stones and fought a running battle with knives and axes. One victim was found lying seriously injured at the scene, and later died in hospital. During the UEFA Cup 1998-99, Italian footballer Dino Baggio, from Parma F.C. was hit with a knife in the head by Wisla Krakow supporters. The Wrocław football riot 2003 was an organised fight between Polish football hooligans in Wrocław, Lower Silesia Poland on 30 March, 2003.Cite error: A <ref> tag is missing the closing </ref> (see the help page). [94][95][96][97][98]


Scotland

Almost every Scottish football club from the First Division up has a hooligan firm. Celtic and Rangers are the two biggest teams in Glasgow, and are considered the top two in Scottish football hooliganism (this rivalry is known as the Old Firm). The Old Firm can trace it's roots back to the 1880's, caused by the hatred between between the poor Irish-Catholics immigrants (Celtic), and the wealthy Loyalists (Rangers). As a result, many gangs have been formed. This factor has also lead to a large number of deaths in Glasgow. Other Scottish teams also have large hooligan followings, such as Airdrie United, Partick Thistle, Hearts, Motherwell. While the Scotland national team's travelling supporters, the Tartan Army, are world-renowned for their friendliness and general aversion to violence, hooliganism is not unknown in Scottish football. Pre-arranged fights between firms on match days can take place away from the football grounds.[99]

Most Scottish football fans are against this behaviour, and authorities have taken several measures to reduce football hooliganism.[100]

Celtic and Rangers are the two biggest teams in Glasgow, and the Old Firm rivalry is one of the most heated football rivalries in the world. The hooliganism associated with this rivalry tends to be spontaneous, and fuelled by alcohol consumption, instead of pre-planned by organized hooligan firms. The Old Firm rivalry is largely motivated by religious sectarianism, and is related to the conflict between Loyalists and Republicans in Northern Ireland.

Serbia

Football hooligans associated with the former Yugoslav states rioted over the inter-ethnic resentments that were re-ignited by the breakup of the Yugoslav federation in the 1990s. The most prominent groups of hooligans are associated with Belgrade and Serbia's two main clubs, Red Star Belgrade and FK Partizan. They are known as the Delije (Heroes) and Grobari (Undertakers), respectively. These two terms also refer to the supporters of the two clubs. FK Rad is a less-successful Belgrade club, whose associated hooligans, known locally as "United Force", have notoriously been involved in many violent incidents.[101][102]

On 2nd December 2007, a plain clothes police officer was seriously injured when he was attacked during a Serbian Superliga match between Red Star Belgrade and Hajduk Kula. The officer was attacked with burning torches and broken seats and he had to fire warning shots in the air in self defence. He he was treated for burns, cuts and bruises in a nearby hospital. On 3rd December, the Football Association of Serbia requested government help to help crack down on football hooliganism in the country.[103]


Spain

Football hooliganism in Spain is sometimes linked to racism, and some black players have been victims of ethnic slurs. Samuel Eto'o, a Barcelona F.C. player from Cameroon, has denounced the problem. The strong rivalry beetween Real Madrid and Barcelona F.C. has led to hooliganism, such as Luís Figo (who transferred from Barcelona to Real Madrid) being hit by a pig's head. Politics also has a strong influence on hooliganism with some firms being linked to extremist ideologies.

In 1998, a supporter of Real Sociedad was killed by an Atlético de Madrid fan who was linked to a neo-nazi group, just before a match between these two teams. In 2003, a supporter of Deportivo La Coruna was killed in riots by Deportivo hooligans, when he tried to protect a supporter of the opposing team, SD Compostela. Since then, authorities have made attempts to get hooliganism more under control.

In 2007, there were acts of hooliganism before a match between Atlético de Madrid and Real Madrid with several cars destroyed and policemen injured by flares and bottles which where thrown at them.[104]

Sweden

Hooliganism is said to have begun in Sweden in 1970 when fans of IFK Göteborg invaded the pitch, destroyed the goalposts and fought the police at the end of a match that relegated Göteborg from the Allsvenskan.[citation needed] Hooliganism in Sweden became a growing problem in the 1980s, but pitch invasions and violence at football grounds decreased in the late 1990s; when hooligan firms moved their fights away from the grounds and the regular supporters. Two of the clubs that have an organized hooligan firm are AIK (Firman boys), IFK Göteborg (Wisemen).[105] In July 2002, a fan was killed after a pre-arranged fight between fans of AIK and Göteborg.[106] In November 2002, 12 members of the Wisemen stood trial for inflicting life-threatening injuries on a Hammarby fan in 2001.[107]

Switzerland

Football hooliganism is relatively new in Switzerland. One incident, dubbed the 2006 Basel Hooligan Incident, 13 May 2006, occurred on the last day of the 2005-06 season, when FC Zürich defeated FC Basel at St. Jakob Park to win the Swiss championship with a last-minute goal. After the final whistle, angry Basel hooligans stormed the field and attacked Zürich players. The Zürich team were forced to celebrate in the upper deck of the stands while the fighting continued. There was similar chaos in the streets that night.[108][109]

Turkey

According to the Turkish Daily News, hooligan groups are well organised, have their own "leaders", and often consist of organised street fighters. These groups have a "racon" (code of conduct), which states that the intention must be to injure rather than kill and that a stab must be made below the waist.[110] Other hooligans have fired firearms into the air to celebrate their team’s victory, which has been known to accidentally kill innocent people watching the celebrations on their balconies.[111][112]

Trouble has arisen during matches between Istanbul rivals Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe.[111] However, the Turkish Football Federation has tightened security to try and contain the hooliganism. During the 2005 Turkish cup final between Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe, 8,000 police, stewards and officials were employed to prevent violence.[113]

In 2006, the Turkish Football Federation introduced new measures to combat the threat of hooliganism and have made new regulations that allow the Professional Football Disciplinary Board to fine clubs up to YTL 250,000 for their fans behavior. Repeat offenders could be fined up to YTL 500,000.[114] Despite reports from the Turkish Football Federation, the Turkish police believe that football hooliganism is not a major threat and are "isolated incidents".[115]

Before Galatasaray’s semi-final UEFA Cup match with Leeds United A.F.C. in 2000, two Leeds fans, Christopher Loftus and Kevin Speight, were stabbed to death in Istanbul following street fights between Turkish and British hooligans.[110] UEFA allowed the game to proceed and Galatasaray won 2-0.

Leeds complained because home fans jeered while a message of condolence was read for the victims.[116] Galatasaray's players refused to wear black arm bands. The Leeds chairman at the time, Peter Ridsdale, accused Galatasaray of "showing a lack of respect".[117] He also revealed that his teams' players had received death threats before the match.[118]

Ali Umit Demi was arrested and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment for the stabbing, but the sentence was reduced to 5 years on the basis of heavy provocation, while five others were given lesser sentences of under four months.[115] The families of those accused of attacking with knives are reported to have defended their actions and approved of their children punishing the "rude British people".[110]

Galatasaray fans were banned from traveling to the return match to try and avoid further clashes between fans, although there were reports of attacks by Leeds fans on Turkish television crews and the police.[119] However the Assistant Chief Constable in charge of policing the game believed that the number of arrests was "no worse than a normal high category game".[119]

Hakan Şükür was hit with projectiles from Leeds United supporters and the Galatasaray team bus was stoned after driving through an underpass. The game saw Emre Belözoğlu and Harry Kewell sent off and Galatasaray sealed their way to the final with a 2-2 score.

Violence also occurred between Arsenal fans and Galatasaray fans before the Final in Copenhagen[120] in which a Galatasary fan, an Arsenal fan and a Dane were said to have been stabbed.[121] Galatasaray later won the match after a penalty shoot-out.

Wales

Cardiff City's hooligan firm are known as the Soul Crew. In January 2002, Cardiff fans attacked Leeds United fans and players at Ninian Park. Leeds fans and players were hit by missiles during the match, and hundreds of Cardiff fans invaded the pitch. In May 2002, Cardiff City were fined £40,000 by the Welsh FA for the events that day. Later in 2002, when Cardiff lost to Stoke City F.C. fans again rioted outside Ninian Park. And there were more clashed at a match against Welsh rivals, Swansea City F.C. later that year.[122] In October 2004 a BBC report stated that Cardiff had more fans banned than any other Football League club, with 160 banning orders against its fans, more than double any other Welsh club.[123]

Asia

Bangladesh

Football hooliganism in Bangladesh does not appear to be a major problem. However, in August 2001, 100 people were injured when thousands of football fans rampaged at a B-League match between Mohammedan Sporting Club and Rahmatganj Sporting Club in the Bangabandhu National Stadium, Dhaka. When the referee disallowed a penalty, Mohammedan fans invaded the pitch, throwing stones at the police, who had to fire tear gas at the fans to try and restore order. Outside the stadium dozens of cars and buses were damaged and set on fire.[124]

China

Football hooliganism in China is often linked to accusations of corrupt refereeing, with Chinese football being plagued by allegations of match fixing in the early 2000s.[125]

After a match in 2000 between Shaanxi Guoli and Chengdu Wuniu in Xi'an, Shaanxi province China football fans clashed with police who had to use tear gas and water cannons to disperse the crowd. Police car windows were smashed as the police tried to stop the fans attacking the match referee, who they were angry at for a decision made during the match. Eight people were arrested but later released.[126]

In March 2002 fans fought with police again as hundreds of football fans rioted at a match in Xi'an, this time between Shaanxi Guoli and Qingdao Yizhong. At the final whistle, and in response to a late penalty to the visiting team, Shaanxi Guoli fans threw missiles at the players and the police before setting fire to the stadium seats. The fans accused the referee of being corrupt and fixing the match. The fans were finally dispersed by riot police with batons and high pressure water hoses. Outside the stadium fighting broke out again, a police van and four police cars were overturned. Two years before this incident following crowd troube at a match also in Xi'an, the government had demanded more action to stamp out football hooliganism.[125]

Football hooliganism continued to rise in China partly due to allegations of corrupt referees.[127]

In June 2002, thousands of football fans rampaged for two hours in the streets of Fuzhou in Fujian province, overturning police cars, damaging a bus and tearing street signs down. Order was only restored when one hundred heavily armed paramilitary policemen were called in. The rampage had started when fans were unable to watch the World Cup match between China and Brazil at an outside broadcast.[127]

On 4 July 2004 fans rioted in Beijing when China lost the final of the AFC Asian Cup to Japan, 3-1, at the Workers Stadium. After the match hundreds of Chinese fans threw bottles, confronted riot police, burned Japanese flags and vandalised a Japanese Embassy official's car. The Japanese fans had to be protected by the police, and bussed to safety afer they had been given a hostile reception by Chinese fans.[128][129] The rioting was attributed to ill-feeling toward Japan for atrocities committed before and during the Second World War when Japan invaded China. And that the traditional rivalry between the two countries means that tension between fans is never far from the surface.[128]

North and South Korea

There was a brief riot between Iranian and North Korean fans at an international match in 2005. It appears that a North Korean player got into an argument with the Syrian referee, and then things got out of hand.[130][131][132] Reports also claimed that a brief out-break of violence hit a South Korean match at about the same date, but this has never been officially acknowledged.


Middle East

Iraq

Boy, that recent riot-come Ultra bombing was bad! 2 bomb secterian bombings have killed at least 50 people and injured 135 in Baghdad as crowds celebrated the Iraqi national football team's win over South Korea. The first strike killed 30 people in the Mansour district and 20 died in the next blast, at an army checkpoint in east Baghdad. Thousands had filled the streets of the capital, dancing and waving flags in a rare moment of national unity. Police said the two attacks deliberately targeted the jubilant supporters.

[133] [134]

I's part of a religiouse civil war, not a act of hooliganisum.--Bosnia 2007 19:07, 16 August 2007 (UTC)

Egypt

In January 2006 Riot police had to protect Libyan fans in the Cairo International Stadium from missiles being thrown at them by Egyptian fans in the tier above them during a match between Egypt and Morocco. The Libyan fans had stayed on to watch the match after they had seen Libya lose 2-1 to Ivory Coast and had started taunting the home supporters. The Egyptian fans responded by throwing missiles at half time, and when, despite a plea to stop, it continued into the second half, the riot police were called in. The Egyptian Football Association were fined $5,000 and the Libyan Football Federation fined $7,000 by the Confederation of African Football disciplinary Commission.[135]

Israel

In the 2000s, tensions surrounding the Arab-Israeli conflict spilled over into sporadic riots between Jewish and Arab Israeli football fans. In December 2000 it was reported that every club in Israel was on a final warning following escalating violence and intimidation at matches. Beitar Jerusalem were attracting attention because of their fans behaviour, with regular "Death to Arabs" banners and chants. Earlier that season Beitar were fined when their fans shouted racist abuse at PAOK FC players during a UEFA Cup match. Beitar had already been under a suspended sentence following an incident two years previously when Rangers F.C. player Rod Wallace was also the subject of racist abuse.[136]

In November 2006 it was reported that football was becoming a mirror of the country a battleground between Arab and Jewish fans. For instance in August 2005 at the start of the domestic season, 7,000 Beitar Jerusalem fans travelled to an opening day away match at Maccabi Tel Aviv. Beitar fans chanted anti Arab chants throughout the match, and later rioted in Tel Aviv. After a match in Sakhnin against Bnei Sakhnin a predominantly Arab supported club, Beitar fans rioted. Beitar have a hooligan firm, La Familia, whose members consider Israeli Arabs to be their enemy.[137]


Syria

On 12 March 2004 a fight between Arab and Kurdish supporters of rival Syrian football clubs at a match in Qamishli, 450 miles north east of Damascus, escalated into full scale riots that left 25 people dead and hundreds injured.[138][139]

Africa

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Four died when troops opened fire at a derby match between AS Vita Club and DC Motema Pembe at the Stade des Martyrs in Kinshasa in November 1998.[140]

In April 2001, 14 people died following a stampede at a derby match between TP Mazembe and FC Saint Eloi Lupopo. When fans invaved the pitch after Mazembe had equalised, and rival fans started throwing missiles at each other, the police fired tear gas, and fans rushed to escape the effects of the tear gas. In the resulting stampede, 14 people died. Fans of the two clubs are alleged to have a history of hatred and violence to each other.[141]

Ghana

Up to 125 people died and hundreds were injured when football fans stampeded at a match in Accra in 2001. Accra Hearts were leading 2-1 against Asante Kotoko — with five minutes left in the match — when some fans began throwing bottles and chairs onto the pitch. Police then fired tear gas into the crowd, creating panic. Fans rushed to escape the gas, and in the enusing crush, up to 125 people were killed.[142]

Ivory Coast

Fighting among fans at a match claimed one life on 6 May 2001 and injured 39 people.[143][144]

Libya

Eight fans died and 39 were injured as troops opened fire to stop both pro and anti Gadaffi sentiments being expressed in a Tripoli stadium during a match between Al Ahli and Al Ittihad in December 1996.[145]


Eight fans died and 39 were injured as troops opened fire to stop both pro and anti Gadaffi sentiments being expressed in a Tripoli stadium during a match between Al Ahli and Al Ittihad in December 1996.[146]

Eight fans died and 39 were injured as troops opened fire to stop both pro and anti Gadaffi sentiments being expressed in a Tripoli stadium during a match between Al Ahli and Al Ittihad in December 1996.[147]

On July 9th, 1996 soccer match, Qaddafi's younest son. Saadi Qaddafi "persuaded" the referee to award a contested goal so that his team could win. Over 30 people died in the ensuing riots. Mohamed Qaddaffi is Qaddafi's eldest son and a rival of Saadi's. During the football (soccer) match in Tripoli on July 9, a number of armed guards protecting a relative of Colonel Qaddafi opened fire on fans shouting protests against a call the referee had made in favour of a team controlled by Qaddafi's sons. A stampede ensued, and there were a number of deaths. + On July 9th, 1996 soccer match, Qaddafi's younest son. Saadi Qaddafi "persuaded" the referee to award a contested goal so that his team could win. Over 30 people died in the ensuing riots. Mohamed Qaddaffi is Qaddafi's eldest son and a rival of Saadi's. During the football (soccer) match in Tripoli on July 9, a number of armed guards protecting a relative of Colonel Qaddafi opened fire on fans shouting protests against a call the referee had made in favour of a team controlled by Qaddafi's sons. A stampede ensued, and there were a number of deaths. [[6]]

[[7]] Line 323: Line 323:

[[8]]

[[9]] News leaked of a riot in Libya During a soccer game in Tripoli, Libya in February 1997, a team sponsored by a son of President Qadhafi suffered a questionable call and started a brawl.when spectators at a football match chanted slogans against a son of Muammar Qaddafi. They were fired on by bodyguards, stormed the pitch and attacked the --referee]]. Some 20 to 25 people may have died. + News leaked of a riot in Libya During a soccer game in Tripoli, Libya in February 1997, a team sponsored by a son of President Qadhafi suffered a questionable call and started a brawl.when spectators at a football match chanted slogans against a son of Muammar Qaddafi. They were fired on by bodyguards, stormed the pitch and attacked the --- referee! Some 20 to 25 people may have died.

[[10]]

[[11]]

Mali

After a World Cup qualifying match between Mali and Togo on 27 March 2005, which Togo won 2-1, Mali fans rioted and went on a spree of destruction and violence. The trouble started when Togo scored the winning goal. Police fired tear gas at Mali fans who had invavded the pitch. The match was abandoned and the result awarded to Togo. The result set off a wave of violence in the capital of Mali, Bamako. Thousands of Mali fans in Bamako began chanting threats toward the Mali players, cars were set on fire, stores looted, property and monuments destroyed and a building housing the local Olympics committee burnt down.[148]

Mauritius

In May 1999, seven people died when rioting football fans threw petrol bombs into a casino, following a match in Port Louis between the Mauritian League champions, Scouts Club, and Fire Brigade SC. After the match which Fire Brigade SC won, hundreds of Scouts fans went on a rampage, attacking police vehicles and torching sugar can fields.[149]

Mozambique

The government of Mozambique had to apologise for the violent behaviour of Mozambique fans, before, during and after a match between Mozambique team, Clube Ferroviário de Maputo and Zimbabwe team, Dynamos on 10 May 1998. Ferroviário fans attacked the Dynamo players and the referee, stoned vehicles and fought running battles with riot police outside the stadium. Fifteen people, including four Red Cross workers, needed hospital treatment.[150]

South Africa

In Johannesburg, South Africa, on 14 January 1991 forty people died when fans surged toward a jammed exit to escape rival brawling fans at a match south west of Johannesburg.[151]

Zimbabwe

In July 2000 twelve people died following a stampede, when they were crushed, at an World Cup qualifying match between Zimbabwe and South Africa in Harare. Police fired tear gas when the crowd started throwing missiles onto the pitch, after South Africa had taken a two goal lead. After Delron Buckley scored South Africas second goal bottles began to fly onto the pitch. The police then fired tear gas into the 60,000 crowd, who began running to the exits to escape the effects of the tear gas. The match had to be abandoned as players from both sides felt the effects of the tear gas and had to receive medical treatment. The police were condemned for firing tear gas, calling it a total over-reaction.[152] In July 2002, two fans were shot when police opened fire on rioting fans at a match in Bulawayo. Seven police officers were injured and five vehilces badly damaged.[153]

Oceania

Australia

In 2001 following crowd violence at a home match against Perth Glory, Melbourne Knights were found guilty of bringing the game into disrepute. They were fined AUS$30,000 with a AUS$50,000 bond to pay should there be any further crowd violence, and were ordered to upgrade the safety of their stadium. Melbourne have large support from the local Croatian community, and the crowd violence was attributed to ethnic tensions and Balkan politics.[154] In 2005 Sydney United were suspended for four matches and Bonnyrigg White Eagles matches were deferred pending an internal enquiry following violence at matches between the two clubs who both compete in the New South Wales Premier League. Sydney are backed by the local Croatian community and Bonnyrigg are backed by their local Serbian community. Tension between the two communities resulted in flares, missiles and other objects being thrown at supporters.[155]


Vital links to vital sources!

All the soccer sourcs you will ever need for this page!

[[12]] [[13]] [[14]] [[15]] [[16]] [[17]] [[18]] [[19]] [[20]] [[21]] [[22]]

It's unmissable! --86.25.53.132 07:38, 25 April 2007 (UTC)

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e "When did football hooliganism start?". The Guardian. 2006-12-13. Retrieved 2007-07-25.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/africa/05/09/soccer.chronology
  3. ^ Argentine hooligans revere Maradona
  4. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1826408.stm
  5. ^ Argentina calls foul on football violence
  6. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4238844.stm
  7. ^ Major stadium disasters
  8. ^ Fence collapse hits soccer final
  9. ^ In pictures: Brazil's stadium crush
  10. ^ Brazil fans plummet into pit
  11. ^ Disasters in soccer stadiums
  12. ^ Major stadium disasters
  13. ^ Soccer War 1969
  14. ^ Fatal Mexican football win
  15. ^ One killed in Mexican World Cup riots
  16. ^ a b Podnar, Ozren. "The Day Yugoslav Soccer Died". Soccerphile. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  17. ^ Podnar, Ozren. "The Ultra Scene in Croatia and Serbia: Football Hooliganism Balkan Style". Soccerphile. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  18. ^ "Football riot's stupidity, not ethnic, say clubs". Sydney Morning Herald. 2005-03-14. Retrieved 2007-06-19.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  19. ^ "Riots in Mostar after Brazil-Croatia Football Match". One World South East. 2006-06-19. Retrieved 2007-07-25.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  20. ^ Football violence in Europe - Executive summary
  21. ^ Football violence in Europe - Media coverage
  22. ^ Crisis and grace: soccer in Denmark Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2 (3), pages 119–128
  23. ^ a b c d e "Fact Sheet 1: Football and Football Hooliganism". University of Leicester. Retrieved 2006-10-07. 
  24. ^ "Thirty Years Ago". Rothmans International plc. 1975. Retrieved 2005-08-13.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  25. ^ Nicholls, Andy (2005). Hooligans A-L. Milo Books. p. 63. ISBN 1 903854 41 5. 
  26. ^ a b c Conservative Governments and Football Regulation
  27. ^ "1985: Fans die in Heysel rioting". BBC News. 1985-29-05. Retrieved 2006-10-07.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
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  145. ^ Disasters in soccer stadiums
  146. ^ Disasters in soccer stadiums
  147. ^ Disasters in soccer stadiums
  148. ^ Soccer fans riot in Mali over loss
  149. ^ Mauritian football riots -- seven dead
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Further reading

External links