Uvular flap

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Uvular flap
ɢ̆
ʀ̆
IPA number 112 505
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɢ​̆
Unicode (hex) U+0262 U+0306

The uvular flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. There is no dedicated symbol for this sound in the IPA. It can specified by adding a 'short' diacritic to the letter for the uvular plosive, ⟨ɢ̆⟩, but normally it is covered by the unmodified letter for the uvular trill, ⟨ʀ⟩,[1] since the two have never been reported to contrast.

The uvular flap is not known to exist as a phoneme in any language.

More commonly, it is said to vary with the much more frequent uvular trill, and is most likely a single-contact trill [ʀ̆] rather than an actual flap [ɢ̆] in these languages. (The primary difference between a flap and a trill is the airstream, not the number of contacts.)

Features[edit]

Features of the uvular flap:

  • Its manner of articulation is flap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (usually the tongue) is thrown against another.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch[2] rood [ʀ̆oːt] 'red' More common than a uvular trill.[3] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
German Standard[4] Ehre [ˈʔeːʀ̆ə] 'honor' Common intervocalic realization of uvular trill.[4] See German phonology
Hiu[5] [βɔ̞ʀ̆] 'hibiscus'
Ibibio[6] [úfʌ̟̀ɢ̆ɔ̞] [translation needed] Intervocalic allophone of /k/; may be a velar approximant [ɰ] instead.[6]
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[7] weuren [ˈβ̞ø̠ːʀ̆ən] '(they) were' Possible intervocalic allophone of /r/; may be alveolar [ɾ] instead.[7]
Okanagan Southern[8] [ɢ̆àlə́p] 'lose' Allophone of /ʕ/; corresponds to [ʕ] in other dialects.[8]
Supyire[9] tadugugo [taduɢ̆uɢ̆o] 'place to go up' May be in free variation [ɡ].[9]
Wahgi[10] [example needed] Allophone of /ʟ̝/.[10]
Yiddish Standard[11] בריק [bʀ̆ɪk] 'bridge' Less commonly a trill [ʀ]; can be alveolar [ɾ ~ r] instead.[11] See Yiddish phonology

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bruce Connell, Lower Cross Wordlist
  2. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 42 and 199.
  3. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 42.
  4. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 46.
  5. ^ François (2005), p. 44.
  6. ^ a b Urua (2004), p. 106.
  7. ^ a b Peters (2006), p. 118.
  8. ^ a b Kinkade (1967), pp. 232.
  9. ^ a b Carlson (1994), p. 10.
  10. ^ a b Phillips (1976), p. ?.
  11. ^ a b Kleine (2003), p. 263.

Bibliography[edit]