Vaccenic acid

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Vaccenic acid
Skeletal formula
Ball-and-stick model
IUPAC name
(11E)-Octadec-11-enoic acid
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.010.691
Molar mass 282.461 g/mol
Melting point 44 °C (111 °F)
Boiling point 172 °C (342 °F)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Vaccenic acid is a naturally occurring trans fatty acid. It is the predominant kind of trans-fatty acid found in human milk, in the fat of ruminants, and in dairy products such as milk, butter, and yogurt.[1][2] Trans fat in human milk may depend on trans fat content in food.[3][4]

Its IUPAC name is (11E)-11-octadecenoic acid, and its lipid shorthand name is 18:1 trans-11. The name was derived from the Latin vacca (cow).[4]

Vaccenic acid was discovered in 1928 in animal fats and butter. Mammals convert it into rumenic acid, a conjugated linoleic acid,[5][6] where it shows anticarcinogenic properties.[7]

Its stereoisomer, cis-vaccenic acid, is an omega-7 fatty acid, is found in Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) oil.[8] Its IUPAC name is (11Z)-11-octadecenoic acid, and its lipid shorthand name is 18:1 cis-11.


A 2008 study at the University of Alberta suggests that vaccenic acid feeding in rats over 16 weeks resulted in lowered total cholesterol, lowered LDL cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels. The researchers are preparing to conduct further research, including human clinical trials.[9]

Vaccenic acid is also found in human orbitofrontal cortex of patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.[10][11]

Alkaline phosphatase inhibited 25% by vaccenic acid in osteoblasts.[12]

Oxidation of omega-7 unsaturated fatty acids on the skin surface, such as palmitoleic acid and vaccenic acid, may be the cause of the phenomenon commonly known as old person smell.[13]


  1. ^ Bowerman, Susan (May 19, 2008). "Now there are good trans fats?". Los Angeles Times.
  2. ^ Precht D, Molkentin J (August 1999). "C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 trans and cis fatty acid isomers including conjugated cis delta 9, trans delta 11 linoleic acid (CLA) as well as total fat composition of German human milk lipids". Nahrung. 43 (4): 233–44. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3803(19990801)43:4<233::AID-FOOD233>3.0.CO;2-B. PMID 10481820.
  3. ^ Friesen R, Innis SM (October 2006). "Trans fatty acids in human milk in Canada declined with the introduction of trans fat food labeling". J. Nutr. 136 (10): 2558–61. doi:10.1093/jn/136.10.2558. PMID 16988126.
  4. ^ a b Destaillats F, Buyukpamukcu E, Golay PA, Dionisi F, Giuffrida F (2005). "Letter to the Editor: Vaccenic and Rumenic Acids, A Distinct Feature of Ruminant Fats". Journal of Dairy Science. 88 (449): 449. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72705-3.
  5. ^ Bauman, Dale. "cis-9, trans-11 CLA - A Potent Anticarcinogen Found in Milk Fat". Archived from the original on 2006-09-07. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
  6. ^ Banni S, Angioni E, Murru E, Carta G, Melis M, Bauman D, Dong Y, Ip C (2001). "Vaccenic acid feeding increases tissue levels of conjugated linoleic acid and suppresses development of premalignant lesions in rat mammary gland". Nutr Cancer. 41 (1–2): 91–7. doi:10.1080/01635581.2001.9680617. PMID 12094634.
  7. ^ Lock AL, Corl BA, Barbano DM, Bauman DE, Ip C (October 1, 2004). "The anticarcinogenic effect of trans-11 18:1 is dependent on its conversion to cis-9, trans-11 CLA by delta9-desaturase in rats". J Nutr. 134 (10): 2698–704. PMID 15465769. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
  8. ^ Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food - Institute for Lipid Research. "Seed Oil Fatty Acids Database".
  9. ^ AFNS. Alberta natural trans fat research earns global recognition Archived 2008-06-15 at the Wayback Machine. April 2, 2008.
  10. ^ McNamara, RK; Jandacek, R; Rider, T; Tso, P; Hahn, CG; Richtand, NM; Stanford, KE (2007). "Abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients: gender differences and partial normalization with antipsychotic medications". Schizophr Res. 91 (1–3): 37–50. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.11.027. PMC 1853256. PMID 17236749.
  11. ^ McNamara, RK; Jandacek, R; Rider, T; Tso, P; Stanford, KE; Hahn, CG; Richtand, NM (2008). "Deficits in docosahexaenoic acid and associated elevations in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids in the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of patients with bipolar disorder". Psychiatry Research. 160 (3): 285–299. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2007.08.021. PMC 2620106. PMID 18715653.
  12. ^ Hamazaki K, Suzuki N, Kitamura K, Hattori A, Nagasawa T, Itomura M, Hamazaki T (June 2016). "Is vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7) associated with an increased incidence of hip fracture? An explanation for the calcium paradox". Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 109: 8–12. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2016.04.001. PMID 27269708.
  13. ^ Haze S, Gozu Y, Nakamura S, Kohno Y, Sawano K, Ohta H, Yamazaki K (April 2001). "2-Nonenal newly found in human body odor tends to increase with aging". J. Invest. Dermatol. 116 (4): 520–4. doi:10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.01287.x. PMID 11286617.