Vadodara

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Vadodara

Baroda
Cosmopolitan City
Vadodara
NyayM.jpg
Vadodara uni.jpg
Laxmi Vilas Palace (Maratha Palace), Vadodara.JPG
Nyay Mandir in the heart of Vadodara, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda and The Lakshmi Vilas Palace
Nickname(s): 
Sayaji Nagari (City of Sayajirao Gaekwad), Sanskari Nagari (Cultural City)
Vadodara is located in Gujarat
Vadodara
Vadodara
Location of Vadodara in Gujarat
Coordinates: 22°18′N 73°12′E / 22.300°N 73.200°E / 22.300; 73.200Coordinates: 22°18′N 73°12′E / 22.300°N 73.200°E / 22.300; 73.200
CountryIndia India
StateGujarat
DistrictVadodara District
Zone4[1]
Ward25[1][3]
Vadodara Municipal CorporationEstablished 1950
Government
 • BodyVUDA, VMSS
 • MayorJigeesha Sheth
 • Municipal CommissionerAjay Bhadoo
Area
 • Total300 km2 (100 sq mi)
Area rank18
Elevation
129 m (423 ft)
Population
(2011)[4]
 • Total2,065,771[2]
 • Rank20th (3rd in Gujarat State)
Demonym(s)Vadodarian, Barodian
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
390 0XX
Telephone code(91)265
ISO 3166 codeISO 3166-2:IN
Vehicle registrationGJ-06 (Urban)/GJ-29 (Rural)
VillageAhmedabad
Nearest cityBharuch, Anand
Literacy Rate94.5%
Legislature typeMunicipal Corporation
Legislature Strength84[1]
Lok Sabha constituency1[5]
Vidhan Sabha constituency13[6]
ClimateTropical savanna (Köppen: Aw)
Planning agency1 (VUDA)
Distance from Gandhinagar126 kilometres (78 mi) NE (Rail & Air)
Distance from Mumbai395 kilometres (245 mi) S (Rail & Air)
Distance from Ahmedabad100 kilometres (62 mi) NW (Road)
Websitewww.vmc.gov.in

Vadodara (Gujarati pronunciation: [ʋəˈɽodəɾa]; formerly known as Baroda) is the third-largest[7] city in the Western Indian state of Gujarat, after Ahmedabad and Surat. It is the administrative headquarters of Vadodara District and is located on the banks of the Vishwamitri river, 141 kilometres (88 mi) from the state capital Gandhinagar. The railway line and NH 8 that connect Delhi and Mumbai pass through Vadodara. It is known as a Sanskari city of India.

As of 2011, Vadodara had a population of almost 2.065 million people.[8] The city is known for the Lakshmi Vilas Palace, the residence of Baroda State's Maratha royal family, the Gaekwads. It is also the home of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, the largest university in Gujarat. An important industrial, cultural and educational hub of western India, the city houses several institutions of national and regional importance while its major industries include petrochemicals, engineering, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, plastics, IT and foreign exchange services.[citation needed]

History[edit]

The first recorded history of the city is that of the early trader settlers who settled in the region in 812 AD. The province was mainly Hindu-dominated with Hindu kings ruling until 1297. The Gupta Empire was the first power in the region in the early years of the CE. Later, the region was taken over by the Chaulukya dynasty. By this time Muslim rule had spread across India, and the reins of power were then snatched by the Delhi Sultans. The city was ruled for a long time by these Sultans until they were overthrown by the Mughals.

Etymology[edit]

The city used to be called Chandanavati after its ruler Raja Chandan of the Dor tribe of Rajputs. The capital was also known as Virakshetra or Viravati (Land of Warriors). Later on, it was known as Vadpatraka or Vadodará, which according to tradition is a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word vatodar meaning in the belly of the Banyan tree. It is now almost impossible to ascertain when the various changes in the name were made; but early English travellers and merchants mention the town as Brodera,[9] and it is from this that the name Baroda is derived. In 1974, the official name of the city was changed to Vadodara.

In 1907, a small village and township[10] in Michigan, United States, were named after Baroda.

Old Ankotakka[edit]

It is believed that early man lived on the banks of the Mahi River, which formed the floodplain during that age.[11] The movements of these hunter-gatherers, living on the banks of the river, grubbing the roots and killing animals with crude stone tools made out of the cobbles and pebbles available on the river bank, were necessarily controlled by the availability of convenient raw materials for their tools. There is evidence of the existence of early man in the Mahi River valley at a number of sites within 10 to 20 kilometres (6.2 to 12.4 mi) to the north-east of Vadodara. However, no evidence of the existence of these people is found in and around present-day Vadodara. This may be because of the absence of gravels and cobbles on the banks of the Vishwamitri rivulet.[citation needed]

Recent history[edit]

Baroda State was a former Indian State. Vadodara's more recent history began when the Maratha general Pilaji Gaekwad conquered Songadh from the Mughals in 1726.[12] Before the Gaekwads captured Baroda, it was ruled by the Babi Nawabs, who were the officers of the Mughal rulers. Most notably, from 1705–1716, Sardar Senapati Khanderao Dabhade led the Maratha Empire forces in Baroda. Except for a short period, Baroda continued to be in the reign of the Gaekwads from 1734 to 1948. Initially detailed to collect revenue on behalf of the Peshwa in Gujarat, Pilaji Gaekwad remained there to carve out a kingdom for himself. Damajirao, who was son and successor of Pilaji Gaekwad, defeated the Mughal armies and conquered Baroda in 1734.[12] His successors consolidated their power over large tracts of Gujarat, becoming easily the most powerful rulers in the region. After the Maratha defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761,[12] control of the empire by the Peshwas weakened as it became a loose confederacy, and the Gaekwad Maharajas ruled the kingdom until it acceded to Independent Republic of India in 1949. In 1802,[12] the British intervened to defend a Maharaja that had recently inherited the throne from rival claimants, and Vadodara concluded a subsidiary alliance with the British that recognised the Kingdom as a Princely state and allowed the Maharajas of Baroda internal political sovereignty in return for recognising British 'Paramountcy', a form of suzerainty in which the control of the state's foreign affairs was completely surrendered.[citation needed]

The golden period in the Maratha rule of Vadodara started with the accession of Maharaja Sayajirao III in 1875.[12]

Geography[edit]

Vadodara is located at 22°18′N 73°11′E / 22.30°N 73.19°E / 22.30; 73.19 in western India at an elevation of 39 metres (128 ft). It is the 18th-largest city in India with an area of 235 square kilometres (91 sq mi) and a population of 2.1 million, according to the 2010–11 census. The city sits on the banks of the Vishwamitri River, in central Gujarat. The Vishwamitri frequently dries up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of [[1]]. The city is located on the fertile plain between the Mahi and Narmada Rivers. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the cosmopolis falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V (in order of increasing proneness to earthquakes).[13]

Climate[edit]

Despite the roughly 800 mm of precipitation that the city receives annually, Vadodara features a semi-arid climate (BSh) under Köppen's Climate classification due to the area's high potential evapotranspiration. There are three main seasons: Summer, Monsoon and Winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is dry. The weather is hot during March to July, when the average maximum is 40 °C (104 °F), and the average minimum is 23 °C (73 °F). From November to February, the average maximum temperature is 30 °C (86 °F), the average minimum is 15 °C (59 °F), and the climate is extremely dry. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill in January. The southwest monsoon brings a humid climate from mid-June to mid-September. The average rainfall is 93 cm (37 in), but infrequent heavy torrential rains cause the river to flood[14] like the 2005 Gujarat flood or the 2008 Indian floods which were catastrophic.[15]

The highest recorded temperature was 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) on 11 May 1960 crossed with 48.0 °C (118.4 °F) on 19 May 2016,[16] while the lowest recorded temperature was −1.1 °C (30.0 °F) on 15 January 1935.[17]

Climate data for Vadodara
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.2
(97.2)
41.7
(107.1)
44.4
(111.9)
45.9
(114.6)
48.0
(118.4)
45.6
(114.1)
40.6
(105.1)
37.9
(100.2)
41.1
(106)
42.1
(107.8)
39.6
(103.3)
36.8
(98.2)
48
(118.4)
Average high °C (°F) 29.5
(85.1)
31.9
(89.4)
36.2
(97.2)
39.2
(102.6)
40.1
(104.2)
36.8
(98.2)
32.5
(90.5)
31.4
(88.5)
33.0
(91.4)
35.5
(95.9)
33.4
(92.1)
30.7
(87.3)
34.2
(93.5)
Average low °C (°F) 12.5
(54.5)
14.2
(57.6)
18.4
(65.1)
23.0
(73.4)
26.6
(79.9)
27.0
(80.6)
25.8
(78.4)
25.0
(77)
24.5
(76.1)
21.4
(70.5)
16.9
(62.4)
13.7
(56.7)
20.8
(69.4)
Record low °C (°F) −1.1
(30)
1.7
(35.1)
6.7
(44.1)
11.7
(53.1)
18.9
(66)
20.2
(68.4)
21.1
(70)
22.2
(72)
18.9
(66)
11.7
(53.1)
7.2
(45)
3.3
(37.9)
−1.1
(30)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.2
(0.087)
0.7
(0.028)
0.7
(0.028)
1.4
(0.055)
6.1
(0.24)
118.9
(4.681)
274.6
(10.811)
242.4
(9.543)
124.2
(4.89)
26.4
(1.039)
1.3
(0.051)
3.7
(0.146)
802.6
(31.599)
Average rainy days 0 0 0 0 0 9 14 11 7 3 1 0 49
Average relative humidity (%) 45 43 35 33 49 67 80 75 73 62 58 54 56
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1952–2000)[18]
Source #2: Weatherbase (Avg. rainy days)

Economy[edit]

In Vadodara various large-scale industries such as Indian Oil Corporation(IOCL), Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals (GSFC), Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (IPCL, now owned by Reliance Industries Limited) and Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Limited (GACL) have come up in the vicinity of Gujarat Refinery and all of them are dependent on it for their fuel and feedstock. Other large-scale public sector units are Heavy Water Project, Gujarat Industries Power Company Limited (GIPCL), Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) & Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL). In addition to these public sector enterprises, a number of other large-scale enterprises have come up in the private sector such as Bombardier Transportation.[19][20]

Located in Vadodara are over 35% India's power transmission and distribution equipment manufacturers and an estimated 800 ancillaries supporting the big players in Power Sector equipment manufacturing and engineering industry.[21]

In line with the 'Knowledge City'[22] vision of the Confederation of Indian Industry, Vadodara is gradually becoming a hub in Gujarat for IT and other development projects.

Vadodara is also home to the Vadodara Stock Exchange (VSE).

Civic administration[edit]

Vadodara City Officials
Mayor Dr. Jigeeshaben Jatinbhai Sheth[23]
Municipal Commissioner Shri Ajay Bhadoo
'Police Commissioner Manoj Shashidhar

Vadodara is administered by the Vadodara Mahanagar Seva Sadan (VMSS). Some of the regions surrounding the city are administered by the Vadodara Urban Development Authority (VUDA). The VMSS was established in July 1950 under the Bombay Provincial Corporation Act, 1949. For administrative purposes, the city is divided into four zones and 26 wards.[citation needed]

The two main institutions involved in planning and development in Vadodara are VMSS and the VUDA. The jurisdiction of both these agencies is demarcated clearly not only physically but also functionally. The governing acts for both the institutions differ. The principal responsibility of VUDA is to ensure a holistic development of the Vadodara agglomeration covering an area of 714.56 km2 (275.89 sq mi),[1] whereas VMSS is involved in the development of area of 235 km2 (91 sq mi).[1]

Three corporators are elected from each ward, who in turn elect a mayor. Executive powers are vested in the municipal commissioner, who is an IAS officer appointed by the Gujarat state government. The mayor is responsible for the day-to-day running of the city services, municipal school board, the city bus service, the municipal hospital and the city library. The Vadodara City Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, an IPS officer.

The City elects 1[5] member to the Lok Sabha (parliament) and 5[6] to the Gujarat Vidhan Sabha(Assembly) All of the 5 assembly seats of Vadodara were won by the BJP during the legislative elections in 2002. In the 2006 VMSS elections, the BJP won 74[24] seats, 6 seats went to the Congress.

  • Election Wards: 28[1]
  • Seats (Corporators): 84[1]
  • Population per ward: 31,122
  • Seats reserved for women: 26
  • Total voters (as on 17-1-97): 809,185

Transport[edit]

The city is on the major rail and road arteries joining Mumbai with Delhi and Mumbai with Ahmedabad. Due to this Vadodara is known as a Gateway to the Golden Quadrilateral.

Air[edit]

Vadodara Airport (IATA: BDQ) is located north-east of the city. Vadodara has flight connections with Mumbai, New Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Jaipur, Indore and Bangalore. A new integrated international terminal has been constructed at the Vadodara airport and was inaugurated in October 2016. Vadodara is the first Green Airport in Gujarat and Second Green Airport in India after Kochi.[25][26][27][28][29]

Railway[edit]

Vadodara Junction Railway Station

Vadodara was part of the historic Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway (BBCI), which arrived in the city in January 1861.[30] On 5 November 1951 the BBCI Railway was merged with the Saurashtra, Rajputana and Jaipur railways to create the Western Railway. Vadodara Railway Station now belongs to the Western Railway zone of Indian Railways and is a major junction on the Western Railway Main Line.

Vadodara Junction railway station is Gujarat's busiest junction with almost 358 trains passing through every day. It comes under Vadodara Division of Western Railways. Passengers can travel to almost all the parts of India from Vadodara Junction, where there is a junction from the directions of Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Delhi and Kota (all four directions). It has one of the largest electric locomotives sheds in Gujarat and various trains have a loco change over at Vadodara. Trains such as Rajdhani, Shatabdi, Duranto and important mail/express trains halt at Vadodara Junction. Apart from various small railway stations, Vadodara has 10 major railway stations namely Vadodara Junction (BRC'), Pratapnagar, Vishwamitri, Makarpura, Karajan (Miyagaon), Itola, Varnama, Bajwa, Ranoli, and Nandesari.[citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 India census, Vadodara metropolitan area had a population of 1,822,221. In Vadodara, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.[31] Gujarati, Urdu, Marathi, Hindi and English are the languages spoken in the city. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%.

Population Growth of Vadodara 
CensusPop.
1881101,800
1891116,40014.3%
1901103,800-10.8%
191199,300-4.3%
192194,700-4.6%
1931112,90019.2%
1941153,30035.8%
1951211,40037.9%
1961295,10039.6%
1971467,00058.3%
1981744,00059.3%
19911,126,80051.5%
20011,491,04532.3%
20111,822,22122.2%
source:[32][33]
Religions in Vadodara city (2011)[31]
Hinduism
85.39%
Islam
11.40%
Jainism
1.32%
Christianity
1.22%
Sikhism
0.45%
Others
0.22%
Distribution of religions

People speaking different languages stay in the city. Apart from Gujaratis and Marathis, a significant population of North Indians, Rajasthanis, South Indians and Bengalis have settled in the city. All of them have various associations and community bodies in the city.

Culture[edit]

Vadodara is also known as Sanskari Nagari, i.e. Cultured City and according to the Gujarat tourism authority is the most sought after location for the dance known as Garba.

Religions and festivals[edit]

United Way of Baroda Garba Festival in 2011

Diwali, Uttarayana, Holi, Eid, Gudi Padwa, Ganesh Chaturthi, Navaratri (Garba), Maha Shivaratri are celebrated with great joy.[citation needed]

Apart from this, Ganesh Chaturthi and Uttarayan are also celebrated with great zeal. During Ganesh Chaturthi, there are many Ganesh pandals (stalls) arranged at the streets of the city. These are kept for seven days or ten days before the idol of Ganesha is immersed in various water bodies in the city and majority of them are immersed at Sursagar Lake. People also have these idols placed at their home for short periods.

Sursagar Lake in Vadodara

Uttarayan is a festival of kites, music and "tilgud" in the city. Before the festival starts, the markets are lined up with vendors selling kites, threads, balloons, and firecrackers as well as various local cuisines. At night the sky is illuminated by crackers, kandils and fire balloons. The Marathi women here also perform "Haldi Kumku".[citation needed]

The most followed religion in the city is Hinduism, practiced by 85% of the population. The second most followed religion is Islam, followed by 12% of the population. All other religious groups make up the remaining 4% of the population.

Art and architecture[edit]

Vadodara has a vibrant history related to Art and Architecture. Since the era of Royal Gaekwad family, it has been a hub of Arts and Literature. Hence, it has been bestowed the title of "Kala Nagari (Art City)". Maharaja Sayajirao University offers innumerable arts courses within the campus.

Sports[edit]

Vadodara has a professional cricket team, the Baroda cricket team, as well as the oldest cricket ground in Asia, called Moti Baug.[34] The team has won the Ranji Trophy six times. Reliance Stadium, a private cricket ground owned by Reliance Industries, hosts ODIs. Some of the notable cricketer's from Baroda are Atul Bedade, Nayan Mongia, Irfan Pathan, Yusuf Pathan, Hardik Pandya, Kiran More, Krunal Pandya, Deepak Hooda, Ambati Rayudu.Former Indian pacer Zaheer Khan also grew up here.

Media[edit]

The city has five local FM stations: Radio City (91.1 MHz), Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Red FM (93.5 MHz), Big FM (92.7 MHz), and All India Radio, Vividh Bharti (93.9 MHz)(Aakashwani). Radio City (91.1 MHz) is known all over Vadodara for its Rag Rag Ma Vadodara City profile. All India Radio is broadcast on the AM band.[35] Satellite radio was launched in nearby city of Ahmedabad by WorldSpace in 2005.[36] Vadodara News Magazine(VNM) is a local news TV channel that covers events in the city.

Places of interest[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Institutional Setup in Vadodara" (PDF). Vadodara Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2007.
  2. ^ Census 2011, Indian. "Indian Census 2011".
  3. ^ "Ward Office Details". Vadodara Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 1 Oct 2017.
  4. ^ Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011. censusindia.gov.in
  5. ^ a b "List of Lok Sabha Constituencies from Gujarat". Gujarat Assembly. Retrieved 1 Oct 2017.
  6. ^ a b "List of MLAs from Vadodara District". Gujarat Assembly. Retrieved 30 June 2007.
  7. ^ CHAPTER – 4 PROFILE OF SELECTED CITIES OF GUJARAT. inflibnet.ac.in
  8. ^ "India: Metropolitan Areas". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  9. ^ "Hand Painting of Bridge over the River Vishwamitri, near Brodera". Collect Britain, British Library. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
  10. ^ "Village of Baroda" (PDF). Berrien County Community Development Department, Michigan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
  11. ^ "History of Vadodara – Baroda". Introduction | History of Vadodara – Baroda. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Baroda State History". The Royal Ark. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  13. ^ "Gujarat Earthquake Hazard Risk Zone". Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2006.
  14. ^ "Baroda, India (2~35 kilometers)". Retrieved 6 August 2013.[better source needed]
  15. ^ "Gujarat Floods 2005: Project Report" (PDF). International Association for Human Values and the Art of Living. 2005. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
  16. ^ "Vadodara May Weather 2016 – AccuWeather Forecast for Gujarat India". Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  17. ^ "Ever Recorded Maximum/Minimum Temperature up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  18. ^ "Climate of Vadodara" (PDF). India meteorological department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  19. ^ "Corporate > About Us > Worldwide Presence > India". Bombardier.com. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  20. ^ MasterCard launches technology hub in India with facilities in Pune and Vadodara – The Economic Times. Economictimes.indiatimes.com (5 February 2015). Retrieved on 2015-10-10.
  21. ^ Switch conference at Vadodara in October – The Times of India. timesofindia.indiatimes.com (01 August 2016).
  22. ^ "Vadodara: Knowledge City" (PDF). Confederation of Indian Industry. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
  23. ^ Template:Url=https://vmc.gov.in/ViewContacts.aspx
  24. ^ "Sweeping victory for BJP in Gujarat civic polls". Chennai, India: The Hindu Daily. 14 December 2005. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  25. ^ "Vadodara's new airport makes place in Limca Record". Dnasyndication.com. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  26. ^ Dave, Vimukt (22 October 2016). "Vadodara gets India's second green airport after Kochi". Retrieved 26 November 2016 – via Business Standard.
  27. ^ PM Narendra Modi inaugurates Vadodara International Airport http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/vadodara/PM-Narendra-Modi-inaugurates-Vadodara-International-Airport/articleshow/54998435.cms
  28. ^ "Vadodara Airport -[FSA]-". Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  29. ^ "Vadodara International Airport – Projects – Gensler". Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  30. ^ Sharma, Sachin (23 December 2009). "150th year of Railway in Vadodara". Times of India. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
  31. ^ a b Vadodara City Census 2011 data. Census2011.co.in. Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
  32. ^ "Historical Census of India".
  33. ^ "Census of World".
  34. ^ "Ground Profile". Cricinfo. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  35. ^ "Radio Stations in Gujarat, India". Asiawaves. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  36. ^ "WorldSpace Satellite Radio Lights Up Ahmedabad". Worldspace Satellite Radio. 3 November 2005. Retrieved 30 July 2006.
  37. ^ "The Vadodara Trimandir". Retrieved 2018-05-02.

Further reading[edit]

  • Desai, Anjali. India Guide, Gujarat – Visitor's Guide. India Guide Publications. ISBN 0-9789517-0-0.
  • F. A. H Elliot. The rulers of Baroda. Baroda State Press 1934. ASIN B0006C35QS.
  • Gense, James. The Gaikwads of Baroda. D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Co 1942. ASIN B0007K1PL6.
  • Kothekara, Santa. The Gaikwads of Baroda and the East India Company, 1770–1820. Nagpur University. ASIN B0006D2LAI.
  • Gaekwad, Fatesinghrao. Sayajirao of Baroda: The Prince and the Man. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-0-86132-214-5.
  • Gaekwar, Sayaji Rao. Speeches and addresses of Sayaji Rao III, Maharaja Gaekwar of Baroda. H. Milford 1933. ASIN B000855T0I.
  • Rice, Stanley. Life of Sayaji Rao III, Maharaja of Baroda. Oxford University Press 1931. ASIN B00085DDFG.
  • Clair, Edward. A Year with the Gaekwar of Baroda. D. Estes & co 1911. ASIN B0008BLVV8.
  • MacLeod, John. Sovereignty, Power, Control: Politics in the State of Western India, 1916–1947. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11343-6.
  • Kamerkar, Mani. British Paramountcy: British-Baroda Relations, 1818–1848. Popular Prakashan. ASIN B000JLZE6A.
  • Kooiman, Dick. Communalism and Indian Princely States: Travancore, Baroda and Hyderabad in the 1930s. Manohar Pubns. ISBN 978-81-7304-421-2.
  • Desai, Govindbhai. Forty Years in Baroda: Being Reminiscences of Forty Years' Service in the Baroda State. Pustakalaya Sahayak Sahakari Mandal 1929. ASIN B0006E18R4.
  • Maharaja of Baroda. The Palaces of India. Viking Pr. ISBN 978-0-00-211678-7.
  • Sadashiv, Anant. A History of important ancient towns & cities in Gujarat & Kathiawad. ASIN B0008B2NGA.
  • William, George. Cities of India. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 0-543-93823-9.
  • Doshi, Saryu. The royal bequest: Art treasures of the Baroda Museum and Picture Gallery. India Book House. ISBN 978-81-7508-009-6.
  • Roshan. Sri Aurobindo in Baroda. Sri Aurobindo Ashram Publications Department. ISBN 978-81-7058-318-9.
  • Sheik, Gulammohammed. Contemporary Art in Baroda. Manohar Pubns. ISBN 978-81-85229-04-1.
  • Bell, Horace. Railway Policy in India. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1-4021-8443-3.
  • Shafer, Kathleen. Baroda: the Story of a Small Place. Celebrate Baroda 1890–1990. Baroda Centennial Committee, Michigan, United States. ASIN B000K016MG.

External links[edit]