V399 Carinae

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V399 Carinae
Carina constellation map.svg
Red circle.svg
Location of V399 Carinae (circled)
Observation data
Epoch J2000.0      Equinox J2000.0
Constellation Carina
Right ascension 10h 27m 24.47114s[1]
Declination −57° 38′ 19.6958″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) +4.63 to +4.72.[2]
Spectral type A5Iae[3] or F0Ia[4]
U−B color index +0.22[5]
B−V color index +0.46[5]
Variable type SRd?[2]
Proper motion (μ) RA: −6.51 ± 0.29[1] mas/yr
Dec.: 3.82 ± 0.26[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 0.06 ± 0.28[1] mas
Distance 2,308[6] pc
Absolute magnitude (MV) −8.8[7]
Luminosity 305,000[8] L
Surface gravity (log g) 1.00[9] cgs
Temperature 8,000[10] K
Age 12[6] Myr
Other designations
P Carinae,[11] 195 G. Carinae,[12] HR 4110, HD 90772, CP−57°3256, HIP 51192, SAO 238077, GC 14373, IC 2581 1
Database references

V399 Carinae (V399 Car, P Carinae, P Car, 195 G. Carinae) is a variable star in the constellation Carina.

The spectral type of V399 Carinae has been variously assigned between A5 and F0,[13] being a bright, luminous supergiant.[14] Its spectrum is described as having a non-photospheric continuum and silicon absorption lines, indicative of high mass loss.[15]

V399 Carinae has long been suspected to be variable.[16] A 1981 study of yellow supergiants fit observations to a Cepheid-like light curve with a period of 58.8 days, although it was noted that the luminosity and spectral type do not place the star near the Cepheid instability strip.[13] It was listed in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars as a possible δ Cep variable.[17] Further observations refined the period to 47.25 days.[7] The Hipparcos catalogue classified V399 Car as a semiregular variable with a period of 88 days and a mean amplitude of only 0.04 magnitudes.[18] An automated classification from Hipparos photometry suggested it is an α Cygni variable.[19] The observed brightness varies from magnitude +4.63 to +4.72.[2]

V399 lies amongst the stars of the open cluster IC 2581, by far the brightest member of the cluster. It is about 7,500 light years from Earth assuming it is a member of IC 2581, which is given a 62.9% probability.[20]


  1. ^ a b c d e Van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653. arXiv:0708.1752Freely accessible. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. 
  2. ^ a b c Watson, C. L. (2006). "The International Variable Star Index (VSX)". The Society for Astronomical Sciences 25th Annual Symposium on Telescope Science. Held May 23–25. 25: 47. Bibcode:2006SASS...25...47W. 
  3. ^ Gray, R. O.; Garrison, R. F. (1989). "The late A-type stars - Refined MK classification, confrontation with Stromgren photometry, and the effects of rotation". Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 70: 623. Bibcode:1989ApJS...70..623G. doi:10.1086/191349. 
  4. ^ Dambis, A. K. (February 2013). "Revisiting the absolute-magnitude calibration of F-type supergiants and bright giants as a function of the equivalent width of the OIλ7774Å triplet". Advancing the Physics of Cosmic Distances, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, IAU Symposium. 289: 379−381. Bibcode:2013IAUS..289..379D. doi:10.1017/S1743921312021758. 
  5. ^ a b Schild, R. E.; Garrison, R. F.; Hiltner, W. A. (1983). "UBV photometry for southern OB stars". Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 51: 321. Bibcode:1983ApJS...51..321S. doi:10.1086/190852. 
  6. ^ a b Luck, R. Earle (1994). "Open cluster chemical composition. 1: Later type stars in eight clusters". Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 91: 309. Bibcode:1994ApJS...91..309L. doi:10.1086/191940. 
  7. ^ a b Berdnikov, L. N.; Turner, D. G. (1997). "Photoelectric VIc and New Elements for V399 Carinae = HR 4110". Information Bulletin on Variable Stars. 4456: 1. Bibcode:1997IBVS.4456....1B. 
  9. ^ Luck, R. Earle (2014). "Parameters and Abundances in Luminous Stars". The Astronomical Journal. 147 (6): 137. Bibcode:2014AJ....147..137L. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/147/6/137. 
  10. ^ Rest, A.; Prieto, J. L.; Walborn, N. R.; Smith, N.; Bianco, F. B.; Chornock, R.; Welch, D. L.; Howell, D. A.; Huber, M. E.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.; Sinnott, B.; Bond, H. E.; Smith, R. C.; Toledo, I.; Minniti, D.; Mandel, K. (2012). "Light echoes reveal an unexpectedly cool η Carinae during its nineteenth-century Great Eruption". Nature. 482 (7385): 375. arXiv:1112.2210Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012Natur.482..375R. doi:10.1038/nature10775. PMID 22337057. 
  11. ^ Kostjuk, N. D. (2004). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: HD-DM-GC-HR-HIP-Bayer-Flamsteed Cross Index (Kostjuk, 2002)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog: IV/27A. Originally published in: Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences (2002). 4027. Bibcode:2004yCat.4027....0K. 
  12. ^ Benjamin Apthorp Gould (1879). Uranometria Argentina: Brightness and Position of Every Fixed Star, Down to the Seventh Magnitude, Within One Hundred Degrees of the South Pole. Coni. pp. 159–. 
  13. ^ a b Arellano Ferro, A. (1981). "A survey of variable yellow supergiants in the southern Milky Way". Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 93: 351. Bibcode:1981PASP...93..351A. doi:10.1086/130837. 
  14. ^ Evans, L.; Francis, Ch. (1969). "The open cluster IC 2581". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 146 (5): 101. Bibcode:1969MNRAS.146..101L. doi:10.1093/mnras/146.2.101. 
  15. ^ Ardila, David R.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Makowiecki, Wojciech; Stauffer, John; Song, Inseok; Rho, Jeonghee; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie (2010). "The Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra (SASS)". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement. 191 (2): 301. Bibcode:2010ApJS..191..301A. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/191/2/301. 
  16. ^ Arp, H. C. (1958). "Southern hemisphere photometry II Photoelectric measures of bright stars". Astronomical Journal. 63: 118. Bibcode:1958AJ.....63..118A. doi:10.1086/107703. 
  17. ^ Kholopov, P. N.; Samus, N. N.; Kazarovets, E. V.; Perova, N. B. (1985). "The 67th Name-List of Variable Stars". Information Bulletin on Variable Stars. 2681: 1. Bibcode:1985IBVS.2681....1K. 
  18. ^ Perryman, M. A. C.; Lindegren, L.; Kovalevsky, J.; Hoeg, E.; Bastian, U.; Bernacca, P. L.; Crézé, M.; Donati, F.; Grenon, M.; Grewing, M.; Van Leeuwen, F.; Van Der Marel, H.; Mignard, F.; Murray, C. A.; Le Poole, R. S.; Schrijver, H.; Turon, C.; Arenou, F.; Froeschlé, M.; Petersen, C. S. (1997). "The HIPPARCOS Catalogue". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 323: L49. Bibcode:1997A&A...323L..49P. 
  19. ^ Dubath, P.; Rimoldini, L.; Süveges, M.; Blomme, J.; López, M.; Sarro, L. M.; De Ridder, J.; Cuypers, J.; Guy, L.; Lecoeur, I.; Nienartowicz, K.; Jan, A.; Beck, M.; Mowlavi, N.; De Cat, P.; Lebzelter, T.; Eyer, L. (2011). "Random forest automated supervised classification of Hipparcos periodic variable stars". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 414 (3): 2602. arXiv:1101.2406Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.414.2602D. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18575.x. 
  20. ^ Baumgardt, H.; Detbarn, C.; Wielen, R. (2000). "Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement. 146 (2): 251. arXiv:astro-ph/0010306Freely accessible. Bibcode:2000A&AS..146..251B. doi:10.1051/aas:2000362.