Etymology and origins
The modern chair-like pose is said to originate with Krishnamacharya. An older version of the pose, with the yogin squatting lower down on to the heels, is shown in the 19th century Sritattvanidhi.
In Utkatasana, the knees are hips-width apart, the knees are bent, the hips are back, the chest is forward, and the arms are above the head, in line with the ears.
Ardha Utkatasana has the knees bent closer to a right angle so the thighs are more nearly parallel to the floor, and the body is inclined forwards closer to the thighs.
Parivritta Utkatasana is the rotated variant; the hands are pressed together in front of the chest in Anjali Mudra, the lower elbow is pressed against the outside of the opposite knee, and the gaze is directed upwards.
Utkata Konasana, Goddess Pose, has the legs wide apart, the feet turned outwards in line with the thighs, and the knees bent. The arms are usually raised with the elbows bent; variants have the arms straight up, or the hands may be held in Añjali Mudrā, prayer position in front of the chest.
Parivritta Utkatasana with the hands in Anjali Mudra
- Pashasana, another squatting pose
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