V-1 flying bomb facilities
|Part of Nazi Germany|
|locations in France & Germany|
Diagram for Maisoncelle V-1 "ski site"
|Built by||Organisation Todt et al.|
|In use||World War II|
|Battles/wars||Operation Crossbow, Operation Aphrodite|
In order to carry out the planned V-1 "flying bomb" attacks on the United Kingdom, Germany built a number of military installations including launching sites and depots. Some of the installations were huge concrete fortifications.
The Allies became aware of the sites at an early stage and carried out numerous bombing raids to destroy them before they came into use.
The unpiloted aircraft was assembled at the KdF-Stadt[note 1] Volkswagenwerke (described as "the largest pressed-steel works in Germany") near Fallersleben, at Cham/Bruns Werke,:40[verification needed] and at the Mittelwerk. underground factory in central Germany. Production plants to modify several hundred standard V-1s to Reichenberg R-III manned aircraft were in the woods of Dannenburg and at Pulverhof, with air-launch trials at Lärz and Rechlin.:133,135 Flight testing was performed by the Luftwaffe at Peenemünde West and, after the August 1943 Operation Hydra bombing, at Brüsterort.:27 Launch crew training was at Zempin, and the headquarters for the operational unit, FR 155(W), was originally based at Saleux, near Amiens,:173 but was subsequently moved c. December 1943 to a chateau near Creil ("FlakGruppeCreil"), with the unit's telephone relay station at Doullens.
In addition to the storage and launching sites listed below, operational facilities included the airfields for Heinkel He 111 H-22 bombers which air-launched the V-1 from low altitude over the North Sea. The ten-day-long aircrew training was at Peenemünde, and the bases were in Gilze Rijen, Holland for launches through 15 September 1944, and in Venlo for launches after the 1st week in December. Aircrews were billeted five miles away at Grossenkneten for secrecy.:126
To supply the V-1 flying bomb launch sites in the Calais region, construction began on several storage depots in August 1943. Sites at Biennais, Oisemont Neuville-au-Bois, and Saint-Martin-l'Hortier were not completed.[why?] An RCAF Halifax pilot's logbook describes the target of his raids on "flying-bomb sites" on July 1, 4, and 5, 1944, as "Biennais #1", "Biennais #2," and "Biennais #3". This suggests that these storage sites were perhaps not completed because they were destroyed prior to completion.
The completed sites were:
- Domléger near Abbeville - bombed on June 14 and 16, and on July 4, 1944
- Renescure near Saint-Omer - finished in November 1943, it was bombed by the USAAF on June 16, 1944 by 48 B-24s and on July 2 by 21
- Sautricourt near Saint-Pol (bombed June 16, 1944)
A depot to serve Cherbourg launches was near Valognes. By February/March 1944, a plan for three new underground V-1 storage sites was put into effect. The Nucourt limestone cave complex between Pontoise and Gisors was bombed on June 22, 1944 with 298 V-1s buried or severely damaged One in the Rilly-la-Montagne railway tunnel was attacked by the British with Tallboy earthquake bombs on July 31 collapsing both ends of the tunnel. The Saint-Leu-d'Esserent mushroom caves was the largest of the underground V-1 sites. It was attacked by No. 617 Squadron RAF with Tallboys on 4 July.
RAF records refer to flying-bomb stores at Bois de Cassan (bombed August 2–4, 1944), Forêt de Nieppe (bombed July 24,25, 31, August 3,4, 5,6, 1944 and Trossy St. Maximin (bombed August 3–4, 1944)
V-1 launch sequence
- Final Assembly: After moving the V-1 from the storage area, the wings were slid/bolted over/to the tubular spar.:35
- Final Checkout: In the non-magnetic building, "compass swinging" was completed by hanging the V-1 and pointing it toward the target. The missile's external casing of 16-gauge sheet steel was beaten with a mallet until its magnetic field was suitably aligned. The automatic pilot was set with the flight altitude input (300–2500 metres) to the barometric (aneroid) height control and with the range set within the air log (journey computer).:29,35
- Hoisting: The V-1 was delivered to the launching ramp via a wooden handling trolley on rails.:34 A wooden lifting gantry on rails was connected to the V-1 lifting lug to hoist and move it onto the launching spot at the lower end of the launching ramp.:30,34,35
- Fueling and Charging:[verification needed] Via the tank filler cap, 1,133 lbs (140 gallons) of petrol (German: B-Stoff) were added (later longer-range models held more). The twin spherical iron air bottles were charged with 900 psi air to power the automatic pilot (Steuergerät). Air at 90 psi powered the pneumatic servo-motors for the elevators and rudder.:31,37
- Catapult setup: The starter trolley with the hydrogen peroxide (German: T-Stoff) and catalyst (potassium permanganate granules, Z-stoff) was connected to provide steam to the ramp's firing tube, and the steam piston was placed into the firing tube with the piston's launching lug connected to the V-1.:30,33,35,64d
- V-1 startup: While the steam-generating trolley was being connected, the Argus As 109-014 Ofenrohr pulsejet engine was started.:32,35
- Post-launch: The steam piston, having separated from the V-1 at the end of the ramp during launch, was collected for re-use (the site nominally had only two pistons). Personnel in rubber boots and protective clothing used a catwalk along the ramp and washed the launching rail with brooms.:32,35
V-1 launching sites
V-1 launching sites in France were located in nine general areas - four of which had the ramps aligned toward London, and the remainder toward Brighton, Dover, Newhaven, Hastings, Southampton, Manchester, Portsmouth, Bristol, and Plymouth. The sites on the Cherbourg peninsula targeting Bristol and Plymouth were captured before being used, and eventually launching ramps were moved to Holland to target Antwerp (first launched on 3 March 1945 from Delft).:48,80,82,100
Initially the V-1 launching sites had storage buildings that were curved at the end to protect the contents against damage from air attacks. On aerial reconnaissance pictures these storage from above looked like snow skis ("ski sites"). An October 28, 1943 intelligence report regarding construction at Bois Carré near Yvrench:300e prompted No. 170 Squadron RAF reconnaissance sortie E/463 on November 3 which detected "ski-shaped buildings 240-270 feet long.":360 By November 1943, 72 of the ski sites had been located by allied reconnaissance, and Operation Crossbow began bombing the original ski sites on December 5, 1943. Nazi Germany subsequently began constructing modified sites with limited structures that could be completed quickly, as necessary. This also allowed the modified sites to be quickly repaired after bombing. However, the work to complete a modified site before launching allowed the allied photographic interpreters to predict on June 11, 1944 that the V-1 attacks would begin within 48 hours, and the first attacks began on June 13.
|Abbeville/Amiens||22/23 December 1943||51 aircraft attacked 2 flying-bomb sites between Abbeville and Amiens. One was destroyed, but the other was not located.|
|Abbeville/Amiens||28 August 1944||The Amiens ("Wemars/Cappel") site was attacked.|
|Abbeville (Flixecourt)||December 16/17, 1943||9 Avro Lancasters of No. 617 Squadron RAF attacked the "Abbeville site in a wood at Flixecourt" and dropped their 12,000 lb bombs accurately on the markers placed by the only Oboe-equipped Mosquito operating at this target. The markers were 350 yards from the target and none of the bombs were within l00 yards of the markers. No aircraft lost.|
|Abbeville (Gorenflos)||23 December 1943||Near Abbeville,:171 the 401 BG bombed the Gorenflos No-ball target.|
|Abbeville (Gorenflos)||18 March 1944|
|Abbeville (Gorenflos)||9 April 1944 |
|Abbeville (Gorenflos)||10 April 1944||The 457 BG bombed the Gorenflos No-ball site.|
|Abbeville (Gorenflos)||9 June 1944|
|Abbeville (Tilley-le-Haut)||December 16/17, 1943||26 Short Stirlings attacked the "Tilley-le-Haut site near Abbeville2 but failed because the Pathfinder markers of the Oboe-equipped de Havilland Mosquito were no closer than 450 yards from the small target. No aircraft lost.|
|Acque||19 July 1944||6 RAF Mosquitos on a diversionary raid bombed the Scholven/Buer and Wessling synthetic oil plants, railway junctions at Aulnoye and Revigny and "a flying-bomb launching site at Acque".|
|Ailly-le-Vieux-Clocher:49||27||22/23 December 1943||The flying bomb site at Ailly was attacked without loss.|
|Ailly-le-Vieux-Clocher||27||14/15 January 1944|
|Beauvais||24 & 25 April 1944||The 397 BG bombed the Beauvoir V-1 site.|
|Beauvais||16 May 1944[verification needed]||The Normandy V-1 storage site at Beauvais was bombed.|
|Beauvais||1944-06-11||The 466 BS bombed the Beauvais V-1 storage depot.|
|Beauvais||1944-06-14, 15, & 16||The Beauvais V-1 storage depot was bombed.|
|Belloy-Sur-Somme||1944-07-06||The 487 BG bombed the V-Weapon site.|
|Bois Carré near Yvrench||10 February 1944||The 387 BG bombed the "Yorench-Bois Carre [sic] V-1 site"|
|Bonneton le Faubourg ski site||1943-12-22/23||82 aircraft attacked flying bomb sites at Ailly, Bonneton and Bristillerie without loss.|
|Bonneton le Faubourg ski site||1944-01-14/15|
|Bristillerie||1943-12-22/23||82 aircraft attacked flying bomb sites at Ailly, Bonneton and Bristillerie without loss.|
|Bouillancourt||13 April 1944||"Bouillancourt, near le Tréport", was attacked by No. 602 Squadron RAF and No. 132 Squadron RAF :48|
|Creil||1944-07-02||The Creil storage depot was bombed. July 2, 1944|
|Bois de la Justice||74||February 28, 1944||447 BG|
|Bois de la Justice||74||March 13, 1944||447 BG|
|Drionville||50||December 24, 1943||447 BG|
|Grand Parc||107||January 14, 1944||447 BG|
|Grand Parc||107||January 21, 1944||447 BG|
|Herbouville||1944-01-29/30||22 Mosquitos attacked the Herbouville flying-bomb site and Duisburg.|
|La Briqueterie & Val-des-Joncs||1944-08-02||The 487 BG bombed the V-Weapon sites.|
|Laloge Au Pain||8 July 1944||The 487 BG bombed the V-Weapon site.|
|Ligercourt [sic]||16 April 1944||The "heavily-defended ramp and bunkers at Ligercourt" were bombed in the "forest of Crécy near Abbeville.":49|
|Ligescourt||5 December 1943||B-26s of the Ninth Air Force attacked three V-1 ski sites near Ligescourt-Bois de St. Saulve, the first No-Ball mission.|
|Lottinghen||13 March 1944||Ninth Air Force: 40 B-26s attacked a "V-weapon site at Lottinghen/Les Grands Bois", France; 37 abort due to bad weather.|
|Maisoncelle||1 June 1944||Bomber 41-20847 attacked the Maisoncelle.|
|Oisemont Neuville-au-Bois||20 June 1944|
|Oisemont||21 June 1944|
|Oisemont||23 June 1944|
|Oisemont||30 June 1944|
|Oisemont||1 July 1944|
|Söttevast||February 29/March 1, 1944||1 Mosquito to a "flying-bomb site at Sottevaast [sic]"|
|Söttevast||March 3/4, 1944||2 Mosquitos to the "Sottevaast [sic] flying-bomb site"|
|Söttevast||5 May 1944|
|Saint-Martin-l'Hortier||17 June 1944|
|Saint-Martin-l'Hortier||21 June 1944|
|Saint-Martin-l'Hortier||1 July 1944|
References and notes
- Cooksley, Peter G (1979). Flying Bomb. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
- Henshall (1985). Hitler’s Rocket Sites. St Martin's Press. pp. 143, 152, 187, 209.
- RV Jones, Most Secret War, pp 300e, 352, 373
- Aroneanu, Eugène; Whissen, Thomas (1996). Inside the Concentration Camps. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-275-95446-8. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- Combat Chronology of the USAAF
- Jones p246
- Bomber Command Campaign Diary
- "Investigations of the "Heavy Crossbow" installations in Northern France.". The Papers of Lord Duncan-Sandys. Churchill Archives Centre. February 1945. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- Ordway, Frederick I, III; Sharpe, Mitchell R. The Rocket Team. Apogee Books Space Series 36. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. p. 118.
- Irving, David (1964). The Mare's Nest. London: William Kimber and Co. pp. 168, 220, 245, 246.
- Jones, R. V. (1978). Most Secret War: British Scientific Intelligence 1939-1945. London: Hamish Hamilton. p. 300e,360. ISBN 0-241-89746-7.
- Gurney, Gene (Major, USAF) (1962). "The War in the Air: a pictorial history of World War II Air Forces in combat". New York: Bonanza Books: 184.
- 438 Squadron (PDF), Manitoba Military Aviation Museum
- 457 Bomb Group KIA
- "466 Squadron Missions". 466 Squadron. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- Bauer, Eddy (1966) . Illustrated World War II Encyclopedia. 15. H. S. Stuttman Inc. pp. 2059, 2068. ISBN 0-87475-520-4.
- Baugher, Joseph F. "1941 USAAF Serial Numbers (41-24340 to 41-30847)". American Bombers. Other Baugher webpages cited in this wikiarticle:
- "Campaign Diary". Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. UK Crown. Retrieved 2007-05-24.
- 100 BG Mission histories: "2nd Lt. Donald A. Jones". 100th Bomb Group (Heavy): The Bloody Hundredth. 100THBG.COM. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- Thompson, Boyd. "32nd Bomb Group missions". 32nd Bomb Squadron, 1942 -1945.
- "303 Bombardment Group mission reports" (PDF).
- Smith, Michael E. "March 1945 Installment of 596 Squadron History" (PDF). B26.com. p. 8. Retrieved 2009-04-24.
- "Missions 1943-1945". 384th Bomb Group (Heavy). 384thBombGroup.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
- "401 BG Mission summary".
- "The Missions". Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
- "457th Bomb Group KIA".
- "Chapter IX Target: German Oil, June 1944.". 461st.org.
- "Our Missions: The 464 BG Mission List".
- "487th Bomb Group missions".
- McKillop, Jack. "Combat Chronology of the USAAF". Retrieved 2007-05-25.
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