Vṛṣabha

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Vṛṣabha, or Vrishabha, is a month in the Indian solar calendar.[1][2] It corresponds to the zodiacal sign of Taurus, and overlaps with about the second half of May and about the first half of June in the Gregorian calendar.[1]

In Vedic texts, the Vrsabha month is called Madhava (IAST: Mādhava), but in these ancient texts it has no zodiacal associations.[3] The solar month of Vrsabha overlaps with its lunar month Jyeshtha, in Hindu lunisolar calendars.[4][5] The Vrsabha is preceded by the solar month of Mesha, and followed by the solar month of Mithuna.[2]

The Vrsabha month is called Vaikasi in the Tamil Hindu calendar.[1] The ancient and medieval era Sanskrit texts of India vary in their calculations about the duration of Vrsabha, just like they do with other months. For example, the Surya Siddhanta calculates the duration of Vrishabha to be 31 days, 10 hours, 5 minutes and 12 seconds.[5] In contrast, the Arya Siddhanta calculates the duration of Vrsabha to be 31 days, 9 hours, 37 minutes and 36 seconds.[5]

The Indian solar month names are significant in epigraphical studies of South Asia. For example, Vrsabha month, along with other solar months, are found inscribed in medieval era Hindu temples, sometimes spelled as the Rishabha month.[6]

Vrsabha is also an astrological sign in Indian horoscope systems, corresponding to Taurus.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z (Vol 1 & 2). The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 729. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.
  2. ^ a b Robert Sewell; Śaṅkara Bālakr̥shṇa Dīkshita (1896). The Indian Calendar. S. Sonnenschein & Company. pp. 5–11, 23–29.
  3. ^ Nachum Dershowitz; Edward M. Reingold (2008). Calendrical Calculations. Cambridge University Press. pp. 123–128. ISBN 978-0-521-88540-9.
  4. ^ Christopher John Fuller (2004). The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India. Princeton University Press. pp. 291–293. ISBN 978-0-69112-04-85.
  5. ^ a b c Robert Sewell; Śaṅkara Bālakr̥shṇa Dīkshita (1896). The Indian Calendar. S. Sonnenschein & Company. pp. 10–11.
  6. ^ E Hultzsch (1906). Epigraphia Indica. Education Society Press. pp. 262, 265, 268, 273 with footnotes.
  7. ^ Bangalore V. Raman (2003). Studies in Jaimini Astrology. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 10–19. ISBN 978-81-208-1397-7.