Uvular tap and flap
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|Uvular tap or flap|
|IPA Number||112 505|
|Unicode (hex)||U+0262 U+0306|
The uvular tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. There is no dedicated symbol for this sound in the IPA. It can specified by adding a 'short' diacritic to the letter for the uvular plosive, ⟨ɢ̆⟩, but normally it is covered by the unmodified letter for the uvular trill, ⟨ʀ⟩, since the two have never been reported to contrast.
The uvular tap or flap is not known to exist as a phoneme in any language.
More commonly, it is said to vary with the much more frequent uvular trill, and is most likely a single-contact trill [ʀ̆] rather than an actual tap or flap [ɢ̆] in these languages. (The primary difference between a tap and a trill is the airstream, not the number of contacts.)
Features of the uvular tap or flap:
- Its manner of articulation is tap or flap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (usually the tongue) is thrown against another.
- Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Dutch||rood||[ʀ̆oːt]||'red'||More common than a uvular trill. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology|
|German||Standard||Ehre||[ˈʔeːʀ̆ə]||'honor'||Common intervocalic realization of uvular trill. See Standard German phonology|
|Ibibio||ufʌkọ||[úfʌ̟̀ɢ̆ɔ̞]||[translation needed]||Intervocalic allophone of /k/; may be a velar approximant [ɰ] instead.|
|Limburgish||Hasselt dialect||weuren||[ˈβ̞øːʀ̆ən]||'(they) were'||Possible intervocalic allophone of /r/; may be alveolar [ɾ] instead.|
|Okanagan||Southern||ʕaləp||[ɢ̆àlə́p]||'lose'||Allophone of /ʕ/; corresponds to [ʕ] in other dialects.|
|Supyire||tadugugo||[taduɢ̆uɢ̆o]||'place to go up'||May be in free variation [ɡ].|
|Wahgi||[example needed]||Allophone of /ʟ̝/.|
|Yiddish||Standard||בריק||[bʀ̆ɪk]||'bridge'||Less commonly a trill [ʀ]; can be alveolar [ɾ ~ r] instead. See Yiddish phonology|
- Carlson, Robert (1994). A Grammar of Supyire. Walter de Gruyter.
- Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
- François, Alexandre (2005), "Unraveling the history of the vowels of seventeen northern Vanuatu languages", Oceanic Linguistics, 44 (2)
- Kinkade, M. Dale (1967). "Uvular-Pharyngeal Resonants in Interior Salish". International Journal of American Linguistics. 33 (3): 228–234. doi:10.1086/464965.
- Kleine, Ane (2003), "Standard Yiddish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 261–265, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001385
- Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2
- Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
- Phillips, Donald J. (1976). Wahgi Phonology and Morphology.
- Urua, Eno-Abasi E. (2004), "Ibibio", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 105–109, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001550