Uzhhorod

Coordinates: 48°37′26″N 22°17′42″E / 48.62389°N 22.29500°E / 48.62389; 22.29500
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Uzhhorod
Ужгород
Ungvár
City
Flag of Uzhhorod
Coat of arms of Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod is located in Zakarpattia Oblast
Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod
Location of Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod is located in Ukraine
Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 48°37′26″N 22°17′42″E / 48.62389°N 22.29500°E / 48.62389; 22.29500
Country Ukraine
OblastZakarpattia Oblast
RaionUzhhorod Raion
HromadaUzhhorod urban hromada
Founded9th century
Government
 • MayorBohdan Andriiv [uk][1] (self-nominated[1])
Area
 • Total65 km2 (25 sq mi)
Elevation
169 m (554 ft)
Population
 (2022)
 • Total115,449
 • Density3,662/km2 (9,480/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
88000
Area codes+380-312
Sister citiesBékéscsaba, Nyíregyháza, Krosno, Trogir, Pula, Corvallis, Darmstadt, Košice
ClimateCfb
Websiterada-uzhgorod.gov.ua
Map

Uzhhorod (Ukrainian: У́жгород, IPA: [ˈuʒɦorod] , Hungarian: Ungvár) is a city and municipality on the Uzh River in western Ukraine, at the border with Slovakia and near the border with Hungary. The city is approximately equidistant from the Baltic, the Adriatic and the Black Sea (650–690 km) making it the most inland city in this part of Europe. It is the administrative center of Zakarpattia Oblast (region), as well as the administrative center of Uzhhorod Raion (district) within the oblast. Population: 115,449 (2022 estimate).[2]

Name[edit]

The city's earliest known name is Ungvár, from Hungarian Ung (River Uzh) and vár "castle, fortress", originally referring to a castle outside the city (probably Nevytske Castle[3]).[4][5]

The name Uzhhorod was coined in early 19th century Slavophile circles as a literal translation of the name Ungvár.[4][5] The city officially adopted this name some time after 1920, under Czechoslovak administration.

The names of the city also include: English: Uzhgorod (before 1996); Rusyn: Ужгород, romanized: Užhorod, Rusyn: Унґвар, romanized: Ungvar (historically); Russian: Ужгород, romanizedUžgorod; Belarusian: Ужгарад, romanizedUžharad; Yiddish: אונגווער, romanizedIngver, Yiddish: אונגוואַר, romanizedUngvar; Czech: Užhorod; Slovak: Užhorod; German: Ungwar, Ungarisch Burg or Ungstadt; Polish: Użhorod; Romanian: Ujgorod.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

White-Croat Ungvar (677)[edit]

The city was founded by early Slavs, one tribe of whom was the White Croats, who settled the area of the modern Uzhhorod under Kuber in the second half of the first millennium AD.[6] Warriors from Ukraine established the Ungvar fortress in 677 according to the Chronicon Pictum. The settlement was the center of a new Slavic principality headed by a dynasty descended from Porga's nephew Kubrat. In the 9th century, the fortified castle changed into a fortified early feudal town-settlement which according to Gesta Hungarorum was originally subject to the Old Bulgarian Prince Salan until falling to Laborec, a ruler who was loyal to Great Moravia.[7]

Uzhhorod Castle

Magyar conquest (895)[edit]

Almos's Magyars who had arrived in the region from Kyiv (then known as Kevevara) stormed the Hunguar fortress in 895 AD. Having taken over the castle, Almos appointed his son Árpád as prince of Hunguaria and from Ungvar all of his warriors were called Hungarians instead.[8] This is naiv folk etymology by the medieval writer. For further information on the ethnonym of the Hungarians see the article Name of Hungary.[citation needed]

In the Kingdom of Hungary, the small town began to extend its borders. King Saint Stephen made it the centre (castrum) of Ung county with a strong military presence to protect the north east border of Hungary. In 1241–1242 the Mongols of Batu Khan burnt the settlement. After, in 1248 the city was granted town privileges by the King Béla IV of Hungary. In the early 14th century, Uzhhorod was involved in the civil wars in the interregnum between Hungarian barons when the dynasty of Árpád died out. Finally Charles I of Hungary from the Anjou dynasty, descendant of the House of Árpád by his mother occupied the throne. The Anjou House also ruled the Kingdom of Naples and the Hungarian king Charles I invited the Drugeths (Italian counts from the Kingdom of Naples) into Hungary and gave the town to them. The Drugeth family became a member of the Hungarian nobility. During that period Philip Drugeth built Uzhhorod Castle. Together with the castle, the city began to grow. From 1430, Uzhhorod became a free royal town.

Under Habsburg rule[edit]

During the 16–17th centuries The Kingdom of Hungary fell into three parts. The middle was occupied by the Ottoman Empire, the north west was ruled by the Habsburg dynasty, the eastern part became the Principality of Transylvania, that hold the independent Hungarian statehood. During this period there were many handicraft corporations in Uzhhorod. In this period the city was engaged in the religious and political fight between primarily Hungarian Protestant Transylvania and the German Catholic Austria. Each one wanted to reunite the Kingdom of Hungary under their rule. In 1646 the Union of Ungvár was proclaimed and the Greek-Catholic church was established, in a ceremony held in the Ungvár castle by the Vatican Aegis. In 1707 Ungvár was the residence of Ferenc II Rákóczi, leader of the national liberation war of Hungarians against Habsburgs. From 1780 the city became the capital of the Greek Catholic Eparchy and from 1776 the center of a newly created school district.[9]

The beginning of the 19th century was characterized by economic changes, including the first factories in the city. The greatest influence on Ungvár among the political events of the 19th century was made by the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849, during which the native Hungarian nobility sought both to shake off the suzerainty of the Austrian Empire and to have authority over their own people. 27 March 1848 was officially celebrated in the city as the overthrow of the monarchy in Hungary. It is now celebrated in Hungary on 15 March.

In 1872 the first railway line opened, linking the city to the important railway junction of Chop, then known as Csap.

According to the 1910 census, the city had 16,919 inhabitants, of which 13,590 (80.3%) were Magyars, 1,219 (7.2%) Slovaks, 1,151 (6.8%) Germans, 641 (3.8%) Rusyns and 1.6% Czechs.[10] By religion, 5,481 Roman Catholic, 5,305 Jewish, 4,473 Greek Catholic, 1,368 Calvinist. At the same time, the municipal area of the city had a population composed of 10,541 (39.05%) Hungarians, 9,908 (36.71%) Slovaks, and 5,520 (20.45%) Rusyns.[11]

During the World Wars[edit]

The First World War slowed down the tempo of city development. On 10 September 1919, Subcarpathia was officially allocated to the Republic of Czechoslovakia. Uzhhorod became the administrative center of the territory. During these years Uzhhorod developed into an architecturally modern city.[12]

After the First Vienna Award in 1938, Uzhhorod was given back to Hungary from which it was separated after World War I.

In 1941 the Jewish population reached 9,576.[citation needed] On 19 March 1944, Germans troops entered the city. They established a Judenrat (Jewish council) and set up two ghettos, at the Moskovitz brickyard and Gluck lumberyard. During May 1944, all Jews were deported to Auschwitz in five different transports and subsequently murdered. Only a few hundred Jews survived.[13]

In the Soviet Union[edit]

On 27 October 1944, the city was captured by the troops of the 4th Ukrainian Front of the Red Army.[citation needed] Thousands of ethnic Hungarians were killed, expelled, or else taken to work in Soviet forced labor camps.[citation needed] The Hungarian majority population was decimated in order to strengthen the Soviet and Ukrainian right to the city.[citation needed]

This period brought significant changes. On the outskirts of Uzhhorod new enterprises were constructed and the old enterprises were renewed.[citation needed] On 29 June 1945, Subcarpathian Ukraine was annexed by the Soviet Union and became a westernmost part of the Ukrainian SSR. This followed the assumption of local authority by the People's Committee of Transcarpathian Ukraine based in Uzhhorod and headed by a local Communist.[14] That year the Uzhhorod State University (now Uzhhorod National University) was also opened. Since January 1946 Uzhhorod was the center of newly formed Zakarpatska oblast.[1]

In Ukraine[edit]

Since 1991 Uzhhorod has become one of 24 regional capitals within independent Ukraine. Of these, Uzhhorod is the smallest and westernmost.

Embankment of the Uzh River

In 2002, a bust of Tomáš Masaryk, Czechoslovakia's first president, was unveiled in a main square of the city. A similar bust was unveiled in 1928 on the 10th anniversary of Czechoslovak independence, but was removed by the Hungarians when they took over the region in 1939.[15]

On 15 April 2022, as part of the derussification campaign that swept through Ukraine following the February 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Uzhhorod City Council decided to rename 58 streets connected to Russian figures.[16] United States First Lady Jill Biden visited the city on 8 May 2022, which was not announced to the public until after the visit.[17]

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Cherry blossoms in Uzhhorod

Uzhhorod has a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) with cool to cold winters and warm summers. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of −1.7 °C (28.9 °F) while the warmest month is July with an average temperature of 20.9 °C (69.6 °F).[18] The coldest temperature ever recorded is −28.2 °C (−18.8 °F) and the warmest temperature was 38.6 °C (101.5 °F). Average annual precipitation is 748 millimetres (29.4 in), which is evenly distributed throughout the year though the summer months have higher precipitation.[18] On average, Uzhhorod receives 2023 hours of sunshine per year.[19]

Climate data for Uzhhorod (1991–2020, extremes 1947–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
17.2
(63.0)
25.4
(77.7)
29.7
(85.5)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95.0)
38.6
(101.5)
38.4
(101.1)
35.9
(96.6)
26.1
(79.0)
23.3
(73.9)
15.6
(60.1)
38.6
(101.5)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
4.3
(39.7)
10.4
(50.7)
17.4
(63.3)
22.1
(71.8)
25.5
(77.9)
27.6
(81.7)
27.7
(81.9)
21.9
(71.4)
15.6
(60.1)
9.2
(48.6)
3.0
(37.4)
15.5
(59.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.2
(29.8)
0.6
(33.1)
5.4
(41.7)
11.5
(52.7)
16.1
(61.0)
19.6
(67.3)
21.3
(70.3)
21.1
(70.0)
15.9
(60.6)
10.5
(50.9)
5.4
(41.7)
0.3
(32.5)
10.5
(50.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −4.2
(24.4)
−3.0
(26.6)
0.8
(33.4)
5.6
(42.1)
10.1
(50.2)
13.7
(56.7)
15.3
(59.5)
14.9
(58.8)
10.4
(50.7)
5.9
(42.6)
1.9
(35.4)
−2.3
(27.9)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F) −28.2
(−18.8)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−17.5
(0.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
−4.4
(24.1)
1.5
(34.7)
5.4
(41.7)
4.4
(39.9)
−2.2
(28.0)
−9.3
(15.3)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−28.2
(−18.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 54
(2.1)
53
(2.1)
41
(1.6)
45
(1.8)
69
(2.7)
68
(2.7)
82
(3.2)
67
(2.6)
68
(2.7)
62
(2.4)
58
(2.3)
64
(2.5)
731
(28.8)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 7
(2.8)
7
(2.8)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4
(1.6)
7
(2.8)
Average rainy days 11 10 13 15 16 16 15 13 13 13 14 13 162
Average snowy days 14 12 5 1 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.3 5 12 49
Average relative humidity (%) 82.6 76.2 67.4 61.4 65.2 68.0 67.4 68.6 72.8 76.0 80.1 83.3 72.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.8 87.0 152.7 202.4 266.2 266.3 279.1 269.2 189.8 140.4 71.4 45.8 2,023.1
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[18]
Source 2: World Meteorological Organization (humidity and sun 1981–2010)[19]

Demographics[edit]

According to the Ukrainian 2001 census, the population of Uzhhorod included:[20]

According to a survey conducted by the International Republican Institute in April–May 2023, 85% of the city's population spoke Ukrainian at home, 9% spoke Russian, and 1% spoke Hungarian.[21]

Transportation[edit]

Uzhhorod railway station

The city is served by Uzhhorod railway station and has railway connections with Chop and Lviv. It is also served by Uzhhorod International Airport.[22] The airport is situated on the Ukraine Slovakia border.[23]

Government[edit]

The territory of the city of Uzhhorod is coterminous with Uzhhorod urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine which was established on 12 June 2020.[24][25]

Sport[edit]

The city was home to the SC Rusj Užhorod football club from 1925. Contemporary side FC Hoverla Uzhhorod made their debut in the Ukrainian Premier League in 2001, but dissolved in 2016 due to money issues.[26]

In 2020 professional football matches at the highest levels of Ukraine returned to Uzhhorod since the 2020–21 season FC Mynai plays its home matches in the Avanhard Stadium.[27] FC Uzhhorod currently in Ukrainian Second League also plays its matches at Avanhard Stadium.

International relations[edit]

Uzhhorod is currently twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

János Erdélyi, c. 1890
Jenő Janovics, 1901
Avgustyn Voloshyn
Daria Shestakova, 2018

Sport[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b National parties lose out to local candidates in Ukraine’s 2020 municipal elections UkraineAlert by Brian Mefford, Atlantic Council (12 December 2020)
    CEC names winners of mayoral elections in Uzhgorod, Berdiansk, Sloviansk, Interfax-Ukraine (23 November 2020)
  2. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022] (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2022.
  3. ^ Németh, Péter (2007). "Álom és valóság: Ung vára" (PDF). Castrum. 6: 5–10. ISSN 1787-1093.
  4. ^ a b Sebestyén, Zsolt (2020). "Ungvár, Ужгород". Kárpátalja helységnevei [The Placenames of Transcarpathia] (PDF) (in Hungarian). Nyíregyháza. pp. 457–459. ISBN 978-973-0-31294-2.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  5. ^ a b Галас, Кирило (2002). ""Словник українських топонімів Закарпаття" (фрагменти)". Сучасні проблеми мовознавства та літературознавства. 6: 365–376.
  6. ^ Magocsi, Paul R. (30 July 2005). Our People: Carpatho-Rusyns and Their Descendants in North America. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 9780865166110.
  7. ^ Paul R., Magocsi (30 July 2005). Our people: Carpatho-Rusyns and their descendants in North America. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 9780865166110.
  8. ^ Deeds of the Hungarians by Anonymous, Chapter 13
  9. ^ A 1777 évi Ratio educationis. 1913.
  10. ^ Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914, Talma Kiadó Archived 14 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "Ung County". Genealogy Online. Archived from the original on 29 March 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  12. ^ "Uzhhorod Modernism". am.umodernism.com. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  13. ^ "Uzhorod". Kehilalinks. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  14. ^ "People's Council of Transcarpathian Ukraine". Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine. 2001. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
  15. ^ PRECLÍK, Vratislav: "Profesor Masaryk a Podkarpatská Rus právě před sto lety" (Professor Masaryk and Subcarpatian Russia just hundred years ago), in Čas: časopis Masarykova demokratického hnutí, leden - březen 2019, roč.XXVII. čís. 125. ISSN 1210-1648, str.18 – 23
  16. ^ ROMAN PETRENKO (15 April 2022). "Ужгород тотально дерусифікують" [Uzhhorod is totally derusified]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 1 November 2022.
  17. ^ "First lady Jill Biden makes unannounced trip to Ukraine". CNN. 8 May 2022.
  18. ^ a b c "Pogoda.ru.net". Weather and Climate for Uzhhorod (in Russian). Archived from the original on 14 December 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  19. ^ a b "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  20. ^ "Zakarpattia Region". Ukrainian 2001 census. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  21. ^ "Восьме всеукраїнське муніципальне опитування" (PDF). ratinggroup.ua (in Ukrainian).
  22. ^ Flights to resume at Uzhgorod Airport as Ukraine, Slovakia reportedly settle border issues, UNIAN (19 August 2020)
  23. ^ "Uzhhorod is now the most sensitive Airport in Ukraine as it literally touches Slovakia, a NATO country". 24 March 2022.
  24. ^ "Ужгородська територіальна громада. Загальна інформація". decentralization.gov.ua/. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  25. ^ "Про визначення адміністративних центрів та затвердження територій територіальних громад Закарпатської області" (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 6 October 2023.
  26. ^ "Велика пихатість маленького клубу. Як команда-привид збирала зірок" [The great pomp of the little club. How the ghost team collected stars]. UA-Football. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  27. ^ "Minai will play home matches of the Premier League at Avangard Stadium in Uzhhorod". PMG.ua (in Ukrainian). 19 August 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  28. ^ "Städtepartnerschaften und Internationales". Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen (in German). Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  29. ^ "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  30. ^ "Krosno Official Website – Partner Cities" (in Polish). Urząd Miasta Krosna. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
  31. ^ "Jarosław Official Website – Partner Cities" (in Polish). Urząd Miasta Jarosław. Ul. Rynek 1, 37–500 Jarosław. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
  32. ^ "Protocol de colaborare Ujgorod-Satu Mare" (in Romanian). www.satu-mare.ro. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
  33. ^ "Erdélyi, János" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 9 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 734.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]