Vaccenic acid

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Vaccenic acid
Skeletal formula
Ball-and-stick model
Preferred IUPAC name
(11E)-Octadec-11-enoic acid
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.010.691 Edit this at Wikidata
  • InChI=1S/C18H34O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20/h7-8H,2-6,9-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20)/b8-7+ checkY
  • InChI=1/C18H34O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20/h7-8H,2-6,9-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20)/b8-7+
Molar mass 282.461 g/mol
Melting point 44 °C (111 °F)
Boiling point 172 °C (342 °F)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)

Vaccenic acid is a naturally occurring trans fatty acid. It is the predominant kind of trans-fatty acid found in human milk, in the fat of ruminants, and in dairy products such as milk, butter, and yogurt.[1][2] Trans fat in human milk may depend on trans fat content in food.[3][4]

Its IUPAC name is (11E)-11-octadecenoic acid, and its lipid shorthand name is 18:1 trans-11. The name was derived from the Latin vacca (cow).[4]

Vaccenic acid was discovered in 1928 in animal fats and butter. Mammals convert it into rumenic acid, a conjugated linoleic acid,[5][6] where it shows anticarcinogenic properties.[7]

Its stereoisomer, cis-vaccenic acid, an omega-7 fatty acid, is found in Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) oil.[8] Its IUPAC name is (11Z)-11-octadecenoic acid, and its lipid shorthand name is 18:1 cis-11.


Vaccenic acid is also found in human orbitofrontal cortex of patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.[9][10]

Alkaline phosphatase inhibited 25% by vaccenic acid in osteoblasts.[11]

Oxidation of omega-7 unsaturated fatty acids on the skin surface, such as palmitoleic acid and vaccenic acid, may be the cause of the phenomenon commonly known as old person smell.[12]

When fed vaccenic acid over 16 weeks, rats exhibited in lowered total cholesterol, lowered LDL cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels.[13]

Two Canadian studies have shown that vaccenic acid could be beneficial compared to vegetable shortenings containing trans fats, or a mixture of pork lard and soy fat, by lowering total LDL and triglyceride levels.[14][15][16][17][18] A study by the US Department of Agriculture showed that vaccenic acid raises both HDL and LDL cholesterol, whereas industrial trans fats only raise LDL with no beneficial effect on HDL.[19]


  1. ^ Bowerman, Susan (May 19, 2008). "Now there are good trans fats?". Los Angeles Times.
  2. ^ Precht D, Molkentin J (August 1999). "C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 trans and cis fatty acid isomers including conjugated cis delta 9, trans delta 11 linoleic acid (CLA) as well as total fat composition of German human milk lipids". Nahrung. 43 (4): 233–44. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3803(19990801)43:4<233::AID-FOOD233>3.0.CO;2-B. PMID 10481820.
  3. ^ Friesen R, Innis SM (October 2006). "Trans fatty acids in human milk in Canada declined with the introduction of trans fat food labeling". J. Nutr. 136 (10): 2558–61. doi:10.1093/jn/136.10.2558. PMID 16988126.
  4. ^ a b Destaillats F, Buyukpamukcu E, Golay PA, Dionisi F, Giuffrida F (2005). "Letter to the Editor: Vaccenic and Rumenic Acids, A Distinct Feature of Ruminant Fats". Journal of Dairy Science. 88 (449): 449. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72705-3. PMID 15653508.
  5. ^ Bauman, Dale. "cis-9, trans-11 CLA - A Potent Anticarcinogen Found in Milk Fat". Archived from the original on 2006-09-07. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
  6. ^ Banni S, Angioni E, Murru E, Carta G, Melis M, Bauman D, Dong Y, Ip C (2001). "Vaccenic acid feeding increases tissue levels of conjugated linoleic acid and suppresses development of premalignant lesions in rat mammary gland". Nutr Cancer. 41 (1–2): 91–7. doi:10.1080/01635581.2001.9680617. PMID 12094634. S2CID 2920114.
  7. ^ Lock AL, Corl BA, Barbano DM, Bauman DE, Ip C (October 1, 2004). "The anticarcinogenic effect of trans-11 18:1 is dependent on its conversion to cis-9, trans-11 CLA by delta9-desaturase in rats". J Nutr. 134 (10): 2698–704. doi:10.1093/jn/134.10.2698. PMID 15465769. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
  8. ^ Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food - Institute for Lipid Research. "Seed Oil Fatty Acids Database".
  9. ^ McNamara, RK; Jandacek, R; Rider, T; Tso, P; Hahn, CG; Richtand, NM; Stanford, KE (2007). "Abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients: gender differences and partial normalization with antipsychotic medications". Schizophr Res. 91 (1–3): 37–50. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.11.027. PMC 1853256. PMID 17236749.
  10. ^ McNamara, RK; Jandacek, R; Rider, T; Tso, P; Stanford, KE; Hahn, CG; Richtand, NM (2008). "Deficits in docosahexaenoic acid and associated elevations in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids in the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of patients with bipolar disorder". Psychiatry Research. 160 (3): 285–299. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2007.08.021. PMC 2620106. PMID 18715653.
  11. ^ Hamazaki K, Suzuki N, Kitamura K, Hattori A, Nagasawa T, Itomura M, Hamazaki T (June 2016). "Is vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7) associated with an increased incidence of hip fracture? An explanation for the calcium paradox". Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 109: 8–12. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2016.04.001. PMID 27269708.
  12. ^ Haze S, Gozu Y, Nakamura S, Kohno Y, Sawano K, Ohta H, Yamazaki K (April 2001). "2-Nonenal newly found in human body odor tends to increase with aging". J. Invest. Dermatol. 116 (4): 520–4. doi:10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.01287.x. PMID 11286617.
  13. ^ AFNS. Alberta natural trans fat research earns global recognition Archived 2008-06-15 at the Wayback Machine. April 2, 2008.
  14. ^ Trans Fats From Ruminant Animals May Be Beneficial – Health News. redOrbit (8 September 2011). Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  15. ^ Bassett, C. M. C.; Edel, A. L.; Patenaude, A. F.; McCullough, R. S.; Blackwood, D. P.; Chouinard, P. Y.; Paquin, P.; Lamarche, B.; Pierce, G. N. (Jan 2010). "Dietary Vaccenic Acid Has Antiatherogenic Effects in LDLr-/- Mice". The Journal of Nutrition. 140 (1): 18–24. doi:10.3945/jn.109.105163. PMID 19923390.
  16. ^ Wang, Flora & Proctor, Spencer (2 April 2008). "Natural trans fats have health benefits, University of Alberta study shows" (Press release). University of Alberta.
  17. ^ Wang Y, Jacome-Sosa MM, Vine DF, Proctor SD (20 May 2010). "Beneficial effects of vaccenic acid on postprandial lipid metabolism and dyslipidemia: Impact of natural trans-fats to improve CVD risk". Lipid Technology. 22 (5): 103–106. doi:10.1002/lite.201000016.
  18. ^ Bassett C, Edel AL, Patenaude AF, McCullough RS, Blackwood DP, Chouinard PY, Paquin P, Lamarche B, Pierce GN (2010). "Dietary Vaccenic Acid Has Antiatherogenic Effects in LDLr−/− Mice". The Journal of Nutrition. 140 (1): 18–24. doi:10.3945/jn.109.105163. PMID 19923390.
  19. ^ David J. Baer, PhD. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Laboratory. New Findings on Dairy Trans Fat and Heart Disease Risk, IDF World Dairy Summit 2010, 8–11 November 2010. Auckland, New Zealand