Vaccinium macrocarpon

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Vaccinium macrocarpon
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Vaccinium
Subgenus: Vaccinium subg. Oxycoccus
V. macrocarpon
Binomial name
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Aiton 1789
  • Vaccinium oxycoccos var. oblongifolium Michx.
  • Schollera macrocarpos (Aiton) Britton
  • Oxycoca macrocarpa (Aiton) Raf.
  • Oxycoccus macrocarpos (Aiton) Pers.
  • Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Aiton) Pers.
  • Oxycoccus palustris var. macrocarpos (Aiton) Pers.
  • Schollera macrocarpa (Aiton) Steud.
  • Vaccinium propinquum Salisb.

Vaccinium macrocarpon, also called large cranberry, American cranberry and bearberry, is a North American species of cranberry in the subgenus Oxycoccus.[3]

The name cranberry, comes from shape of the flower stamen, which looks like a crane's beak.


Vaccinium macrocarpon is a perennial shrub, often ascending (trailing along the surface of the ground for some distance but then curving upwards). It produces white or pink flowers followed by sour-tasting red or pink berries 9–14 mm (0.35–0.55 in) across.[4][5][6]


Vaccinium macrocarpon is native to central and eastern Canada (Ontario to Newfoundland) and the northeastern and north-central United States (Northeast, Great Lakes Region, and Appalachians as far south as North Carolina and Tennessee).[7] It is also naturalized in parts of Europe and scattered locations in North America along western Canada (British Columbia) and the western United States (West Coast).

Human uses[edit]

The species is grown commercially as a cash crop for its edible berries.[8] Many cranberries are grown in wetland soils consisting of alternating layers of organic matter and sand; modern harvesting techniques include temporarily flooding fields, shaking berries loose, and gathering the floating berries.[9] [10] Common uses of the berries includes sauce, jelly, juice, and dried fruit.[11] [12] There is some evidence suggesting that the berries or their juice could be useful in treating or preventing certain urinary tract infections, but this is not certain yet and thus is not substitute for medical management.[13] Some research suggests cranberries may suppress asymptomatic Helicobacter pylori colonization, but they seem to be an inferior treatment compared to antibiotic therapy in symptomatic patients.[14][15][16]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tropicos, Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton
  2. ^ The Plant List, Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton
  3. ^ Oszmiański, Jan; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna; Lachowicz, Sabina; Gorzelany, Józef; Matłok, Natalia (2017-11-11). "Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Cultivars of Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon L)". Journal of Food Science. 82 (11): 2569–2575. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.13924. ISSN 1750-3841. PMID 28973819.
  4. ^ Flora of North America, Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton, 1789. Cranberry, canneberge gros fruits
  5. ^ Aiton, William. 1789. Hortus Kewensis, or, A catalogue of the plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew 2: 13 and plate 7 description in Latin on page 13; full-page color illustration on plate 7 (between pages 12 and 13)
  6. ^ USDA. "Plant Profile for Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)". USDA PLANTS. USDA. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  7. ^ "Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map". Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  8. ^ "Vaccinium macrocarpon American Cranberry, Cranberry PFAF Plant Database". Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  9. ^ University of Massachusetts, Natural History of the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.
  10. ^ "Cranberries: Life Cycle of a Cranberry". Oregon Agriculture in the Classroom. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  11. ^ Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. (2009) [1982]. Edible Wild Plants: A North American Field Guide to Over 200 Natural Foods. New York: Sterling. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-4027-6715-9. OCLC 244766414.
  12. ^ Armstrong, Heather; Armstrong, Charles. "Ways to Use Cranberries". University of Maine Cooperative Extension. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  13. ^ Wang C, Fang C, Chen N, et al. Cranberry-Containing Products for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections in Susceptible Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(13):988–996. doi:
  14. ^ Zhang, L. , Ma, J. , Pan, K. , Go, V. L., Chen, J. and You, W. (2005), Efficacy of Cranberry Juice on Helicobacter pylori Infection: a Double‐Blind, Randomized Placebo‐Controlled Trial. Helicobacter, 10: 139-145. doi:10.1111/j.1523-5378.2005.00301.x
  15. ^ Ora Burger, Itzhak Ofek, Mina Tabak, Ervin I. Weiss, Nathan Sharon, Ishak Neeman, A high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibits Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus, FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, Volume 29, Issue 4, December 2000, Pages 295–301,
  16. ^ Martin Gotteland, Monica Andrews, Marcela Toledo, Loreto Muñoz, Paola Caceres, Alyerina Anziani, Emma Wittig, Hernan Speisky, Gabriela Salazar,Modulation of Helicobacter pylori colonization with cranberry juice and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 in children, Nutrition, Volume 24, Issue 5, 2008,

External links[edit]

  • Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas
  • Zalapa, J.E.; Bougie, T.C.; Bougie, T.A.; Schlautman, B.J.; Wiesman, E.; Guzman, A.; Fajardo, D.A.; Steffan, S.; Smith, T. (6 November 2014). "Clonal diversity and genetic differentiation revealed by SSR markers in wild Vaccinium macrocarpon and Vaccinium oxycoccos". Annals of Applied Biology. 166 (2): 196–207. doi:10.1111/aab.12173.