V4 engine

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A V4 engine is a four-cylinder engine with its cylinders arranged in a "V" configuration.

The V4 configuration has seen use in automobiles, motorcycles, marine propulsion, and for industrial/commercial applications.

V4 engine design[edit]

Conceptually, a V4 is a pair of V-twin engines mounted end-to-end. Most V4 designs support the crankshaft with three main bearings and have two crankpins that are shared by opposing cylinders. Odd-numbered cylinders are usually in one bank and even-numbered cylinders in the opposite bank. An exception is the V4 in Honda's VFR1200 motorcycle, which has cylinders 1 and 4 in one bank and 2 and 3 in the other bank.

Compared to an inline-four engine, the advantages of the V4 include compactness, short length along the crankshaft, and with a 90° V-angle, perfect primary balance giving smooth operation.[1] A V4 produces less rocking couple than an inline-four of the same bore and stroke. Also, the V4's short crankshaft is stiffer than an inline-four's crankshaft, making the former less susceptible to the effects of torsional vibration.

A disadvantage is that, as with a V-twin, it is more difficult to locate ancillaries, inlet systems, and exhaust systems. A V4 is usually more expensive to produce than an equivalent in-line four, having two cylinder heads and exhaust manifolds, and thus four distinct parts where an inline engine would have two. The compact 60° V4 is not perfectly smooth and needs a balance shaft.[citation needed] In modern times, the V4's advantages have made it particularly suitable for motorcycles and outboard engines. However, the V4's advantages for mass produced vehicle applications do not overcome the additional costs. The engine's layout requires manufacturing two cylinder heads and exhaust manifolds rather than only one each for a I4.[2] Access for maintenance can also become more difficult.[citation needed]

Automobile use[edit]

One of the earliest V4 internal combustion engines was that designed by Émile Mors of Paris to power his motor-car of 1897. The 90 degree V-angle with central camshaft and spark ignition meant its layout is much like more modern engines, though in this case the inlet valves were operated by suction alone. At the time the lack of vibration from this layout was a key selling point.[3]

In 1907, J. Walter Christie was the first American to compete in the French GP with his car powered by a 19,891 cc (1,214 cu in) V4, the largest engine ever used in a Grand Prix race.[4] The engine was mounted transversely in the front and drove the front wheels. The power was stated as 100 hp, but probably was more. On May 25th 1904 he set a speed record of 164 km/h.[5]

The V4 engine has not been widely used in cars. AMC, Ford, Lancia, and ZAZ were the only companies to manufacture such an engine.[6]

Lancia produced several narrow-angle V4 engines from the early 1920[7] through the 1960s for cars like the Lambda, Augusta, Artena, Aprilia, Ardea, Appia, and Fulvia.

From 1960 to 1963, American Motors Corporation (AMC) produced a 108 cu in (1.8 L) air-cooled V4 engine that was used in AMC's lightweight aluminium-bodied M422 'Mighty Mite' military vehicle, as an air transportable (by the helicopters of the time) Jeep for the United States Marine Corps.[8][9] This engine was not designed for civilian passenger car use.

Ford of Europe produced two totally different V4 engines (with four crankpins) and a balance shaft, one in the UK and one in Germany:

The Ukrainian manufacturer ZAZ used an air-cooled V4 with a balance shaft, produced by MeMZ and used in Zaporozhets and LuAZ cars.[15]

In 2014, Porsche announced that their 919 Hybrid Le Mans Prototype would use a small-capacity, turbocharged V4 engine.[16]

Variable displacement[edit]

In modern cars with V8 engines and variable displacement technology, the engine will enter "V4 mode" during light load conditions such as highway cruising. This technology is known as Active Fuel Management in the Chevrolet Corvette and Multi-Displacement System in the Dodge Challenger.

Motorcycle use[edit]

Cutaway view of the V4 engine of a Yamaha V-Max
Longitudinal V4 engine in a Honda ST1100 with its fairing removed

In the 1930s, the Matchless Silver Hawk used a narrow-angle V4, while Puch used a very wide-angle V4. V4 engines are more recently found in motorcycles, typically transversely mounted. This engine design enjoyed particular popularity during the mid-to-late 1980s, especially in Honda motorcycles.[17] Models with V4 engines include:

Other uses[edit]

Wisconsin Motor Manufacturing Company began producing air-cooled engines in 1929, and added a V4 design in 1935.[18] The company discontinued its water-cooled versions by 1939, and manufactured only air-cooled V4 petrol (gasoline) engines in various displacements for industrial, agricultural, and stationary applications.[18] Farm equipment manufacturers sourced Wisconsin V4s as they offered compact size and good power output.[19] In 1968, the largest in the Wisconsin gasoline line was the new V-465D, a 177 cu in (2.9 L) V4 rated at 65.9 hp (49 kW; 67 PS) at 3000 rpm.[20] Standard features include controlled pressurized lubrication to provide full-time oiling to all working parts, as well as automatic protection against overheating.[19] Wisconsin Motors continues to produce V4 engines for specialized applications.[21]

Turner Manufacturing Co (Wolverhampton, England) developed a V4 water-cooled diesel engine in the mid-1940s for a variety of industrial and marine uses, and used it in their own "Yeoman of England" agricultural tractor from 1949 to 1957.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries manufactured a series of unique V4 diesel engines named 4ZF, for use in several Japan Ground Self-Defense Force vehicles such as Type 73 Armored Personnel Carrier and its derivatives.

Another use of the V4 engine is in outboard motors. They are two-stroke cycle and generally carbureted. Some of the largest manufacturers are Johnson, Evinrude, and Yamaha. This type of engine is popular because of its small size, while still producing 140 hp (104 kW; 142 PS), or more.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dusil, Tomáš (17 May 2017). "Automobilový vidlicový čtyřválec (V4): Proč se skoro nepoužívá? - Auto.cz". AUTO.CZ (in Czech). Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  2. ^ Torchinsky, Jason. "Why Are V4 Engines So Rare?". Jalopnik. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  3. ^ "The Mors Motor-Car". The Automotor and Horseless Carriage Journal: 272–273. March 1897.
  4. ^ "Top 10, motores V4 como el de Porsche en Le Mans". Revista CAR: coches y actualidad del mundo del motor (in Spanish). 17 July 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  5. ^ Klassiker: Walters V4
  6. ^ "Obsolete Engines 101: The Mythical "V4"". Car Throttle. 10 September 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  7. ^ "100 Years of Motoring". The Motor: 52. 25 May 1985. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  8. ^ "Mighty Mite M422". 4WD Online. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  9. ^ Morr, Tom (1 January 2013). "1961 AMC M422A1 Mighty Mite - Tin Soldier". Four Wheeler Network. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  10. ^ Lee, Peter (2015). Ford Transit: Fifty Years. Crowood. ISBN 9781847978745. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  11. ^ Cole, Lance (2011). SAAB 99 & 900: The Complete Story. Crowood. ISBN 9781847973528. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  12. ^ McCourt, Mark J. (December 2017). "1971 Saab 96 V4: A Ford-sourced engine gave this Swede a new lease on life". Hemmings Motor News. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  13. ^ Henshaw, Peter (2004). Sports Cars: 500 Series. MBI Publishing. p. 178. ISBN 9780760319956. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  14. ^ "Ford Builds a Bomb: the Mustang". Popular Mechanics. 118 (5): 93–95, 228. November 1962. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  15. ^ Baldwin, Nick (1987). The World guide to automobile manufacturers. Facts on File Publications. p. 530. ISBN 9780816018444. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  16. ^ "Porsche starts in Le Mans with four works cars". Porsche AG. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
  17. ^ "Historical V4's". Honda Media Newsroom. American Honda Motor Co. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  18. ^ a b Swanson, David (2003). "Early History Of The Wisconsin Motor Company". Wisconsin Motors Canada. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  19. ^ a b "Wisconsin Motors advertisement". Product Engineering. 32: 415. 1961. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  20. ^ "Wisconsin Motors Corp". Automotive Industries. 138: 64. 1968. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  21. ^ "Products". Wisconsin Engines. Retrieved 14 January 2016.

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