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V6 PRV engine

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PRV engine
ManufacturerFrançaise de Mécanique
Configuration90° V6
Displacement2,458 cc (2.5 L; 150.0 cu in)
2,664 cc (2.7 L; 162.6 cu in)
2,849 cc (2.8 L; 173.9 cu in)
2,963 cc (3.0 L; 180.8 cu in)
2,975 cc (3.0 L; 181.5 cu in)
Cylinder bore88 mm (3.46 in)
91 mm (3.58 in)
93 mm (3.66 in)
Piston stroke63 mm (2.48 in)
72.7 mm (2.86 in)
73 mm (2.87 in)
Cylinder block materialAluminium
Cylinder head materialAluminium
ValvetrainSOHC 2 or 4 valves per cyl
DOHC 4 valves per cyl (race engine)
TurbochargerSome versions[which?]
Fuel systemCarburetor
Fuel injection
Fuel typeGasoline
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Power output97–300 kW (132–408 PS; 130–402 bhp)
Torque output208–520 N⋅m (153–384 lbf⋅ft)
SuccessorV6 ESL engine
Volvo Modular engine

The V6 PRV engine is an automobile petrol V6 engine that was developed jointly by Peugeot, Renault and Volvo Cars – and sold from 1974 to 1998. It was gradually replaced after 1994 by another joint PSA-Renault design, known as the ES engine at PSA and the L engine at Renault. It was designed and manufactured by the company "Française de Mécanique" for PSA, Renault and Volvo.

Corporate history[edit]

In 1966, Peugeot and Renault entered a cooperative agreement to manufacture common components. The first joint subsidiary, La Française de Mécanique (also called Compagnie Française de Mécanique or simply FM) was launched in 1969. The FM factory was built in Douvrin near Lens in northern France. The PRV engines are sometimes referred to as "Douvrin" engines, though that name is more commonly applied to a family of straight-fours produced at the same time.

In 1971, Volvo joined Peugeot and Renault in the creation of the PRV company, a public limited company (plc) in which each of the three manufacturers owned an equal portion. The company originally planned to build V8 engines, although these were later scrapped in favor of a smaller and more fuel-efficient V6.

The PRV engine could be seen as a V8 with two missing cylinders, having a 90-degree angle between cylinder banks, rather than the customary 60, but with crankpins being 120 degrees apart. The Maserati V6 of the Citroën SM followed a remarkably similar pattern of development.

The 1973 energy crisis, and taxes levied against engine displacement greater than 2.8 litres made large V8 engines somewhat undesirable, and expanded the market for smaller displacement engines.

Additionally, Renault needed a V6 engine to fit in its new model, the Renault 30. Renault's internal designation for the PRV was Z-Type.

Machinery for assembling the engines arrived at Douvrin in early June 1973, and buildings for producing the engines were finished in January 1974. The first PRV engines were officially introduced on 3 October 1974 in the Volvo 264. Adoption was swift, and the PRV V6 had been sold in at least five different models by the end of 1975.

The B27 was the first version used in a Volvo model, being used in the Volvo 264/265 until 1980. The B28 was also used in the Volvo 264/265 and in a rare version of the 240 GLT (244/245 GLT 6) between 1980 and 1983, and in the Volvo 760 between 1982 and 1986. The last version of the PRV engine in a Volvo was the B280, installed in the Volvo 760 from 1987 to 1990 and in the Volvo 780 (all model years). The Volvo 262 C was also fitted with the PRV, the first years with the B27 and the last years with the B28. The B280 was significantly changed; only the engine block remained the same as the B27/B28, the rest is different. The B280 was also installed in a small number of 960s in 1991.

In 1984, the first commercially available turbocharged PRV V6 was sold in the Renault 25 V6 Turbo. This was the first to be even-fire with split crankpins, and was the first of the second generation, and indeed EFI engine of any sort. Turbocharged versions went on to be used in the Renault Alpine GTA V6 Turbo (essentially the same engine as the 25 Turbo at 2.5 L (2,458 cc), Renault Alpine A610, and Renault Safrane Bi-turbo – both with 3.0 L (2,963 cc) low compression. Naturally aspirated 2963 cc and 2975 cc versions of both low- and high-compression 3-litre engines appeared in a number of Peugeot, Citroën and Renault cars until 1997.

While Renault were working forced induction into the PRV, Peugeot and Citroën developed their own 24-valve engines as an option in the 605 and XM respectively. The compression remained the same as the Renault 12v, but the pistons differed, as did some of the timing gear, and the heads were re-engineered to allow easier maintenance (the camshaft being fitted from the opposite end for example). This engine was however extremely expensive, and suffered cam wear problems. This was due to the exhaust valves sharing a single lobe, while each inlet valve had its own lobe. This was at least partially solved by the use of ceramic followers as one of a succession of recalls.

Meanwhile, French supercar manufacturer Venturi had been developing their own versions of the PRV. The most powerful versions they built were in the Atlantique 300 at 207 kilowatts (281 PS; 278 bhp) from a turbocharged, 12-valve 3.0 L iteration, and they successfully raced at the 24 Hours of Le Mans with the 600LM with a twin turbocharged, 24-valve 3.0-litre, pushing out over 450 kilowatts (610 hp) in race spec, and the road-going spin-off, the 400GT managed 300 kilowatts (408 PS; 402 bhp). This used the low compression bottom end common to the Renault turbo engines, coupled to 24-valve cylinder heads with bespoke rockers and tappets.

Peugeot too allowed a small group of engineers to create a team for endurance racing, and after a few years the team grew to be called WM Peugeot. The ultimate version of the car used a low compression 3.0-litre bottom end coupled to bespoke twin-cam heads. It is the only DOHC PRV. This car still holds the top speed record at 24 Hours of Le Mans set in 1988. By taping over the engine cooling intakes to improve aerodynamics, the team managed to push the car to 407 kilometres per hour (253 mph) on the 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) straight before the engine was destroyed.

Volvo began to withdraw from the PRV consortium in the late 1980s and the year model 1991 was the last year for the PRV in a Volvo, shifting its powerplant reliance onto in-house inline engines. Peugeot, Renault and Citroën continued using the PRV until 1997.

After producing 970,315 units, production of the PRV V6 was stopped on 15 June 1998.


Uneven firing order[edit]

The original engineering work done on the V8 engine can still be seen in the resulting V6 engine: its cylinder banks are arranged at 90°,[1] instead of the much more common 60°. V8 engines nearly universally feature 90° configurations, because this allows a natural firing order. V6 engines, on the other hand, produce even firing intervals between cylinders when their two banks of cylinders are arranged at 60°. 90-degree V6 engines, like the PRV, experience uneven firing, which can be addressed using split crankshaft journals. 90° V6 engines are shorter (less tall, not less long) and wider than 60° engines, allowing lower engine bay hood/bonnet profiles.

First-generation PRV engines (1974–1985) featured uneven firing order. Second-generation PRV engines (introduced in 1984 in the Renault 25 Turbo) featured split crankshaft journals to create evenly spaced ignition events.[2] Other similar design examples are the odd-fire and even-fire Buick V6 and the Maserati V6 seen in the Citroën SM.

PRV varieties[edit]


Displacement 2458 cc 2664 cc 2849 cc 2963 cc 2975 cc
Bore × stroke 91 mm × 63 mm 88 mm × 73 mm 91 mm × 73 mm 93 mm × 72.7 mm 93 mm × 73 mm
Number of valves 12 12 or 24
Engine aspiration Turbo Naturally aspirated Naturally aspirated or turbo
Compression ratio 8.2-8.6:1 8.8-9.5:1 8.8-10.5:1 9.5:1
7.6:1 (turbo)
7.3–7.6:1 (turbo)
Power 134–136 kW (182–185 PS; 180–182 bhp) at 5500 rpm 92–110 kW (125–150 PS; 123–148 bhp) at 5500–6000 rpm 95–143 kW (129–194 PS; 127–192 bhp) at 5500–6000 rpm 123–147 kW (167–200 PS; 165–197 bhp) at 5500–6000 rpm

184 kW (250 PS; 247 bhp) at 5000–5750 rpm (turbo)
123–147 kW (167–200 PS; 165–197 bhp) at 5600–6000 rpm

184–300 kW (250–408 PS; 247–402 bhp) at 5750 rpm (turbo)
Torque 276–288 N⋅m (204–212 lbf⋅ft) at 2200–4000 rpm 207–218 N⋅m (153–161 lbf⋅ft) at 3000–3500 rpm 207–255 N⋅m (153–188 lbf⋅ft) at 2750–4000 rpm 235–260 N⋅m (173–192 lbf⋅ft) at 3600–4600 rpm

350 N⋅m (258 lbf⋅ft) at 2900 rpm (turbo)
235–260 N⋅m (173–192 lbf⋅ft) at 3600–4600 rpm

350–456 N⋅m (258–336 lbf⋅ft) at 2900 rpm (turbo)
Firing order 1-6-3-5-2-4
Mass 150 kg (331 lb)[4]

PRV powered automobiles[edit]

PRV engine in a DeLorean

The dates following each entry denote the introduction of a PRV V6-equipped models.

PRV engines in racing[edit]

The PRV was also the basis for the 90° V6 engine used by Alfa Romeo in the 155 V6 Ti in the 1996 DTM/ITC season from Silverstone onwards.[6] The engines in that series required the use of bank separation angle and cylinder bore spacing from a production based engine, and as a 90° V6 has greater room between banks than a 60° V6 for a more optimal induction system, Alfa Romeo used the PRV as a basis as it had been used in the Lancia Thema, a car which shared its platform with the Alfa Romeo 164, as well as the Fiat Croma and Saab 9000.[7]

Other sources[8] declare that the 90° V6 engine in 1996 Alfa Romeo 155 V6 Ti is based on a 2.6 L V8 from 1970 Alfa Romeo Montreal with two cylinders removed, as allowed by the rules, however the FIA homologation documentation shows the homologated production engine was a "2850cm³" capacity "V6" engine. The bore spacing of the Montreal engine was too close to be suitable for the 155 V6 Ti in any case. Limone invented the "Montreal V8" story to throw the press off the scent and to satisfy FIAT management who were unhappy that a non-FIAT group developed engine was being used.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ WM 1988 entry was built for speed, not meant to endure 24 hours; it failed after just 59 laps[5]


  1. ^ "Peugeot 604 SL". PRV V6 Engine. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  2. ^ "The Brief History of the Douvrin PRV V6 Engine". The Douvrin PRV V6 Resource Centre. Archived from the original on 12 September 2004. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  3. ^ Citroën Technical bulletin for XM. Bulletin binder number MAN 058930
  4. ^ "The Douvrin PRV V6 Resource Centre". Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  5. ^ a b Kristensen, Stefan (2 March 2022). "What's the Speed Record on the Mulsanne Straight?". Motorsport Explained. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  6. ^ YouTube: Limone Racconta: La verità sul motore Alfa 155 V6 Ti + 156 e Fulvia Concept - Davide Cironi (SUBS) - YouTube, accessdate: 26. July 2018
  7. ^ a b Collins, Peter (2012). Alfa Romeo 155/156/147 Competition Touring Cars. Dorset, England: Veloce Publishing. pp. 91–94. ISBN 978-1-845843-42-7.
  8. ^ "Registro Italiano Alfa Romeo 155". Alfa Romeo 155 V6 Ti (in Italian). Retrieved 27 April 2013.

External links[edit]