(MLCTS: wə rḭ ja̰)
|Chinese||勤(T) / 勤(S),|
精進(T) / 精进(S)
|Korean||근, 정진 |
(RR: geun, jeongjin)
(Wylie: brtson 'grus;
|Glossary of Buddhism|
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
Vīrya (Sanskrit; Pali: viriya) is a Buddhist term commonly translated as "energy", "diligence", "enthusiasm", or "effort". It can be defined as an attitude of gladly engaging in wholesome activities, and it functions to cause one to accomplish wholesome or virtuous actions.
In Buddhism, virya refers to a practitioner's "energy", "persistence", "persevering," "vigour", "effort", "diligence", or "exertion", and is repeatedly identified as a necessary prerequisite for achieving liberation.
Within the Buddhist Abhidharma teachings, virya is identified as:
- One of the six occasional mental factors within the Theravada Abhidharma
- One of the eleven virtuous mental factors within the Mahayana Abhidharma
The Abhidharma-samuccaya states:
- What is virya? It is the mind intent on being ever active, devoted, unshaken, not turning back and being indefatigable. It perfects and realizes what is conducive to the positive.
In the context of the Mahayana Abhidharma, virya is commonly translated as diligence.
In the Kīṭāgiri Sutta (MN 70), the Buddha instructs his followers:
- ... For a faithful disciple who is intent on fathoming the Teacher's Dispensation, it is natural that he conduct himself thus: 'Willingly, let only my skin, sinews, and bones remain, and let the flesh and blood dry up on my body, but my energy [Pali: viriya] shall not be relaxed so long as I have not attained what can be attained by manly strength [purisa-tthāmena], manly energy [purisa-viriyena], and manly persistence [purisa-parakkamena]...."
Viriya stands for strenuous and sustained effort to overcome unskillful ways (akusala dhamma), such as indulging in sensuality, ill will and harmfulness (see, e.g., ahiṃsā and nekkhamma).
Vīrya can also signify courage and physical strength and was cultivated by Buddhist guardians including the Shaolin monks. It signifies strength of character and persistent effort for the well-being of others as well as the ability to defend the Triratna from attacks.
In the absence of sustained effort in practicing meditation, craving creeps in and the meditator comes under its influence. Right effort (vīryabala) is thus required to overcome unskillful mental factors and deviation from dhyāna.
- Adhiṭṭhāna (resolute determination)
- Bodhipakkhiya dhamma (Qualities conducive to Enlightenment)
- Dāna (generosity)
- Five Faculties
- Five Powers
- Four Right Exertions
- Khanti (patience)
- Metta (loving-kindness)
- Nekkhamma (renunciation)
- Noble Eightfold Path
- Pañña (wisdom)
- Passaddhi (tranquillity)
- Sacca (truth)
- Sisu (A similar concept in Finnish culture)
- Upekkhā (equanimity)
- Vīrya (Hinduism)
- See, e.g., which Monier Williams (1899), entry for "Vīryà," p. 1006: Defines vīryà in part as: "manliness, valour, strength, power, energy, RV &c. &c.; heroism/heroinism, heroic deed, ibid.; manly vigour, virility, semen virile, MBh.; Kāv. &c;...."
- Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi (2001), "Kīṭāgiri Sutta" (MN 70), pp. 583–84.
- See, e.g., Bullitt (2005), entry for "viriya," which defines this term as: "Persistence; energy. One of the ten perfections (paramis), the five faculties (bala; see bodhi-pakkhiya-dhamma), and the five strengths/dominant factors (indriya; see bodhi-pakkhiya-dhamma)". Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- "Kitagiri Sutta: At Kitagiri". www.accesstoinsight.org. Translated by Thanissaro, Bhikkhu. 2005. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
- "Gilana Sutta: Ill". www.accesstoinsight.org. Translated by Piyadassi, Thera. 1999. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
- Guenther (1975), Kindle Locations 578–580.
- Kunsang (2004), p. 25.
- "Buddha Quotes". BrainyQuote. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
- Bullitt, John T. (2005). A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms. Available from "Access to Insight" (ATI).
- Griffith, Ralph T.H. (1896). Rig Veda.
- Guenther, Herbert V. & Leslie S. Kawamura (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding". Dharma Publishing. Kindle Edition.
- Ireland, John D. (trans.) (1998). "Meghiya Sutta: Meghiya" (Ud. 4.1). Retrieved 7 February 2011 from "Access to Insight".
- Kunsang, Erik Pema (translator) (2004). Gateway to Knowledge, Vol. 1. North Atlantic Books.
- Monier-Williams, Monier (1899; rev. 2008). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. A general on-line search engine for this dictionary is available from "U. Cologne".
- Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) & Bodhi, Bhikkhu (ed.) (2001). The Middle-Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X.
- Piyadassi, Thera (1999). "Gilana Sutta: Ill (Factors of Enlightenment)" (SN 46.14). Retrieved 7 February 2011 from "Access to Insight".
- Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The Pali Text Society's Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society.
- Thanissaro, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2005). "Kitagiri Sutta: At Kitagiri" (MN 70). Retrieved 6 February 2011 from "Access to Insight".
- Walshe, Maurice O'Connell (trans.) (2009). "Pade Sutta: In the Foot" (SN 48.54). Retrieved 7 February 2011 from "Access to Insight".