A utopia (// yoo-TOH-pee-ə) is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens. The opposite of a utopia is a dystopia. One could also say that utopia is a perfect "place" that has been designed so there are no problems.
Utopian ideals often place emphasis on egalitarian principles of equality in economics, government and justice, though by no means exclusively, with the method and structure of proposed implementation varying based on ideology. According to Lyman Tower Sargent "there are socialist, capitalist, monarchical, democratic, anarchist, ecological, feminist, patriarchal, egalitarian, hierarchical, racist, left-wing, right-wing, reformist, Naturists/Nude Christians, free love, nuclear family, extended family, gay, lesbian, and many more utopias [...] Utopianism, many argue, is essential for the improvement of the human condition. But if used wrongly, it becomes dangerous. Utopia has an inherent contradictory nature here." Sargent argues that utopia's nature is inherently contradictory, because societies are not homogenous, and have desires which conflict and therefore cannot simultaneously be satisfied. If any two desires cannot be simultaneously satisfied, true utopia cannot be attained because in utopia all desires are satisfied.
The word comes from Greek: οὐ ("not") and τόπος ("place") and means "no-place", and strictly describes any non-existent society 'described in considerable detail'. However, in standard usage, the word's meaning has narrowed and now usually describes a non-existent society that is intended to be viewed as considerably better than contemporary society. Eutopia, derived from Greek εὖ ("good" or "well") and τόπος ("place"), means "good place", and is strictly speaking the correct term to describe a positive utopia. In English, eutopia and utopia are homophonous, which may have given rise to the change in meaning.
- 1 Varieties
- 1.1 Ecological
- 1.2 Economics
- 1.3 Religious utopias
- 1.4 Science and technology
- 1.5 Feminism
- 1.6 Utopianism
- 2 Utopia in art
- 3 Notes
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Chronologically, the first recorded Utopian proposal is Plato's Republic. Part conversation, part fictional depiction, and part policy proposal, Republic would categorize citizens into a rigid class structure of "golden," "silver," "bronze" and "iron" socioeconomic classes. The golden citizens are trained in a rigorous 50-year-long educational program to be benign oligarchs, the "philosopher-kings." Plato stressed this structure many times in statements, and in his published works, such as the Republic. The wisdom of these rulers will supposedly eliminate poverty and deprivation through fairly distributed resources, though the details on how to do this are unclear. The educational program for the rulers is the central notion of the proposal. It has few laws, no lawyers and rarely sends its citizens to war, but hires mercenaries from among its war-prone neighbors. These mercenaries were deliberately sent into dangerous situations in the hope that the more warlike populations of all surrounding countries will be weeded out, leaving peaceful peoples.
During the 16th century, Thomas More's book Utopia proposed an ideal society of the same name. Readers, including Utopian socialists, have chosen to accept this imaginary society as the realistic blueprint for a working nation, while others have postulated that Thomas More intended nothing of the sort. It is believed that More's Utopia functions only on the level of a satire, a work intended to reveal more about the England of his time than about an idealistic society. This interpretation is bolstered by the title of the book and nation, and its apparent confusion between the Greek for "no place" and "good place": "utopia" is a compound of the syllable ou-, meaning "no", and topos, meaning place. But the homophonic prefix eu-, meaning "good," also resonates in the word, with the implication that the perfectly "good place" is really "no place."
Ecological utopian society describes new ways in which society should relate to nature. These works perceive a widening gap between the modern Western way of living that destroys nature and a more traditional way of living before industrialization. Ecological utopias may advocate a society that is more sustainable. According to the Dutch philosopher Marius de Geus, ecological utopias could be inspirational sources for movements involving green politics.
Particularly in the early 19th century, several utopian ideas arose, often in response to the belief that social disruption was created and caused by the development of commercialism and capitalism. These ideas are often grouped in a greater "utopian socialist" movement, due to their shared characteristics. A once common characteristic is an egalitarian distribution of goods, frequently with the total abolition of money. Citizens only do work which they enjoy and which is for the common good, leaving them with ample time for the cultivation of the arts and sciences. One classic example of such a utopia was Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward. Another socialist utopia is William Morris's News from Nowhere, written partially in response to the top-down (bureaucratic) nature of Bellamy's utopia, which Morris criticized. However, as the socialist movement developed, it moved away from utopianism; Marx in particular became a harsh critic of earlier socialism he described as utopian. (For more information, see the History of Socialism article.) In a materialist utopian society, the economy is perfect; there is no inflation, and only perfect social and financial equality exists.
In 1905, H.G. Wells published A Modern Utopia, which was widely read and admired and provoked much discussion. Also consider Eric Frank Russell's book The Great Explosion (1963) whose last section details an economic and social utopia. This forms the first mention of the idea of Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS).
During the "Khrushchev Thaw" period, the Soviet writer Ivan Efremov produced the science-fiction utopia Andromeda (1957) in which a major cultural thaw took place: humanity communicates with a galaxy-wide Great Circle and develops its technology and culture within a social framework characterized by vigorous competition between alternative philosophies.
The English political philosopher James Harrington, author of the utopian work The Commonwealth of Oceana, published in 1656, inspired English country party republicanism and was influential in the design of three American colonies. His theories ultimately contributed to the idealistic principles of the American Founders. The colonies of Carolina (founded in 1670), Pennsylvania (founded in 1681), and Georgia (founded in 1733) were the only three English colonies in America that were planned as utopian societies with an integrated physical, economic, and social design. At the heart of the plan for Georgia was a concept of “agrarian equality” in which land was allocated equally and additional land acquisition through purchase or inheritance was prohibited; the plan was an early step toward the yeoman republic later envisioned by Thomas Jefferson.
The communes of the 1960s in the United States were often an attempt to greatly improve the way humans live together in communities. The back-to-the-land movements and hippies inspired many to try to live in peace and harmony on farms, remote areas, and to set up new types of governance. Communes like Kaliflower, which existed between 1967 and 1973, attempted to live outside of society's norms and create their own ideal communist based society.
Intentional communities were organized and built all over the world with the hope of making a more perfect way of living together. While many of these new small communities failed, some are growing, such as the Twelve Tribes Communities that started in the United States. Since its start, it has now grown into many groups around the world.
The inter-religious utopia is similar to multiculturalism where real world cultures have successfully worked together to create a wider society based on shared values. A transparent ideology of God and religion used in inter-religious utopias is commonly stated by many people as their view of God manifesting within a community. In more extended theories, the formula goes up to the next level with different religious leaders setting aside their differences and accepting harmony, peace and understanding to unite all religions within one another. Other inter-religious utopias may go even further and describe a religion where humans become God or merge with a primal force that reigned before the birth of the universe. Religion and God could be used as a self-motivating factor for people to believe in and to raise themselves out of difficult situations.
In the United States and Europe, during the Second Great Awakening (ca. 1790–1840) and thereafter, many radical religious groups formed utopian societies in which faith could govern all aspects of members' lives. These utopian societies included the Shakers, who originated in England in the 18th century and arrived in America in 1774. A number of religious utopian societies from Europe came to the United States from the 18th century throughout the 19th century, including the Society of the Woman in the Wilderness (led by Johannes Kelpius (1667–1708)), the Ephrata Cloister (established in 1732), and the Harmony Society, among others. The Harmony Society was a Christian theosophy and pietist group founded in Iptingen, Germany, in 1785. Due to religious persecution by the Lutheran Church and the government in Württemberg, the society moved to the United States on October 7, 1803, settled in Pennsylvania. On February 15, 1805, about 400 followers formally organized the Harmony Society, placing all their goods in common. The group lasted until 1905, making it one of the longest-running financially successful communes in American history. The Oneida Community, founded by John Humphrey Noyes in Oneida, New York, was a utopian religious commune that lasted from 1848 to 1881. Although this utopian experiment has become better known today for its manufacture of Oneida silverware, it was one of the longest-running communes in American history. The Amana Colonies were communal settlements in Iowa, started by radical German pietists, which lasted from 1855 to 1932. The Amana Corporation, manufacturer of refrigerators and household appliances, was originally started by the group. Other examples are Fountain Grove (founded in 1875), Riker's Holy City and other Californian utopian colonies between 1855 and 1955 (Hine), as well as Sointula in British Columbia, Canada. The Amish and Hutterites can also be considered an attempt towards religious utopia. A wide variety of intentional communities with some type of faith-based ideas have also started across the world.
The Book of Revelation in the Christian Bible depicts an eschatological time with the defeat of Satan and of evil. The main difference compared to the Old Testament promises is that such a defeat also has an ontological value (Rev 21:1;4: "Then I saw 'a new heaven and a new earth,' for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea...'He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death' or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away") and no longer just gnosiological (Isaiah 65:17: "See, I will create/new heavens and a new earth./The former things will not be remembered,/nor will they come to mind"). Narrow interpretation of the text depicts Heaven on Earth, or a Heaven brought to Earth without sin. Daily and mundane details of this new Earth, where God and Jesus rule, remain unclear, although it is implied to be similar to the biblical Garden of Eden. Some theological philosophers believe that heaven will not be a physical realm, but instead an incorporeal place for souls.
Science and technology
Though Francis Bacon's New Atlantis is imbued with a scientific spirit, scientific and technological utopias tend to be based in the future, when it is believed that advanced science and technology will allow utopian living standards; for example, the absence of death and suffering; changes in human nature and the human condition. Technology has affected the way humans have lived to such an extent that normal functions, like sleep, eating or even reproduction, have been replaced by artificial means. Other examples include a society where humans have struck a balance with technology and it is merely used to enhance the human living condition (e.g. Star Trek). In place of the static perfection of a utopia, libertarian transhumanists envision an "extropia", an open, evolving society allowing individuals and voluntary groupings to form the institutions and social forms they prefer.
Mariah Utsawa presented a theoretical basis for technological utopianism and set out to develop a variety of technologies ranging from maps to designs for cars and houses which might lead to the development of such a utopia.
Opposing this optimism is the prediction that advanced science and technology will, through deliberate misuse or accident, cause environmental damage or even humanity's extinction. Critics, such as Jacques Ellul and Timothy Mitchell advocate precautions against the premature embrace of new technologies. Both raise questions about changing responsibility and freedom brought by division of labour. Authors such as John Zerzan and Derrick Jensen consider that modern technology is progressively depriving humans of their autonomy, and advocate the collapse of the industrial civilization, in favor of small-scale organization, as a necessary path to avoid the threat of technology on human freedom and sustainability.
There are many examples of techno-dystopias portrayed in mainstream culture, such as the classics Brave New World and Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as "1984", which have explored some of these topics.
Utopias have been used to explore the ramifications of genders being either a societal construct, or a biologically "hard-wired" imperative, or some mix of the two. Socialist and economic utopias have tended to take the "woman question" seriously, and often to offer some form of equality between the sexes as part and parcel of their vision, whether this be by addressing misogyny, reorganizing society along separatist lines, creating a certain kind of androgynous equality that ignores gender, or in some other manner. For example, Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (1887) responded, progressively for his day, to the contemporary women's suffrage and women's rights movements. Bellamy supported these movements by incorporating the equality of women and men into his utopian world's structure, albeit by consigning women to a separate sphere of light industrial activity (due to women's lesser physical strength), and making various exceptions for them in order to make room for (and to praise) motherhood. One of the earlier feminist utopias that imagines complete separatism is Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland (1915).
In science fiction and technological speculation, gender can be challenged on the biological as well as the social level. Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time portrays equality between the genders and complete equality in sexuality (regardless of the gender of the lovers). Birth-giving, often felt as the divider that cannot be avoided in discussions of women's rights and roles, has been shifted onto elaborate biological machinery that functions to offer an enriched embryonic experience, When a child is born, it spends most of its time in the children's ward with peers. Three "mothers" per child are the norm, and they are chosen in a gender neutral way (men as well as women may become "mothers") on the basis of their experience and ability. Technological advances also make possible the freeing of women from childbearing in Shulamith Firestone's The Dialectic of Sex. The fictional aliens in Mary Gentle's Golden Witchbreed start out as gender-neutral children and do not develop into men and women until puberty, and gender has no bearing on social roles. In contrast, Doris Lessing's The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four and Five (1980) suggests that men's and women's values are inherent to the sexes and cannot be changed, making a compromise between them essential. In My Own Utopia (1961) by Elizabeth Mann Borghese, gender exists but is dependent upon age rather than sex — genderless children mature into women, some of whom eventually become men. "William Marston's Wonder Woman comics of the 1940s featured Paradise Island, also known as Themyscira, a matriarchal all-female community of peace, loving submission, bondage, and giant space kangaroos."
Utopian single-gender worlds or single-sex societies have long been one of the primary ways to explore implications of gender and gender-differences. In speculative fiction, female-only worlds have been imagined to come about by the action of disease that wipes out men, along with the development of technological or mystical method that allow female parthenogenic reproduction. Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1915 novel approaches this type of separate society. Many feminist utopias pondering separatism were written in the 1970s, as a response to the Lesbian separatist movement; examples include Joanna Russ's The Female Man and Suzy McKee Charnas's Walk to the End of the World and Motherlines. Utopias imagined by male authors have often included equality between sexes, rather than separation, although as noted Bellamy's strategy includes a certain amount of "separate but equal". The use of female-only worlds allows the exploration of female independence and freedom from patriarchy. The societies may be lesbian, such as Daughters of a Coral Dawn by Katherine V. Forrest, or not, and may not be sexual at all — a famous early sexless example being Herland (1915) by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Charlene Ball writes in Women's Studies Encyclopedia that use of speculative fiction to explore gender roles in future societies has been more common in the United States compared to Europe and elsewhere, although such efforts as Gerd Brantenberg's Egalia's Daughters and Christa Wolf's portrayal of the land of Colchis in her Medea: Voices are certainly as influential and famous as any of the American feminist utopias.
In many cultures, societies, and religions, there is some myth or memory of a distant past when humankind lived in a primitive and simple state, but at the same time one of perfect happiness and fulfillment. In those days, the various myths tell us, there was an instinctive harmony between humanity and nature. People's needs were few and their desires limited. Both were easily satisfied by the abundance provided by nature. Accordingly, there were no motives whatsoever for war or oppression. Nor was there any need for hard and painful work. Humans were simple and pious, and felt themselves close to their God or gods. According to one anthropological theory, hunter-gatherers were the original affluent society.
These mythical or religious archetypes are inscribed in many cultures, and resurge with special vitality when people are in difficult and critical times. However, in utopias, the projection of the myth does not take place towards the remote past, but either towards the future or towards distant and fictional places, imagining that at some time in the future, at some point in space, or beyond death, there must exist the possibility of living happily.
These myths of the earliest stage of humankind have been referred to by various cultures, societies, and religions:
The Greek poet Hesiod, around the 8th century BC, in his compilation of the mythological tradition (the poem Works and Days), explained that, prior to the present era, there were four other progressively more perfect ones, the oldest of which was the Golden Age.
Plutarch, the Greek historian and biographer of the 1st century, dealt with the blissful and mythic past of the humanity.
From Sir Philip Sidney's prose romance The Old Arcadia (1580), originally a region in the Peloponnesus, Arcadia became a synonym for any rural area that serves as a pastoral setting, a locus amoenus ("delightful place").
The Biblical Garden of Eden
"And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. [...]
And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. [...]
And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; [...] And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; and the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man."
According to the exegesis that the biblical theologian Herbert Haag proposes in the book Is original sin in Scripture?, published soon after the Second Vatican Council, Genesis 2:25 would indicate that Adam and Eve were created from the beginning naked of the divine grace, an originary grace that, then, they would never have had and even less would have lost due to the subsequent events narrated. On the other hand, while supporting a continuity in the Bible about the absence of preternatural gifts (Latin: dona praeternaturalia) with regard to the ophitic event, Haag never makes any reference to the discontinuity of the loss of access to the tree of life.
The Land of Cockaigne
The Land of Cockaigne (also Cockaygne, Cokaygne), was an imaginary land of idleness and luxury, famous in medieval stories, and the subject of several poems, one of which, an early translation of a 13th-century French work, is given in George Ellis' Specimens of Early English Poets. In this, "the houses were made of barley sugar and cakes, the streets were paved with pastry, and the shops supplied goods for nothing." London has been so called (see Cockney), but Boileau applies the same to Paris.
The Peach Blossom Spring
The Peach Blossom Spring, a prose written by the Chinese writer Tao Yuanming (c. 220 - 589 CE), describes a utopian place. The narrative goes that a fisherman from Wuling sailed upstream a river and came across a beautiful blossoming peach grove and lush green fields covered with blossom petals. Entranced by the beauty, he continued upstream. When he reached the end of the river, he stumbled onto a small grotto. Though narrow at first, he was able to squeeze through the passage and discovered an ethereal utopia, where the people led an ideal existence in harmony with nature. He saw a vast expanse of fertile lands, clear ponds, mulberry trees, bamboo groves, and the like with a community of people of all ages and houses in neat rows. The people explained that their ancestors escaped to this place during the civil unrest of the Qin dynasty and they themselves had not left since or had contact with anyone from the outside. They had not even heard of the later dynasties of bygone times or the then-current Jin dynasty. In the story, the community was secluded and unaffected by the troubles of the outside world. The sense of timelessness was also predominant in the story as a perfect utopian community remains unchanged, that is, it had no decline nor the need to improve. Eventually, the Chinese term Peach Blossom Spring (桃花源) came to be synonymous for the concept of utopia.
Datong is a traditional Chinese Utopia. The main description of it is found in the Chinese Classic of Rites, in the chapter called "Li Yun" (禮運). Later, Datong and its ideal of 'The World Belongs to Everyone/The World is Held in Common' 'Tianxia weigong/天下为公' 'influenced modern Chinese reformers and revolutionaries, such as Kang Youwei.
Schlaraffenland is an analogous German tradition.
All these myths also express some hope that the idyllic state of affairs they describe is not irretrievably and irrevocably lost to mankind, that it can be regained in some way or other.
One way might be a quest for an "earthly paradise"—a place like Shangri-La, hidden in the Tibetan mountains and described by James Hilton in his utopian novel Lost Horizon (1933). Christopher Columbus followed directly in this tradition in his belief that he had found the Garden of Eden when, towards the end of the 15th century, he first encountered the New World and its indigenous inhabitants.
Utopia in art
- Giroux, Henry A. (2003). "Utopian thinking under the sign of neoliberalism: Towards a critical pedagogy of educated hope" (PDF). Democracy & Nature. Routledge. 9 (1): 91–105. doi:10.1080/1085566032000074968.
- Simandan, D., 2011. Kinds of environments—a framework for reflecting on the possible contours of a better world. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien, 55(3), pp.383-386. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-0064.2010.00334.x/full
- Giroux, H., 2003. Utopian thinking under the sign of neoliberalism: Towards a critical pedagogy of educated hope. Democracy & Nature, 9(1), pp.91-105.
- Lyman Tower Sargent (23 September 2010). Utopianism: A Very Short Introduction. OUP Oxford. p. 21. doi:10.1093/actrade/9780199573400.003.0002. ISBN 978-0-19-957340-0.
- Lyman Tower, Sargent (2005). Rüsen, Jörn; Fehr, Michael; Reiger, Thomas W., eds. The Necessity of Utopian Thinking: A Cross-National Perspective. Thinking Utopia: Steps Into Other Worlds (Report). New York, USA: Berghahn Books. p. 11. ISBN 9781571814401.
- Lodder, C.; Kokkori, M; Mileeva, M (2013). Utopian Reality: Reconstructing Culture in Revolutionary Russia and Beyond. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. pp. 1–9. ISBN 9789004263208.
- More, Travis; Rohith Vinod (1989)
- "Thomas More's Utopia". www.bl.uk. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Utopian Socialism - The Utopian Socialism Movement". www.utopiaanddystopia.com. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Dalley, Jan (30 December 2015). "Openings: Going back to Utopia". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Kirk, Andrew G. (2007). Counterculture green: the Whole earth catalog and American environmentalism. University Press of Kansas. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-7006-1545-2.
- For example, see: Marshall, Alan (2016). Ecotopia 2121: A Vision of our Future Green Utopia. New York, N.Y.: Arcade Publishers. ISBN 9781628726145.
- Geus, Marius de (1996). Ecologische utopieën- Ecotopia's en het milieudebat. Uitgeverij Jan van Arkel.
- "the Thaw - Soviet cultural history". Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Fries, Sylvia, The Urban Idea in Colonial America, Chapters 3 and 5
- Home, Robert, Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities, 9
- Wilson, Thomas, The Oglethorpe Plan, Chapters 1 and 2
- "America and the Utopian Dream - Utopian Communities". brbl-archive.library.yale.edu. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "For All the People: Uncovering the Hidden History of Cooperation, Cooperative Movements, and Communalism in America, 2nd Edition". secure.pmpress.org. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
- Robert Paul Sutton, Communal Utopias and the American Experience: Religious Communities (2003) p. 38
- Teuvo Peltoniemi (1984). "Finnish Utopian Settlements in North America" (PDF). sosiomedia.fi. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
- Joel B. Green, Jacqueline Lapsley, Rebekah Miles, Allen Verhey, eds. (2011). Dictionary of Scripture and Ethics. Ada Township, Michigan: Baker Books. p. 190. ISBN 1-44123998-7. ISBN 978-1-441-23998-3.
This goodness theme is advanced most definitively through the promise of a renewal of all creation, a hope present in OT prophetic literature (Isa. 65:17–25) but portrayed most strikingly through Revelation's vision of a “new heaven and a new earth” (Rev. 21:1). There the divine king of creation promises to renew all of reality: “See, I am making all things new” (Rev. 21:5).
- Steve Moyise, Maarten J.J. Menken, eds. (2005). Isaiah in the New Testament. The New Testament and the Scriptures of Israel. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 201. ISBN 0-56761166-3. ISBN 978-0-567-61166-6.
By alluding to the new Creation prophecy of Isaiah John emphasizes the qualitatively new state of affairs that will exist at God's new creative act. In addition to the passing of the former heaven and earth, John also asserts that the sea was no more in 21:1c.
- Inc., Internet Innovations,. "The Book of the Secrets of Enoch, Chapters 1-68". reluctant-messenger.com. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Tierney, Helen (1999). Women's Studies Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1442. ISBN 978-0-313-31073-7.
- Noah Berlatsky, "Imagine There's No Gender: The Long History of Feminist Utopian Literature," The Atlantic, April 15, 2013. https://www.theatlantic.com/sexes/archive/2013/04/imagine-theres-no-gender-the-long-history-of-feminist-utopian-literature/274993/
- Attebery, p. 13.
- Gaétan Brulotte & John Phillips,Encyclopedia of Erotic Literature, "Science Fiction and Fantasy", CRC Press, 2006, p. 1189, ISBN 1-57958-441-1
- Martha A. Bartter, The Utopian Fantastic, "Momutes", Robin Anne Reid, p.101 ISBN 0-313-31635-X
- Martha A. Bartter, The Utopian Fantastic, "Momutes", Robin Anne Reid, p. 102 ISBN
- Haag, Herbert (1969). Is original sin in Scripture?. New York: Sheed and Ward. German or. ed.: 1966.
- (in German) Haag, Herbert (1966). pp. 9, 49ff.
- Cobham Brewer E. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Odhams, London, 1932
- Tian, Xiaofei (2010). "From the Eastern Jin through the Early Tang (317–649)". The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-521-85558-7.
- Berkowitz, Alan J. (2000). Patterns of Disengagement: the Practice and Portrayal of Reclusion in Early Medieval China. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-8047-3603-9.
- Longxi, Zhang (2005). Allegoresis: Reading Canonical Literature East and West. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-8014-4369-5.
- Longxi, Zhang (2005). Allegoresis: Reading Canonical Literature East and West. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 182–183. ISBN 978-0-8014-4369-5.
- Longxi, Zhang (2005). Allegoresis: Reading Canonical Literature East and West. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-8014-4369-5.
- Gu, Ming Dong (2006). Chinese Theories of Fiction: A Non-Western Narrative System. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7914-6815-9.
- Two Kinds of Utopia, (1912) by Vladimir Lenin. www
.marxists .org /archive /lenin /works /1912 /oct /00 .htm
- Development of Socialism from Utopia to Science (1870?) by Friedrich Engels.
- Ideology and Utopia: an Introduction to the Sociology of Knowledge (1936), by Karl Mannheim, translated by Louis Wirth and Edward Shils. New York, Harcourt, Brace. See original, Ideologie Und Utopie, Bonn: Cohen.
- Utopian Thought in the Western World (1979), by Frank E. Manuel & Fritzie Manuel. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-674-93185-8
- California's Utopian Colonies (1983), by Robert V. Hine. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04885-7
- The Principle of Hope (1986), by Ernst Bloch. See original, 1937–41, Das Prinzip Hoffnung
- Demand the Impossible: Science Fiction and the Utopian Imagination (1986) by Tom Moylan. London: Methuen, 1986.
- Utopia and Anti-utopia in Modern Times (1987), by Krishnan Kumar. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16714-5
- The Concept of Utopia (1990), by Ruth Levitas. London: Allan.
- Utopianism (1991), by Krishnan Kumar. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-15361-5
- The Utopia Reader (1999), edited by Gregory Claeys and Lyman Tower Sargent. New York: New York University Press.
- Spirit of Utopia (2000), by Ernst Bloch. See original, Geist Der Utopie, 1923.
- El País de Karu o de los tiempos en que todo se reemplazaba por otra cosa (2001), by Daniel Cerqueiro. Buenos Aires: Ed. Peq. Ven. ISBN 987-9239-12-1
- Archaeologies of the Future: The Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions (2005) by Fredric Jameson. London: Verso.
- Utopianism: A Very Short Introduction (2010), by Lyman Tower Sargent. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Defined by a Hollow: Essays on Utopia, Science Fiction and Political Epistemology (2010) by Darko Suvin. Frankfurt am Main, Oxford and Bern: Peter Lang.
- Existential Utopia: New Perspectives on Utopian Thought (2011), edited by Patricia Vieira and Michael Marder. London & New York: Continuum. ISBN 1-4411-6921-0
- "Galt's Gulch: Ayn Rand's Utopian Delusion" (2012), by Alan Clardy. Utopian Studies 23, 238-262. ISSN 1045-991X
- Utopia as a World Model: The Boundaries and Borderlands of a Literary Phenomenon (2016), by Maxim Shadurski. Siedlce: IKR[i]BL. (ISBN 978-83-64884-57-3).
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- Utopia - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001
- Intentional Communities Directory
- History of 15 Finnish utopian settlements in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia and Europe.
- Towards Another Utopia of The City Institute of Urban Design, Bremen, Germany
- Ecotopia 2121: A Vision of Our Future Green Utopia--in 100 Cities.
- Utopias - a learning resource from the British Library
- Utopia of the GOOD An essay on Utopias and their nature.
- Review of Ehud Ben ZVI, Ed. (2006). Utopia and Dystopia in Prophetic Literature. Helsinki: The Finnish Exegetical Society. A collection of articles on the issue of utopia and dystopia.
- The story of Utopias Mumford, Lewis
-  North America
-  Europe
- Utopian Studies academic journal
- Matthew Pethers. "Utopia". Words of the World. Brady Haran (University of Nottingham).