Virtual Extensible LAN
Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) is a network virtualization technology that attempts to improve the scalability problems associated with large cloud computing deployments. It uses a VLAN-like encapsulation technique to encapsulate MAC-based OSI layer 2 Ethernet frames within layer 4 UDP packets, using 4789 as the default IANA-assigned destination UDP port number. VXLAN endpoints, which terminate VXLAN tunnels and may be both virtual or physical switch ports, are known as VXLAN tunnel endpoints (VTEPs).
VXLAN is an evolution of efforts to standardize on an overlay encapsulation protocol. It increases scalability up to 16 million logical networks and allows for layer 2 adjacency across IP networks. Multicast or unicast with HER (Head-End Replication) is used to flood BUM (broadcast, unknown destination address, multicast) traffic.
The VXLAN specification was originally created by VMware, Arista Networks and Cisco. Other backers of the VXLAN technology include Huawei, Broadcom, Citrix, Pica8, Cumulus Networks, Dell, Mellanox, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Red Hat, Joyent, and Juniper Networks.
VXLAN was officially documented by the IETF in RFC 7348.
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- "Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) Best Practices (White Paper)" (PDF). Cisco Systems. 2016-01-08. Retrieved 2016-07-04.
- Andre Pech (2013-11-08). "Running OpenStack over a VXLAN Fabric" (PDF). openstack.org. pp. 8, 12. Retrieved 2016-07-04.
- "Open vSwitch Manual: vtep – hardware_vtep database schema". openvswitch.org. Retrieved 2016-07-04.
- "Arista Expands Leaf Switch Product Portfolio" (Press release). Arista Networks. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
Arista’s updated VXLAN implementation eliminates the need for multicast in the underlay network by using Head End Replication for forwarding broadcast, multicast and unknown unicast traffic
- Timothy Prickett Morgan (30 August 2011). "VMware, Cisco stretch virtual LANs across the heavens". The Register. Retrieved 2013-02-25.
- "Arista and VMware have coauthored a new standard in cloud networking: the Virtual eXtensible LAN (VXLAN)" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-12-01.
- "Huawei CE12800 Series Data Center Switches - Huawei products". Huawei. December 2012.
- Timothy Pricket Morgan (April 23, 2013). "Mellanox adds VM-flitting to ConnectX-3 adapters - Going Pro with VXLAN". The Register.
- "FreeBSD 10.2-RELEASE Release Notes". The FreeBSD Project. The FreeBSD Project. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- Reyk Floeter (October 14, 2013). "OpenBSD vxlan implementation". Reyk Floeter.
- M. Mahalingam; et al. (February 22, 2013). "VXLAN: A Framework for Overlaying Virtualized Layer 2 Networks over Layer 3 Networks". Retrieved 2013-02-25.
- Mahalingam, Mallik; Dutt, Dinesh G.; et al. (August 2014). VXLAN: A Framework for Overlaying Virtualized Layer 2 Networks over Layer 3 Networks. IETF. RFC 7348. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7348.
- VXLAN Deep Dive: Part 1 and Part 2, November 2012, by Joe Onisick
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