Utraquism (from the Latin sub utraque specie, meaning "in both kinds") was the principal dogma, and one of the four articles, of the Calixtines or Hussites, who maintained that both the bread and the wine should be administered to the people during the Eucharist. Though centrally debated during the Reformation era, it is today the routine Roman Catholic sacramental practice.
Utraquism was a Christian dogma first proposed by Jacob of Mies, professor of philosophy at the University of Prague, in 1414. It maintained that the Eucharist should be administered "in both kinds" — as both bread and wine — to all the congregation, including the laity. The practice among Roman Catholics at the time was for only the priests to partake of the wine.
The Utraquists were a moderate faction of the Hussites (in contrast to the more radical Taborites, Orebites and Orphans). They were also known as the Prague Party or the Calixtines — from calix, Latin for their emblem, the chalice.
The Utraquists eventually reunited with the Holy See and defeated the more radical Taborites and Orphans at the Battle of Lipany in 1434. After that battle, nearly all forms of Hussite revival were Utraquist, as seen with George of Podebrady, who even managed to cause the city of Tábor, the famous Taborite stronghold, to convert to Utraquism.
Utraquism is routine practice in contemporary Roman Catholicism.
In the book, The Meaning of Meaning, by C.K. Ogden and I.A. Richards, utraquistic subterfuge is described as the use of a term that refers either to its physical, or to its mental referent, and this ambiguity is left open to the interpretation of the individual reader or listener. One example given is the word "perception".
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- Ogden, C. K.; Richards, I. A. (1989) . "Chapter VI: The Theory of Definitions". The Meaning of Meaning. ISBN 0-15-658446-8.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Hughes, Joseph (1912). "Utraquism". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 15. New York: Robert Appleton.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed. (1907). "Utraquists". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.
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