|Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 122|
|Active||March 1, 1942–present|
|Country||United States of America|
|Branch||United States Marine Corps|
|Role||Close air support
|Part of||Marine Aircraft Group 31
2nd Marine Aircraft Wing
|Garrison/HQ||Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort|
|Nickname(s)||Werewolves (January, 2008-present)
Crusaders (1957-January 4, 2008)
"The Last Blue Collar Squadron"
|Engagements||World War II
* Battle of New Georgia
Operation Desert Storm
Operation Iraqi Freedom
|Col. Gregory "Pappy" Boyington
MGen. Marion E. Carl
LtCol. John Fogg
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 122 (VMFA-122) is a United States Marine Corps F/A-18 Hornet squadron. The squadron, known as the "Werewolves", is based out of Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina and fall under the command of Marine Aircraft Group 31 (MAG-31) and the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing (2nd MAW). Their traditional call sign is "Nikel".
Conduct anti-air warfare and offensive air support operations in support of Fleet Marine Forces from advance bases, expeditionary airfields, and aircraft carriers, and to conduct such other air operations as may be directed.
World War II
Marine Fighter Squadron 122 (VMF-122) was commissioned on March 1, 1942 at Camp Kearny in San Diego, California. Outfitted with the F4F Wildcat, the squadron, then known as the "Candystripers", saw their first combat tour in October 1942. During this tour they were part of the Cactus Air Force at Henderson Field and also operated out of Espiritu Santo. In April 1943, while under the command of Major Pappy Boyington, the squadron transitioned to the F4U Corsair and accounted for 35½ kills. The squadron's first combat tour ended on July 23, 1943 after which they returned to Marine Corps Air Station Miramar on August 16. For the next year after their return to the States, the squadron was reorganized and retrained at Marine Corps Air Station El Centro, California.
For its second tour, VMF-122's flight echelon embarked upon the escort carrier USS Hollandia in July 1944 while the ground echelon steamed out on the USS Tryon. Beginning in October 1944 both echelons would be reunited when they were reunited and began operating from an airstrip on Peleliu. At times they provided close air support for Marines during the Battle of Peleliu at distances of just over 1000 yards from where they took off. The squadrons ability to provide napalm and rockets, both new weapons systems, greatly aided in the destruction of the last Japanese strongholds on the island. For the remainder of the war they remained on the island conducting combat operations until August 1945.
Following the surrender of Japan, VMF-122 returned home to Marine Corps Auxiliary Air Station Oak Grove, North Carolina in January 1946. They remained there for less than two years before being moved to MCAS Beaufort which was followed by another move to Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina.
The squadron was reactivated in November 1947, flying the FH Phantom, becoming the first Marine squadron to employ jet-propelled aircraft. During this time, the squadron also fielded the first and only Marine aerial demonstration team known as the "Flying Leathernecks". They toured the country for two years before being disbanded with the transition to the F2H Banshee. In April 1951, the squadron became the first Marine jet squadron to be both day and night qualified for carrier operations. On 15 May 1951, the squadron deployed from Naval Air Station Quonset Point aboard the USS Oriskany to the Mediterranean Sea, returning to the Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point in early October 1951. In 1952, they again transitioned to the F9F Panther and after a Mediterranean cruise in 1953, they were assigned to Marine Aircraft Group 24 at MCAS Cherry Point.
January 1954 again saw the squadron transitioning aircraft, this time to the FJ Fury. The next few years saw a litany of small deployments on board a multitude of aircraft carriers. The squadron relocated to Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort in September 1957 and in December of that year they became the first squadron in the Marine Corps to fly the F-8 Crusader. It was at this time that they transitioned from being the "Candystripers" to the new nickname of "Crusaders." The squadron became VMF(AW)-122 upon receiving all weather capable F-8Es in 1962. That year they also deployed to Key West, Florida to fly combat air patrol during the Cuban missile crisis.
In 1964, VMF(AW)-122 deployed to Naval Air Facility Atsugi for a year and returned to Marine Corps Air Station El Toro in January 1965. While at MCAS El Toro they transitioned to the F-4B Phantom and were redesignated VMFA-122. They deployed to the Republic of Vietnam in August 1967 and operated from Da Nang Air Base. For the next five months, the squadron flew 2540 sorties and delivered 4800 tons of ordnance. In February 1968, while supporting Marines during the Siege of Khe Sanh the squadron flew 629 sorties and dropped 1300 tons of ordnance. They rotated to Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni in September 1968 and returned to Vietnam during the summer of 1969, this time operating from Chu Lai Air Base.
1970s through 1990s
Following their time in Vietnam, the Crusaders were assigned to MCAS Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii in September 1970. They were then ordered to MCAS Iwakuni, Japan as a Joint Chiefs of Staff directive to counter a North Vietnamese offensive against South Vietnam. The squadron returned to Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii on 27 December 1972. On August 14, 1974, VMFA-122 was placed in a cadre status in anticipation of becoming the Marine Corps’ first F-14A squadron. With the decision not to accept the Tomcat into the Marine Corps inventory, VMFA-122 was reactivated at MCAS Beaufort, South Carolina and refitted with the F-4J in September 1975. On September 25, 1985, VMFA-122 flew its last F-4 sortie, completing 20 years of service as a F-4 “Phantom” squadron.
On January 22, 1986, the squadron began a new era with the acceptance of its first F/A-18A Hornet. Throughout the 1980s, 1990s, and into the 2000s (decade), VMFA-122 conducted multiple training deployments to Europe and throughout the United States.
Global War on Terror
In October 2001, the Crusaders increased their combat capabilities by transitioning to the F/A-18C. The squadron participated in the Unit Deployment Program (UDP), completing eleven deployments to the Western Pacific. From July 2002 to July 2003, the Crusaders completed a year-long UDP due to the "stop-move" order implemented by the Marine Corps. This allowed Hornet squadrons from Beaufort to deploy to Kuwait in anticipation of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) in January 2003. The Crusaders were dispatched from MCAS Iwakuni to many locations in the Pacific Rim, including Marine Corps Air Facility Kaneohe Bay in Hawaii and Clark AB in the Philippines. In January 2005, the “Crusaders” continued the UDP rotation, deploying to MCAS Iwakuni, Japan. In September 2006 the "Crusaders" again returned to MCAS Iwakuni with detachments to Clark AB in the Philippines, Kadena Air Force Base on Okinawa, and Khorat, Thailand.
Prior to another squadron deployment in support of OIF later in 2008, the squadron's commander reverted the unit to their older World War II nickname, the Werewolves. The squadron began its first combat deployment in more than 30 years when it left MCAS Beaufort on August 29, 2010 for Kandahar Airfield, KAF. The Werewolves returned from their seven-month deployment on March 21, 2009. In April, 2012, the new commander of VMFA-122, LtCol Wiegel, decided the squadron would revert to the "Crusaders" nickname. However, after the nonprofit Military Religious Freedom Foundation threatened to sue the military under the Establishment Clause to forbid the Crusaders name and logo, the Marine Deputy Commandant for aviation directed VMFA-122 to revert the unit identification back to "Werewolves."
A unit citation or commendation is an award bestowed upon an organization for the action cited. Members of the unit who participated in said actions are allowed to wear on their uniforms the awarded unit citation. VMFA-122 has been presented with the following awards:
|Presidential Unit Citation Streamer||7 August - 9 December 1942||Guadalcanal-Tulagi|
|Navy Unit Commendation Streamer||15 September 1944 - 31 January 1945||Peleliu-Western Carolines|
|National Defense Service Streamer with three Bronze Stars||1950–1954, 1961–1974, 1990–1995, 2001–present||Korean War, Vietnam War, Gulf War, War on Terrorism|
|Vietnam Service Streamer|
|Iraq Campaign Streamer|
|Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Streamer|
|Global War on Terrorism Service Streamer||2001–present|
- United States Marine Corps Aviation
- List of active United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons
- List of inactive United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons
- Sherrod History of USMC Aviation in WWII, p.457.
- Simmons A History, p.166.
- Crowder USMC Aviation, p.47.
- Hilliard, Dan (January 5, 2008). "Attack squadron changes commanders, moniker". Leatherneck Magazine.
- Donohue, Patrick (August 13, 2008). "Bittersweet: Air Station to welcome home squadrons while others deploy". The Beaufort Gazette. Retrieved 2008-08-24.[dead link]
- Donohue, Patrick (August 30, 2008). "A tearful goodbye as squadrons depart for Iraq". =The Beaufort Gazette. Archived from the original on 2008-09-10. Retrieved 2008-08-30.
- Cpl. Zahn, Christopher (March 27, 2009). "Welcome Home - Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 122 Werewolves Return". Digital Video and Image Distribution System. Retrieved 2009-04-14.
- Huus, Kari (May 24, 2012). "Marine Werewolves transform into Crusaders, and back again". MSNBC. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps.
- Crowder, Michael J. (2000). United States Marine Corps Aviation Squadron Lineage, Insignia & History - Volume One - The Fighter Squadrons. Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 1-56311-926-9.
- Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). U.S. Marine Corps World War II Order of Battle - Ground and Air Units in the Pacific War, 1939–1945’’. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31906-5.
- Sherrod, Robert (1952). History of Marine Corps Aviation in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Combat Forces Press.
- Simmons, Edwin (1974). The United States Marines: A History. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-840-2.
- VMFA-122's official website
- "MARINE FIGHTER ATTACK SQUADRON 122 - The Crusaders" (PDF). VMFA-122. 2006. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
- "P-MAN IV - p. 7". The Bent Prop Project. Retrieved 2007-03-30.