Ute people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ute Tribe)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Ute
Utes chief Severo and family, 1899.jpg
Chief Severo and family, ca. 1899
Total population
4,800[1]–10,000[2]
Regions with significant populations
 United States ( Arizona,  Colorado,  Nevada,  Utah)[1]
Languages
English, Ute[1]
Religion
Native American Church, traditional tribal religion, and Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Chemehuevi and Southern Paiute people[1]

Ute people (/jt/) are Native Americans of the Ute tribe and culture and are among the Great Basin classification of Indigenous People. They have lived in the regions of present-day Utah and Colorado for centuries, hunting, fishing and gathering food. In addition to their home regions within Colorado and Utah, their hunting grounds extended into Wyoming, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. They had sacred grounds outside of their home domain that were also visited seasonally. Spiritual and ceremonial practices were observed by the Utes.

There were twelve historic bands of Utes whose culture was influenced by neighboring Native Americans. Although they generally operated in family groups for hunting and gathering, they came together for ceremonies and trading. The Utes also traded with other Native American tribes and Puebloans. When they made contact with the Spanish and early Euro-Americans, they also traded with them. After they acquired horses from the Spanish, their lifestyle changed dramatically, affecting their mobility, hunting practices, and tribal organization. Once primarily defensive warriors, they became adept horsemen and warriors, raiding other Native Americans and Puebloans. Their prestige was based upon the number of horses they owned and their horsemanship, which was tested during horse races.

Once the American West began to be inhabited by gold prospectors and settlers in the mid-1800s, the Utes were increasingly pressured off their ancestral lands. They entered into treaties to hold on to some of their land and were eventually relocated to reservations. A few of the key conflicts during this period include the Walker War (1853), Black Hawk War (1865–72), and the Meeker Massacre (1879).

They are now living primarily in Utah and Colorado, within three Ute tribal reservations: Uintah-Ouray in northeastern Utah (3,500 members); Southern Ute in Colorado (1,500 members); and Ute Mountain which primarily lies in Colorado, but extends to Utah and New Mexico (2,000 members). The majority of Ute are believed to live on one of these reservations. The State of Utah is named after these people.

Etymology[edit]

The origin of the word Ute is unknown, but Yuta was first used in Spanish documents. The Utes self-designation is based upon nuuchi-u, meaning the people.[3]

History[edit]

Numic language group[edit]

Distribution of Uto-Aztecan languages at the time of first European contact

Ute people are from the Southern subdivision of the Numic-speaking branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, which are found almost entirely in the Western United States and Mexico.[3] The name of the language family was created to show that it includes both the Colorado River Numic language (Uto) dialect chain that stretches from southeastern California, along the Colorado River to Colorado and the Nahuan languages (Aztecan) of Mexico.[3][4]

It is believed that this Numic group originated near the border of Nevada and California, then spread North and East.[5] By about 1000, there were hunters and gatherers in the Great Basin of Uto-Aztecan ethnicity that are believed to have been the ancestors of the Indigenous tribes of the Great Basin, including the Ute, Apache, Shoshone, Hopi, Paiute, and Chemehuevi peoples.[6] Some ethnologists postulate that the Southern Numic speakers, the Ute and Southern Paiute, left the Numic homeland first, based on language changes, and that the Central and then the Western subgroups spread out toward the east and north, sometime later. Shoshone, Gosiute and Comanche are Central Numic, and Northern Paiute and Bannock are Western Numic.[7] The Southern Numic-speaking tribes—the Utes, Shoshone, Southern Paiute, and Chemehuevi— share many cultural, genetic and linguistic characteristics.[6]

Ute ancestral lands and culture[edit]

Lands[edit]

The Ute Trail, later called the Old Spanish Trail, was a trade route between Santa Fe and California, through Colorado and Utah. It was later used by European explorers of the west.

There were ancestral Utes in southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah by 1300, living a hunter-gather lifestyle.[6][8] The Ute occupied much of the present state of Colorado by the 1600s. They were followed by the Comanches from the south in the 1700s, and then the Arapaho and Cheyenne from the plains who then dominated the plains of Colorado.[9]

The Utes came to inhabit a large area including most of Utah,[10] western and central Colorado, and south into the San Juan River watershed of New Mexico.[11] Some Ute bands stayed near their home domains, while others ranged seasonally an extended distance.[6] Hunting grounds extended further into Utah and Colorado, as well as into Wyoming, Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico.[6] Winter camps were established along rivers near the present-day cities of Provo and Fort Duchesne in Utah and Pueblo, Fort Collins, Colorado Springs of Colorado.[6]

Colorado[edit]
Henry Chapman Ford, Ute camp, by 1894

Aside from their home domain, there were sacred places in present-day Colorado. The Tabeguache Ute's name for Pikes Peak is Tavakiev, meaning sun mountain. Living a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle, summers were spent in the Pikes Peak area mountains, which was considered by other tribes to be the domain of the Utes.[12] Pikes Peak was a sacred ceremonial area for the band.[13] The mineral springs at Manitou Springs were also sacred and Ute and other tribes came to the area, spent winters there, and "share[d] in the gifts of the waters without worry of conflict."[14][15][16][17] Artifacts found from the nearby Garden of the Gods, such as grinding stones, "suggest the groups would gather together after their hunt to complete the tanning of hides and processing of meat."[12][18]

The old Ute Pass Trail went eastward from Monument Creek (near Roswell) to Garden of the Gods and Manitou Springs to the Rocky Mountains.[19] From Ute Pass, Utes journeyed eastward to hunt buffalo. They spent winters in mountain valleys where they were protected from the weather.[12][18] The North and Middle Parks of present-day Colorado were among favored hunting grounds, due to the abundance of game.[20]

Cañon Pintado, or painted canyon, is a prehistoric site with rock art from Fremont people (650 to 1200) and Utes. The Fremont art reflect an interest in agriculture, including corn stalks and use of light at different times of the year to show a planting calendar. Then there are images of figures holding shields, what appear to be battle victims, and spears. These were seen by the Dominguez–Escalante expedition (1776). Utes left images of firearms and horses in the 1800s. The Crook's Brand Site depicts a horse with a brand from George Crook's regiment during the Indian Wars of the 1870s.[21]

Utah[edit]
Bears Ears buttes of the Bears Ears National Monument in southeastern Utah

Public land surrounding the Bears Ears buttes in southeastern Utah became the Bears Ears National Monument in 2016 in recognition for its ancestral and cultural significance to several Native American tribes, including the Utes. Members of the Ute Mountain Ute and Uintah and Ouray Reservations sit on a five-tribe coalition to help co-manage the monument with the Bureau of Land Management and United States Forest Service.[22][23]

Ute petroglyphs at Arches National Park

The Ute appeared to have hunted and camped in an ancient Anasazi and Fremont people campsite in near what is now Arches National Park. At a site near natural springs, which may have held spiritual significance, the Ute left petroglyphs in rock along with rock art by the earlier peoples. Some of the images are estimated to be more than 900 years old. The Utes petroglyphs were made after the Utes acquired horses, because they show men hunting while on horseback.[24]

Culture[edit]

The culture of the Utes was influenced by neighboring Native American tribes. The eastern Utes had many traits of Plain Indians, and they lived in teepees after the 17th century. The western Utes were similar to Shoshones and Paiutes, and they lived year-round in domed willow houses. Weeminuches lived in willow houses during the summer. The Jicarilla Apache and Puebloans influenced the southeastern Utes. All groups also lived in structures 10-15 feet in diameter that were made of conical pole-frames and brush, and sweat lodges were similarly built.[10] Lodging also included hide tepees and ramadas, depending upon the area.[25]

An Uncompahgre Ute shaved beaver hide painting, made by trapping beavers and shaving images into the stretched and cured hides. They have used these paintings to decorate their personal and ceremonial dwellings.

People lived in extended family groups of about 20 to 100 people. They traveled to seasonally-specific camps.[25] In the spring and summer, family groups hunted and gathered food. The men hunted buffalo, antelope, elk, deer, bear, rabbit, sage hens, and beaver using arrows, spears and nets. They smoked and sun-dried the meat, and also ate it fresh.[10][25] They also fished in fresh water sources, like Utah Lake. Women processed and stored the meat and gathered greens, berries, roots, yampa, pine nuts, yucca, and seeds.[10][25] The Pahvant were the only Utes to cultivate food.[25] Some western groups ate reptiles and lizards. Some southeastern groups planted corn and some encouraged the growth of wild tobacco.[10] Implements were made of wood, stone, and bone. Skin bags and baskets were used to carry goods.[25] There is evidence that pottery was made by the Utes as early as the 16th century.[26]

Men and women wore woven and leather clothing and rabbit skin robes. They wore there hair long or in braids.[25] Parents provided some input, but people decided who they would take as spouses. Men could have multiple wives, and divorce was common and easy. There were restrictions for menstruating women and couples who were pregnant. Children were encouraged to be industrious through several rituals. When someone died, that person was buried in their best clothes with their head facing east. Their possessions were generally destroyed and their horses either had their hair cut or they were killed.[10]

Occasionally members of Ute bands met up to trade, intermarry, and practice ceremonies, like the annual spring Bear Dance.[25]

Historic Ute bands[edit]

Distribution of Ute Indian bands: 1. Pahvant, 2. Moanunt, 3. Sanpits, 4. Timpanogots, 5. Uintah, 6. Seuvarits, 7. Yampa, 8. Parianuche, 8a. Sabuagana, 9. Tabeguache, 10. Weeminuche, 11. Capote, 12. Muache. University Press of Colorado.

The Ute were divided into several nomadic and closely associated bands, which today mostly are organized as the Northern, Southern, and Ute Mountain Ute Tribes.

Hunting and gathering groups of extended families were led by older members by the mid-17th century. Activities, like hunting buffalo and trading, may have been organized by band members. Chiefs led bands when structure was required with the introduction of horses to plan for defense, buffalo hunting, and raiding. Bands came together for tribal activities by the 18th century.[10]

Multiple bands of Utes that were classified as Uintahs by the U.S. government when they were relocated to the Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation.[27] The bands included the San Pitch, Pahvant, Seuvartis, Timpanogos and Cumumba Utes. The Southern Ute Tribes include the Muache, Capote, and the Weeminuche, the latter of which are at Ute Mountain.[6]

# Tribe Home
state
Home
locale
Current
name
Tribe Grouping Reservation
1 Pahvant Utah West of the Wasatch Range in the Pavant Range towards the Nevada border along the Sevier River in the desert around Sevier Lake and Fish Lake Paiute Northern Paiute[28][29][30]
2 Moanunt Utah Upper Sevier River Valley in central Utah, in the Otter Creek region south of Salina and in the vicinity of Fish Lake Paiute Northern Paiute[30]
3 Sanpits Utah Sanpete Valley and Sevier River Valley and along the San Pitch River San Pitch Northern Uintah and Ouray[27][31]
4 Timpanogots Utah Wasatch Range around Mount Timpanogos, along the southern and eastern shores of Utah Lake of the Utah Valley, and in Heber Valley, Uinta Basin and Sanpete Valley Timpanogots Northern Uintah and Ouray[32]
5 Uintah Utah Utah Lake to the Uintah Basin of the Tavaputs Plateau near the Grand-Colorado River-system Uintah Northern Uintah and Ouray[27]
6 Seuvarits Utah Moab area Northern Uintah and Ouray[27][6]
7 Yampa Colorado Yampa River Valley area White River Utes Northern Uintah and Ouray[27]
8 Parianuche Colorado and Utah Colorado River (previously called the Grand River) in western Colorado and eastern Utah White River Ute Northern Uintah and Ouray[33][27][34]
8a Sabuagana Colorado Colorado River in western and central Colorado Northern [35]
9 Tabeguache Colorado and Utah Gunnison and Uncompahgre River valleys Uncompahgre Northern Uintah and Ouray[36]
10 Weeminuche Colorado and Utah In the Abajo Mountains, in the Valley of the San Juan River and its northern tributaries and in the San Juan Mountains including eastern Utah. Weeminuche Ute Mountain Ute Mountain[37]
11 Capote Colorado Wast of the Great Divide south of the Conejos River and east of the Rio Grande towards the west site of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, they were also living in the San Luis Valley, along the headwaters of the Rio Grande and along the Animas River Capote Southern Southern[28]
12 Muache Colorado Eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains from Denver, Colorado in the north to Las Vegas, New Mexico in the south Muache Southern Southern[27]

This is also a half-Shoshone, half-Ute band of Cumumbas who lived above Great Salt Lake, near what is now Ogden, Utah. There are also other half-Ute bands, some of whom migrated seasonally far from their home domain.[6]

Relationships with other Native Americans[edit]

The Utes traded with Puebloans of the Rio Grande River valley at annual trade fairs or rescates held in at the Taos, Santa Clara, Pecos and other pueblos.[38] They traded with the Navajo, Havasupai, and Hopi people for woven blankets.[39] The Utes were close allies with the Jicarilla Apache who shared much of the same territory and intermarried. They also intermarried with Paiute, Bannock and Western Shoshone people.[11] There was so much intermarriage with the Paiute, that territorial borders of the Utes and the Southern Paiutes are difficult to ascertain in southeast Utah.[6] Until the Ute acquired horses, any conflict with other tribes was usually defensive. They generally had poor relations with Northern and Eastern Shoshone.[10]

Contact with the Spanish[edit]

The first encounter between the Utes and the Spanish occurred before 1620, perhaps as early as 1581 when they knew about the high quality deerskin produced by the Utes. They traded with the Spanish in the San Luis Valley beginning in the 1670s, in northern New Mexico beginning in the early 1700s, and in Ute villages in what is now western Colorado and eastern Utah. The Utes, the main trading partners of the Spanish residents of New Mexico, were known for their soft, high quality tanned deer skins, or chamois, and they also traded meat, buffalo robes and Indian and Spanish captives taken by the Comanche. The Utes traded their goods for cloth, blankets, guns, horses, maize, flour, and ornaments. A number of Ute learned Spanish through trading. The Spanish "seriously guarded" trade with the Utes, limiting it to annual caravans, but by 1750 they were reliant on the trade with the Utes, their deerskin being a highly sought commodity. The Utes also traded in slaves, women and children captives from Apache, Comanche, Piute, and Navajo tribes.[38]

John Wesley Powell first became acquainted with the Utes along the White River in northwestern Colorado in the fall of 1868. During his expedition five years later, his photographer, Jack Hillers, captured this great photograph of a young girl accompanied by a warrior, whose body, painted with yellow and black stripes, is marked for battle.

In 1637, the Spanish fought with the Utes, 80 of which became slaves after they were captured. Three people escaped with horses.[6] Their lifestyle changed with the acquisition of horses by 1680. They were able to more easily hunt large game, become more mobile, and it facilitated trade. Ute culture changed dramatically in ways that paralleled the Plains Indian cultures of the Great Plains. They also became involved in horse and slave trade and respected warriors.[25] Horse ownership and warrior skills developed while riding became the primary status symbol within the tribe and horse racing became common. With greater mobility, there was increased need for political leadership.[6]

During this time, few people entered Ute territory. Exceptions to this include the Dominguez–Escalante expedition of 1776 and French trappers passing through the area or establishing trading posts beginning in the 1810s.[25] They expedition recorded meeting members of the Moanunts and Pahvant bands.[6]

Warrior culture[edit]

Once the Utes acquired horses, they were involved with raids of other Native American tribes. The south and eastern Utes raided Native Americans in New Mexico. When they raided Southern Paiutes and Western Shoshones, they captured women and children and sold them as slaves to the Spanish. They fought with Plains Indians and the Comanche, who had one time had been an ally. The battles with the Comanche became fierce, pushing the Utes off of the plains and into the mountains.[10] The name "Comanche" is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, meaning enemy.[40] Some bands fought against the Spanish and Pueblos with the Jicarilla Apache and the Comanche. They were friendly and at times fought with the Navajo.[10] They Utes, Pawnee, Osage and Navajo had become enemies of the Plains Indians about 1840. This included the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Comanche, Kiowa, and Plains Apache.[41]

The Utes were skilled warriors who specialized in horse mounted combat. War with neighboring tribes was mostly fought for gaining prestige, stealing horses, and revenge. Prior to a raid warriors would organize themselves into war parties made up of warriors, medicine men, and a war chief which led the party. To prepare themselves for battle Ute warriors would often fast, participate in sweat lodge ceremonies, and paint their faces and horses for special symbolic meanings. The Utes were master horsemen and could execute daring maneuvers on horseback while in battle. Unlike other plains people the Ute did not have warrior societies with the exception of the Southern Utes which developed them late and were dissolved after they went onto reservations. Warriors were exclusively men but women often followed behind war parties to help gather loot and sing songs. Women also performed the Lame Dance to symbolize having to pull or carry heavy loads of loot after a raid.[42] The Utes used a variety of weapons including bows, spears, and buffalo-skin shields,[10] as well as rifles, shotguns, and pistols which were obtained through raiding or trading.

Contact with other European settlers[edit]

The Ute people traded with Europeans by the early 19th century including at encampments in the San Luis Valley, Wet Mountains, and the Upper Arkansas Valley and at the annual Rocky Mountain Rendezvous. Native Americans also traded at annual trade fairs in New Mexico, which were also ceremonial and social events lasting up to ten days or more. They involved the trading of skins, furs, foods, pottery, horses, clothing, and blankets.[43]

In Utah, Utes were began to be impacted by European-American contact with the 1847 arrival of Mormon settlers. After initial settlement by the Mormons, but as they moved south to the Wasatch Front Utes were pushed off their land.[25]

Wars with settlers began about the 1850s when Ute children were captured in New Mexico and Utah by Anglo-American traders and sold in New Mexico and California.[43] The rush of Euro-American settlers and prospectors into Ute country began with an 1858 gold strike. The Ute allied with the United States and Mexico in its war with the Navajo during the same period.[10]

There was continued pressure by the Mormons to push the Utah Utes off their land.[10] This resulted in the Walker War (1853–54).[25] By the mid-1870s, the Utes had been moved onto land onto a reservation, less than 9% of its former land.[25] The Utes found to be very inhospitable and they tried to continue hunting and gathering off the reservation.[25][44] In the meantime, the Black Hawk War (1865–72) occurred in Utah.[25]

A reservation was also established in 1868 in Colorado.[25][44] Indian agents tried to get the Utes to farm, which would be a change in lifestyle and what they believed would lead to certain starvation due to evidence of previous crop failures.[25] Their lands were whittled away until only the modern reservations were left: a large cession of land in 1873 transferred the gold-rich San Juan area, which was followed in 1879 by the loss of most of the remaining land after the "Meeker Massacre".[25][44] Utes were later put on a reservation in Utah, Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation,[45] as well as two reservations in Colorado, Ute Mountain Ute Tribe and Southern Ute Indian Reservation.[46]

Treaties between the United States and the Utes[edit]

Delegation of Ute Indians in Washington, D.C. in 1880. Background: Woretsiz and general Charles Adams (Colorado) are standing. Front from left to right: Chief Ignacio of the Southern Utes; Carl Schurz US Secretary of the Interior; Chief Ouray and his wife Chipeta
Territory from Treaty of 1868, relinquishing land east of the Contintental Divide, including Pikes Peak and San Luis Valley sacred and hunting grounds
Map of present-day reservations

Following acquisition of Ute territory from Mexico by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo the United States made a series of treaties with the Ute and executive orders that ultimately culminated with relocation to reservations:

  • 1849 treaty of peace[11]
  • In 1861 land was taken from the Ute by an executive order and without a treaty or purchase. Uintah Reservation in Utah was designated for the Uintah band.[11]
  • 1863 Treaty of Conejos which reduced their lands to 50% of what it had been, losing all lands east of the Continental Divide that included healing waters at Manitou Springs and the sacred land on Pikes Peak. It guaranteed that they would have the western one third of the state of the Colorado.[47][48] The Utes agreed that they would allow roads and military forts to be built. As an encouragement to take up farming, they were to be given sheep, cattle, and $10,000 in goods and provisions over ten years.[49] The government generally did not provide the goods, provisions, or livestock mentioned in the treaty, and since game was scarce[49] many Ute continued to hunt on ancestral Ute lands until they were removed to reservations in 1800 and 1881.[47][a] The Tabeguache were assigned a reservation.[11]
  • May 5, 1864 land that has been established as reserves in 1856 and 1859 were ordered vacated and sold.[11]
  • March 2, 1868 Treaty with The Ute by which the Ute retained all of Colorado Territory west of longitude 107° west and relinquished all of Colorado Territory east of longitude 107° west.[50] A reservation was established for the Tabeguache, Capote, Moache, Wiminuche, Yampa, Grand River, and Uintah. Part of this land was ceded to the United States government in 1873.[11]
  • November 9, 1878 Treaty with the Capote, Muache, and Weeminuche Bands establishing the Southern Ute Reservation and the Mountain Ute Reservation.[51]
  • There were a number of changes into 1897 where the boundaries of the reservations changed, turning portions of the former reservations into public domain.[11]

Reservations[edit]

Uinta and Ouray Indian Reservation[edit]

The Uinta and Ouray Indian Reservation is the second-largest Indian Reservation in the US – covering over 4,500,000 acres (18,000 km2) of land.[52][53] Tribal owned lands only cover approximately 1.2 million acres (4,855 km2) of surface land and 40,000 acres (160 km2) of mineral-owned land within the 4 million acres (16,185 km2) reservation area.[53] Founded in 1861, it is located in Carbon, Duchesne, Grand, Uintah, Utah, and Wasatch Counties in Utah.[54] Raising stock and oil and gas leases are important revenue streams for the reservation. The tribe is a member of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes.[10]

Northern Ute Tribe[edit]

The Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation (Northern Ute Tribe) consists of the following groups of people:

Southern Ute Indian Reservation[edit]

The Southern Ute Indian Reservation is located in southwestern Colorado, with its capital at Ignacio. The area around the Southern Ute Indian reservation are the hills of Bayfield and Ignacio, Colorado.

The Southern Ute are the wealthiest of the tribes and claim financial assets approaching $2 billion.[55] Gambling, tourism, oil & gas, and real estate leases, plus various off-reservation financial and business investments, have contributed to their success. The tribe owns the Red Cedar Gathering Company, which owns and operates natural gas pipelines in and near the reservation.[56] The tribe also owns the Red Willow Production Company, which began as a natural gas production company on the reservation. It has expanded to explore for and produce oil and natural gas in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. Red Willow has offices in Ignacio, Colorado and Houston, Texas.[57] The Sky Ute Casino and its associated entertainment and tourist facilities, together with tribally operated Lake Capote, draw tourists. It hosts the Four Corners Motorcycle Rally[58] each year. The Ute operate KSUT,[59] the major public radio station serving southwestern Colorado and the Four Corners.

Southern Ute Tribe[edit]

The Southern Ute Tribes include the Muache, Capote, and the Weeminuche, the latter of which are at Ute Mountain.[6]

Ute Mountain Reservation[edit]

The Ute Mountain Reservation is located near Towaoc, Colorado in the Four Corners region. Twelve ranches are held by tribal land trusts rather than family allotments. The tribe holds fee patent on 40,922.24 acres in Utah and Colorado. The 553,008 acre reservation borders the Mesa Verde National Park, Navajo Reservation, and the Southern Ute Reservation.[60] The Ute Mountain Tribal Park abuts Mesa Verde National Park and includes many Ancestral Puebloan ruins. Their land includes the sacred Ute Mountain.[61] The White Mesa Community of Utah (near Blanding) is part of the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe but is largely autonomous.

The Ute Mountain Utes are descendants of the Weeminuche band,[60] who moved to the western end of the Southern Ute Reservation in 1897. (They were led by Chief Ignacio, for whom the eastern capital is named).

Cultural and lifestyle changes on the reservations[edit]

Prior to living on reservations, Utes shared land with other tribal members according to a traditional societal property system. Instead of recognizing this lifestyle, the U.S. government provided allotments of land, which was larger for families than for single men. They Utes were intended to farm the land, which also was a forced vocational change. Some tribes, like the Uintah and Uncompahgre were given arable land, while others were allocated land that was not suited to farming and they resisted being forced to farm. The White River Utes were the most resentful and protested in Washington, D.C. The Weeminuches successfully implemented a shared property system from their allotted land.[61] Utes were forced to perform manual labor, relinquish their horses, and send their children to American Indian boarding schools.[61] Almost half of the children sent to boarding school in Albuquerque died in the mid-1880s,[10] due to tuberculosis or other diseases.[62]

There was a dramatic reduction in the Ute population, partly attributed to Utes moving off the reservation or resisting being counted.[61] In the early 19th century, there were about 8,000 Utes, and there were only about 1,800 tribe members in 1920.[10] Although there was a significant reduction in the number of Utes after they were relocated to reservations, in the mid-20th century the population began to increase. This is partly because many people have returned to reservations, including those who left to attain college educations and careers.[61] By 1990, there were about 7,800 Utes, with 2,800 living in cities and towns and 5,000 on reservations.[10]

Utes have self-governed since the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Elections are held to select tribal council members.[61] The Northern, Southern, and Ute Mountain Utes received a total of $31 million in a land claims settlement. The Ute Mountain Tribe used their money, including what they earned from mineral leases, to invest in tourist related and other enterprises in the 1950s. In 1954, a group of mixed blood Utes were legally separated from the Northern Utes and called the Affiliated Ute Citizens.[10] Since the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975, the Utes control the police, courts, credit management, and schools.[61]

Modern life[edit]

All Ute reservations are involved in oil and gas leases and are members of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes.[10] The Southern Ute Tribe is financially successful, having a casino for revenue generation. The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe generates revenues through gas and oil, mineral sales, casinos, stock raising, and a pottery industry. The tribes make some money on tourism and timber sales. Artistic endeavors include basketry and beadwork. The annual household income is well below that of their non-native neighbors. Unemployment is high on the reservation, in large part due to discrimination, and half of the tribal members work for the government of the United States or the tribe.[61][10]

The Ute language is still spoken on the reservation. Housing is generally adequate and modern. There are annual performance of the Bear and Sun dances. All tribes have scholarship programs for college educations. Alcoholism is a significant problem at Ute Mountain, affecting nearly 80% of the population. The age expectancy there was 40 years of age as of 2000.[10]

Spirituality and religion[edit]

A Northern Ute dancer performs the Gourd Dance. The Gourd dance originates from the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma.

Utes have believed that all living things possess supernatural power. Shamans, people of both genders, receive power from dreams and some take vision quests.[10] Traditionally, Utes relied on medicine men for their physical and spiritual health, but it has become a dying occupation. Spiritual leaders have emerged that perform ceremonies previously performed by medicine men, like sweat ceremonies, one of the oldest spiritual ceremonies of the Utes, performed in a sweat lodge.[63] The annual fasting and purification ceremony Sun Dance is an important traditional spiritual event, feast, and means of asserting their Native American identity. [63] It is held mid-summer. Each spring the Ute (Northern and Southern) hold their traditional Bear Dance, which was used to strengthen social ties and for courtship. It is one of the oldest Ute ceremonies.[10]

The Native American Church is another source of spiritual life for some Ute, where followers believe that "God reveals Himself in Peyote."[63] The church integrates Native American rituals with Christianity beliefs. One of the followers was Sapiah ("Buckskin Charley"), chief of the Southern Ute Tribe.[63]

Christianity was picked up by some Ute from missionaries of the Presbyterian and Catholic churches.[63] Some Northern Utes accepted Mormonism.[61] It is common for people to see Christianity and Native American spirituality as complimentary beliefs, rather that believing that they have to pick either Christianity or Native American spirituality.[63]

Ceremonial objects[edit]

A Northern Ute Beaded Pipebag. This pipebag— made from brain-tanned mule-deer hide, glass trade beads, and eagle bone—incorporates the sacred symbols of the Ute: the blue fire, the yellow fire, the green of the earth, and the hail of the thunder beings; motifs of the turtle (earth) and moccasin (home), and the symbol of the red fire and the bear, sacred animal of the Ute.

Utes produced beadwork over centuries. They obtained glass beads and other trade items from early trading contact with Europeans and rapidly incorporated their use into their objects.[64]

Uncompahgre Ute Salmon Alabaster Ceremonial Pipe. Ute pipe styles are similar to those of the Plains Indians, with notable differences. Ute pipes are thicker and use shorter pipestems than the Plains style, and more closely resemble the pipe styles of their Northern neighbors, the Shoshone.

Native Americans have been using ceremonial pipes for thousands and years, and the traditional pipes have been used in sacred Ute ceremonies that are conducted by a medicine person or spiritual leader.[65] The pipe symbolizes the Ute's connection to the creator and their existence on Earth. They conduct pipe ceremonies during events were different people come together. For instance, they conducted a pipe ceremony at an Interfaith event in Salt Lake City, Utah.[66]

An Uncompahgre Ute Buffalo rawhide ceremonial rattle filled with quartz crystals. The rattle produces flashes of light (mechanoluminescence) created when quartz crystals are subjected to mechanical stress when the rattle is shaken in darkness.

The Uncompahgre Ute Indians from central Colorado are one of the first documented groups of people in the world known to use the effect of mechanoluminescence. They used quartz crystals to generate light, likely hundreds of years before the modern world recognized the phenomenon. The Ute constructed special ceremonial rattles made from buffalo rawhide, which they filled with clear quartz crystals collected from the mountains of Colorado and Utah. When the rattles were shaken at night during ceremonies, the friction and mechanical stress of the quartz crystals banging together produced flashes of light which partly shone through the translucent buffalo hide. These rattles were believed to call spirits into Ute ceremonies, and were considered extremely powerful religious objects.[67][68][69]

Ethnobotany[edit]

Medicine women used up to 300 plants to treat ailments. Pine pitch or split cactus was used to treat sores or wounds. Sage leaves were used for colds. Sage tea and powdered obsidian for sore eyes. Teas were made from various plants to treat stomachaches. Grass was used to stop bleeding.[70] The Ute use the roots and flowers of Abronia fragrans for stomach and bowel troubles.[71] Cedar and sage were used in purification ceremonies conducted in sweat lodges.[72] Yarrow was also used as a medicine by the Utes.[73] There were many plants found in Provo Canyon that were used by Utes as medicine.[74]

In popular culture[edit]

  • When the Legends Die (1963), a book by Hal Borland, is a story about a Ute boy growing up on a reservation after his parents die, and becoming a rodeo sensation. A film adaptation by the same name was released in 1972.
  • The University of Utah's athletic teams are known as the Utes and have received explicit permission from the Ute tribe to continue using the name.[75]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Pikes Peak Historical Society created an endowment fund in 2001 so that Utes could return to sacred places on Pikes Peak, including the ancient scarred trees that has been using for various ceremonial purposes, prayer, burial, and medicine or healing trees. Some of the "living artifacts" of the Utes are about 800 years old.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Ute-Southern Paiute." Ethnologue. Retrieved 27 Feb 2014.
  2. ^ American Indian, Alaska Native Tables from the Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2004–2005, US Census Bureau, USA.
  3. ^ a b c Givón, Talmy (January 1, 2011). Ute Reference Grammar. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 1–2. ISBN 90-272-0284-2. 
  4. ^ The Masterkey. Southwest Museum. 1985. p. 11. 
  5. ^ Catherine Louise Sweeney Fowler. 1972. "Comparative Numic Ethnobiology". University of Pittsburgh PhD dissertation.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Bakken, Gordon Morris; Kindell, Alexandra (February 24, 2006). "Utes". Encyclopedia of Immigration and Migration in the American West. SAGE. ISBN 978-1-4129-0550-3. 
  7. ^ David Leedom Shaul. 2014. A Prehistory of Western North America, The Impact of Uto-Aztecan Languages. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  8. ^ The Post-Pueblo Period: A.D. 1300 to Late 1700s. Crow Canyon Archaeological Center. 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  9. ^ Indians of Colorado. The William E. Hewitt Institute for History and Social Science Education. University of Northern Colorado. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Pritzker, Barry (2000). "Utes". A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford University Press. pp. 242–246. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Hodge, Frederick Webb (1912). Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico: N-Z. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 874–875. 
  12. ^ a b c "Ute Indians of Colorado". Colorado Springs Pioneers Museum. Retrieved May 24, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "Ute Indians". Pikes Peak Historical Society. Retrieved June 14, 2018. 
  14. ^ Manitou Springs Historic District Nomination Form. History Colorado. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
  15. ^ Historic Manitou Springs, Colorado - 2013 Visitors Guide. The Manitou Springs Chamber of Commerce, Visitors Bureau & Office of Economic Development. 2013. p. 6. 
  16. ^ Best of Colorado. Big Earth Publishing. 1 September 2002. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-56579-429-0. Retrieved May 4, 2013. 
  17. ^ About. Manitou Springs. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
  18. ^ a b "The First People of the Cañon and the Pikes Peak Region". City of Colorado Springs. Archived from the original on July 3, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2013. 
  19. ^ Howbert, Irving (1970) [1925/1914]. Memories of a Lifetime in the Pike's Peak Region (PDF). The Rio Grande Press. ISBN 0-87380-044-3. LCCN 73115107. Retrieved June 17, 2018 – via DaveHughesLegacy.net. 
  20. ^ William B. Butler (2012). The Fur Trade in Colorado. Western Reflections Publishing Company. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-937851-02-6. 
  21. ^ "Canyon Pintado's Rock Art". Colorado Life Magazine. July–August 2014. Retrieved June 21, 2018. 
  22. ^ Davenport, Coral (December 28, 2016). "Obama Designates Two New National Monuments, Protecting 1.65 Million Acres". The New York Times. New York City: The New York Times Company. Retrieved June 17, 2018. 
  23. ^ "Bears Ears national Monument: Questions & Answers" (PDF). United States Forest Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 1, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2016. 
  24. ^ Sullivan, Gordon (2005). Roadside Guide to Indian Ruins & Rock Art of the Southwest. Westcliffe Publishers. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-1-56579-481-8. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Lewis, David Rich. "Ute Indians". Utah State Historical Society. Retrieved June 17, 2018. 
  26. ^ Nelson, Sarah M.; Carillo, Richard F.; Clark, Bonnie J.; Rhodes, Lori E.; Saitta, Dean (January 2, 2009). Denver: An Archaeological History. University Press of Colorado. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-87081-984-1. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h "History of the Southern Ute". Southern Ute Indian Tribe. Retrieved June 18, 2018. 
  28. ^ a b "Chapter Five - The Northern Utes of Utah". utah.gov. 
  29. ^ "Ute Memories". utefans.net. 
  30. ^ a b D'Azevedo, Warren L., Volume Editor. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 11: Great Basin. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3.
  31. ^ Simmons, Virginia McConnell (September 15, 2001). The Ute Indians of Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. University Press of Colorado. p. PT33. ISBN 978-1-60732-116-3. 
  32. ^ "The Timpanogos Nation: Uinta Valley Reservation". www.timpanogostribe.com. Retrieved June 18, 2018. 
  33. ^ Bakken, Gordon Morris; Kindell, Alexandra (February 24, 2006). Encyclopedia of Immigration and Migration in the American West. SAGE. p. PT740. ISBN 978-1-4129-0550-3. 
  34. ^ Bradford, David; Reed, Floyd; LeValley, Robbie Baird (2004). When the grass stood stirrup-high: facts, photographs and myths of West-Central Colorado. Colorado State University. p. 4. 
  35. ^ Carson, Phil (1998). Across the Northern Frontier: Spanish Explorations in Colorado. Big Earth Publishing. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-55566-216-5. 
  36. ^ "Frontier in Transition: A History of Southwestern Colorado (Chapter 5)". National Park Service. Retrieved June 18, 2018. 
  37. ^ Oil and Gas Development on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation: Environmental Impact Statement. 2002. p. 43. 
  38. ^ a b William B. Butler (2012). The Fur Trade in Colorado. Western Reflections Publishing Company. pp. 27, 40–41, 45, 65, 67, 70–71. ISBN 978-1-937851-02-6. 
  39. ^ William B. Butler (2012). The Fur Trade in Colorado. Western Reflections Publishing Company. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-937851-02-6. 
  40. ^ Bright, William, ed. (2004). Native American Placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press. 
  41. ^ Jordan, Julia A. (October 22, 2014). Plains Apache Ethnobotany. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-8061-8581-1. 
  42. ^ Simmons, Virginia McConnell. Ute Indians of Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
  43. ^ a b William B. Butler (2012). The Fur Trade in Colorado. Western Reflections Publishing Company. pp. 40–41, 46. ISBN 978-1-937851-02-6. 
  44. ^ a b c "Chipeta" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  45. ^ Kathryn R. Burke. "Chief Ouray". San Juan Silver Stage. Archived from the original on March 5, 2015. 
  46. ^ Greif, Nancy S.; Johnson, Erin J. (2000). The Good Neighbor Guidebook for Colorado: Necessary Information and Good Advice for Living in and Enjoying Today's Colorado. Big Earth Publishing. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-55566-262-2. 
  47. ^ a b Celinda Reynolds Kaelin (1999). Pikes Peak Backcountry: The Historic Saga of the Peak's West Slope. Caxton Press. pp. 41, 43–44. ISBN 978-0-87004-391-8. 
  48. ^ Bruce E. Johansen; Barry M. Pritzker (23 July 2007). Encyclopedia of American Indian History [4 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 811. ISBN 978-1-85109-818-7. 
  49. ^ a b Phyllis J. Perry (16 November 2015). "Chief Ouray and Chipeta". Colorado Vanguards: Historic Trailblazers and Their Local Legacies. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-62585-693-7. 
  50. ^ "Treaty with The Ute March 2, 1868". Washington, D.C. March 2, 1868. Retrieved July 4, 2011. 
  51. ^ "Agreement with the Capote, Muache, and Weeminuche Utes" (PDF). Pagosa Springs, Colorado. November 8, 1878. Retrieved July 4, 2011. 
  52. ^ "Home". www.utetribe.com. Retrieved 2018-04-16. 
  53. ^ a b UINTAH AND OURAY RESERVATION (PDF) (PDF), Bureau of Indian Affairs, n.d. 
  54. ^ Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.
  55. ^ GF Private Equity Group, LLC, Southern Ute Indian Tribe, USA.
  56. ^ Red Cedar Gathering Company website, accessed 12 April 2009.
  57. ^ Red Willow Production Company website, accessed 12 April 2009,
  58. ^ "Four Corners Motorcycle Rally – Labor Day Weekend – Ignacio Colorado". fourcornersmotorcyclerally.com. 
  59. ^ KSUT.
  60. ^ a b Greif, Nancy S.; Johnson, Erin J. (2000). The Good Neighbor Guidebook for Colorado: Necessary Information and Good Advice for Living in and Enjoying Today's Colorado. Big Earth Publishing. pp. 185–. ISBN 978-1-55566-262-2. 
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bakken, Gordon Morris; Kindell, Alexandra (February 24, 2006). "Utes". Encyclopedia of Immigration and Migration in the American West. SAGE. p. 648. ISBN 978-1-4129-0550-3. 
  62. ^ "Albuquerque Indian School". Historic Albuerquerque. Retrieved June 20, 2018. 
  63. ^ a b c d e f Young, Richard Keith (1997). The Ute Indians of Colorado in the Twentieth Century. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 40, 69, 272–278. ISBN 978-0-8061-2968-6. 
  64. ^ Nelson, Sarah M.; Carillo, Richard F.; Clark, Bonnie J.; Rhodes, Lori E.; Saitta, Dean (January 2, 2009). Denver: An Archaeological History. University Press of Colorado. pp. 16–18. ISBN 978-0-87081-984-1. 
  65. ^ "Panel Quashes Debate on Ceremonial Pipes". Deseret News. February 1, 1995. Retrieved June 21, 2018. 
  66. ^ Clark, Cody (February 2, 2013). "Salt Lake group launches annual Interfaith Month". Daily Herald. Retrieved June 21, 2018. 
  67. ^ BBC Big Bang on triboluminescence
  68. ^ Timothy Dawson Changing colors: now you see them, now you don't Coloration Technology 2010 doi:10.1111/j.1478-4408.2010.00247.x
  69. ^ Wilk, Stephen R. (October 7, 2013). How the Ray Gun Got Its Zap: Odd Excursions into Optics. Oxford University Press. pp. 230–231. ISBN 978-0-19-937131-0. 
  70. ^ Beaton, Gail M. (November 15, 2012). Colorado Women: A History. University Press of Colorado. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-4571-7382-0. 
  71. ^ Chamberlin, Ralph V. 1909 Some Plant Names of the Ute Indians. American Anthropologist 11:27-40 (p. 32)
  72. ^ Young, Richard Keith (1997). The Ute Indians of Colorado in the Twentieth Century. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-8061-2968-6. 
  73. ^ Yaniv, Zohara; Bachrach, Uriel (July 25, 2005). Handbook of Medicinal Plants. CRC Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-56022-995-7. 
  74. ^ Simmons, Virginia McConnell (May 18, 2011). Ute Indians of Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. University Press of Colorado. p. PT19. ISBN 978-1-4571-0989-8. 
  75. ^ Stephen Speckman. "U. Officially Files Appeal on Utes Nickname". Deseret News. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 

Further reading[edit]

  • McPherson, Robert S. (2011) As If the Land Owned Us: An Ethnohistory of the White Mesa Utes. ISBN 978-1-60781-145-9.
  • Silbernagel, Robert. (2011) Troubled Trails: The Meeker Affair and the Expulsion of Utes from Colorado. ISBN 978-1-60781-129-9.

External links[edit]