Vaginal anomalies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
A 1904 gynecology textbook that describes some vaginal anomalies.

Vaginal anomalies are abnormal structures that are formed (or not formed) during the prenatal development of the female reproductive system and are rare congenital defects that result in an abnormal or absent vagina.[1] When present, they are often found with uterine, skeletal and urinary abnormalities.[2][3] This is because these structures, like the vagina, are most susceptible to disruption during crucial times of organ-genesis. Many of these defects are classified under the broader term Müllerian duct anomalies.[2][4] Müllerian duct anomalies are caused by a disturbance during the embryonic time of genitourinary development.[5] The other isolated incidents of vaginal anomalies can occur with no apparent cause. Oftentimes vaginal anomalies are part of a cluster of defects or syndromes. In addition, inheritance can play a part as can prenatal exposure to some teratogens.[2][6][7][8] Many vaginal anomalies are not detected at birth because the external genitalia appear to be normal.[2] Other organs of the reproductive system may not be affected by an abnormality of the vagina. The uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries can be functional despite the presence of a defect of the vagina and external genitalia.[2] A vaginal anomaly may not affect fertility. Though it depends on the extent of the vaginal defect, it is possible for conception to occur. In instances where a functional ovary exists, IVF may be successful. Functioning ovaries in a woman with a vaginal defect allows the implantation of a fertilized ovum into the uterus of an unaffected gestational carrier. A successful conception and can occur.[9][2] Vaginal length varies from 6.5 to 12.5 cm. Since this is slightly shorter than older descriptions, it may impact the diagnosis of women with vaginal agenesis or hypoplasia who may unnecessarily be encouraged to undergo treatment to increase the size of the vagina.[10] Vaginal anomalies may cause difficulties in urination, conception, pregnancy, impair sex. Psychosocial effects can also exist.[11]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Isolated anomalies[edit]

Some anomalies are found upon examination shortly after birth or when the development of sexual characteristics does not progress as expected. Defects that prevent menstrual flow become obvious when amenorrhea occurs.


Syndromes may take longer to identify since they are rare and often involve errors in metabolism. Many syndromes share the same signs and symptoms.


The cause of isolated cases of vaginal anomalies can not always be identified, though disruption of the embryonic development of the vagina likely plays a significant role.


Imaging studies are usually the most useful in diagnosing vaginal anomalies including retrograde contrast studies.[1] An anomaly scan can be helpful, especially detecting the presence of a urogenital syndrome. Genetic and metabolic defects require further testing to support a diagnosis.


1875 illustration of the presence of two vaginas

Vaginal anomalies are treated surgically.[12] A 'neo-vagina' can be constructed for those girls and women who do not have a vagina.[13][14] Vaginal septa are treated surgically.[15][16]

The most common vaginal anomaly is an imperforate hymen. This anomaly occurs often enough that it can be detected by some pediatricians shortly after birth. Correction of an imperforate hymen may delayed until puberty. The hymen can be unusually thick or partially obstructed by the presence of fibrous bands of tissue. An imperforate hymen can also present with other abnormalities such as septa. An imperforate hymen can be displaced and its location may not be where it is expected. Other abnormalities of the hymen can exist including the presence of septa, displacement and a hymen that consists of microperforations.[17][18] Uncommonly, a double hymen is present.[19][20][21] The imperforate hymen is treated by excision and drainage. Sometimes a small border of hymenal tissue is left around the opening of the vagina.[22]

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can cause the abnormal development of the vagina.[23][24][25] Vaginal adenosis is the abnormal presence of cervical and uterine tissue within the wall of the vagina.[26] Ten percent of women have this condition and remain unsymptomatic. It rarely develops into a malignancy.[27] Cloacal exstrophy is a condition when two vaginas are present.[28][29][30] Vaginal agenesis or the complete absence of the vagina affects 1 out of 5,000 women.[31] A hemivagina is the abnormal presence of a partial vagina that is attached to the wall of the functioning vagina. The hemivagina does not open to the normal vagina and is attached to an abnormal, second uterus.[32] Vaginal hypoplasia is the under-development of the vagina and is found in instances of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.[33][34][35] Vaginal septa are structures consisting of fibrous tissue that block the vagina.[28][36] The tissue extends horizontally, blocking or partially blocking the vaginal canal or transversly essentially creating two vaginas that connect to a normal uterus.[37][38] Septa can prevent menstrual flow and result in painful intercourse, though some women do not have symptoms.[39][33][37] Many vaginal anomalies are not detected at birth because the external genitalia can appear to be normal.[2]

Structural anomalie Incidence Notes and synonyms Treatment References
Imperforate hymen 1 in 1000-2000 Mucometrocolpos and Hematocolpos are complications surgical [19][1][20][40][41]
Vaginal adenosis 1 in ten often without symptoms none [27][42][26]
Cloacal exstrophy 3.3 in 100,000 syn: Omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects (OEIS) surgical [28][29][43][44][45][30][1][46][47][48]
Vaginal agenesis 1 in 5000 surgical and ongoing [35][34][1][31]
Hemivagina hemivagina does not open to the normal vagina and is attached to an abnormal, second uterus, also occurs in the syndrome Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA) [49][32]
Vaginal hypoplasia [33]
Vaginal atresia [2][31]
Congenital vaginal fistula surgical [50][51]
Septa 1 in 70,000 Septa can prevent menstrual flow and result in painful intercourse; others have no symptoms; Transverse septa often present with kidney defects. surgical or none [37][33][39][28][20][52][37][53]
Persistent cloaca [54][1]
Urogenital sinus urinary system and vagina open into a common channel [55][1][56]

Anomalies associated with syndromes[edit]

Some congenital syndromes present with vaginal anomalies in association with other serious conditions. These include Fraser syndrome, WNT4 deficiency, and Bardet-Biedl syndrome,[35][57][44][52] Isolated incidents of vaginal anomalies can occur with no apparent cause and in other instances these anomalies are part of a syndrome or cluster of other abnormalities. The origin of many vaginal anomalies is due to a disturbance during the embryonic stage of genitourinary development.[5] Inheritance can play a part as can prenatal exposure to hormones and teratogens.[2][7] Though the presence of a vaginal anomaly does not necessarily prevent conception and a successful pregnancy when a functional uterus and ovaries are present, vaginal anomalies increase the risk of miscarriage.[18][9][2]

Syndrome Incidence Acronyms Occurs with Notes References
Fraser syndrome [35][58][59][60][61][62][63]
WNT4 deficiency [35][64][30]
Bardet-Biedl syndrome [35][65]
McKusick–Kaufman syndrome [66][67]
Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome [68][69][70][71]
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
OHVIRA syndrome [49]
Mullerian anomalies [2][31]
Müllerian agenesis 1 in 4,500 females [72][73]
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia other disturbances in secondary sex characteristics [55]
OEIS complex Omphalocele-Extrophy-Imperforate anus-spinal defects [48]
Exstrophy-epispadias complex [74]

Prenatal exposure to some hormones can cause vaginal anomalies as can the lack of necessary hormones needed for normal development.[75] Diethylstilbestrol (DES), also known formerly (and inappropriately) as stilboestrol, is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen and teratogen that can cause vaginal abnormalities in the developing embryo.[42]

Associated uterine defects[edit]

Uterine defects can accompany vaginal abnormalities:

  • Müllerian agenesis (absent uterus).Uterus is not present, vagina only rudimentary or absent.[72][73]
  • Uterus didelphys, also uterus didelphis (double uterus). transverse vaginal septum
  • Septated uterus (uterine septum or partition). With a complete vaginal septum.
  • Rudimentary uterus is a uterine remnant not connected to cervix and vagina.

Women with uterine abnormalities may have associated renal abnormalities including unilateral renal agenesis.[76]


The occurrence of vaginal defects varies widely and some are only known from case studies. The prevalence of an imperforate hymen is 1 in 1000.[40]


The ancient Greek method for treating a prolapsed uterus that has extended through and beyond the vaginal introitus.

Notable is the mention of vaginal anomalies and pelvic organ prolapse in older cultures and locations.[77] In 1500 B.C. Egyptians wrote about the "falling of the womb". In 400 B.C. a Greek physician documented his observations and treatments:

"After the patient had been tied to a ladder-like frame, she was tipped upward so that her head was toward the bottom of the frame. The frame was then moved upward and downward more or less rapidly for approximately 3–5 min. As the patient was in an inverted position, it was thought that the prolapsing organs of the genital tract would be returned to their normal position by the force of gravity and the shaking motion."[77]

Hippocrates also described the prolapse of other organs out through the vagina.[77] In 1521, Berengario da Carpi performed the first surgical treatment for prolapse. This was to tie a rope around the prolapse, tighten it for two days until it was no longer viable and cut it off. Wine, aloe, and honey were then applied to the stump.[77]

References regarding the existence of vaginal anomalies related to müllerian defects have been traced back to 300 BC when a historian described a case of vaginal agenesis.[78]

In 1823, other physicians proposed that vaginoplasy may provide treatment for pelvic organ prolapse. In 1830, the first dissection of the vagina was performed on a living woman. Other vaginal repairs were described in 1834 and treatment sometimes the suturing the edges of a vaginal defect. In 1859 a solution to vaginal elongation was to remove the cervix.[77] In 1866, methods that resembled those used today came into practice. Surgery on the anterior vaginal wall at this time did not have to involve full-thickness repairs to be successful. Sim subsequently developed another procedure that did not require the full-thickness dissection of the vaginal wall. Shortly after this time it was proposed that reattaching the vagina to support structures was more successful and resulted in less recurrence. This same proposal was proposed again in 1976 but further studies indicated that the recurrence rate was not better. Further advances in 1961 began when surgeons started to reattach of the anterior vaginal wall to Cooper's ligament.[77]

In 1955, surgical mesh began to be used to strengthen pelvic tissue. In 1970, tissue from pigs began to be used to strengthen the anterior vaginal wall in surgery. Beginning in 1976, improvement in suturing began along with the surgical removal of the vagina being used to treat prolapse of the bladder. In 1991, assumptions about the detailed anatomy of the pelvic support structures began to be questioned regarding the existence of some pelvic structures and the non-existence of others. More recently, the use of stem cells, robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery are being used during vaginectomy and vaginoplasty.[77]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Vaginal Anomalies - Pediatrics - Merck Manuals Professional Edition". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 2018-02-06.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Mullerian Duct Anomalies: Overview, Incidence and Prevalence, Embryology". 2016-06-01.
  3. ^ "Vaginal Anomalies - Pediatrics - Merck Manuals Professional Edition". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 2018-01-06.
  4. ^ "Vaginal Anomalies-Pediatrics-Merck Manuals Professional Edition". Retrieved 2018-01-06.
  5. ^ a b "Mullerian Duct Anomalies: Overview, Incidence and Prevalence, Embryology". 2016-06-01.
  6. ^ The most notable teratogen that is strongly associated with vaginal anomalies is the synthetic hormone Diethylstilbestrol
  7. ^ a b The inheritance patterns of some vaginal anomalies can be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked disorders.
  8. ^ "Imperforate Hymen: Background, Problem, Epidemiology". 2017-05-04.
  9. ^ a b Altchek A, Paciuc J (October 2009). "Successful pregnancy following surgery in the obstructed uterus in a uterus didelphys with unilateral distal vaginal agenesis and ipsilateral renal agenesis: case report and literature review". Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 22 (5): e159–62. doi:10.1016/j.jpag.2009.02.001. PMID 19576808.
  10. ^ Lloyd J, Crouch NS, Minto CL, Liao LM, Creighton SM (May 2005). "Female genital appearance: "normality" unfolds". BJOG. 112 (5): 643–6. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00517.x. PMID 15842291.
  11. ^ "Overview of Congenital Genitourinary Anomalies - Pediatrics - Merck Manuals Professional Edition". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 2018-02-06.
  12. ^ Dietrich JE, Millar DM, Quint EH (December 2014). "Obstructive reproductive tract anomalies". Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 27 (6): 396–402. doi:10.1016/j.jpag.2014.09.001. PMID 25438708.
  13. ^ "Sigmoid Neovagina". Atlas of Pelvic Surgery. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  14. ^ "McIndoe Vaginoplasty for Neovagina". Atlas of Pelvic Surgery. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  15. ^ "Excision of Transverse Vaginal Septum". Atlas of Pelvic Surgery. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  16. ^ "Correction of Double-Barreled Vagina". Atlas of Pelvic Surgery. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  17. ^ "Imperforate Hymen: Background, Problem, Epidemiology". 2017-05-04.
  18. ^ a b Acién P, Acién M (2016-01-01). "The presentation and management of complex female genital malformations". Human Reproduction Update. 22 (1): 48–69. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmv048. PMID 26537987.
  19. ^ a b "Amenorrhea: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology". 2017-12-06.
  20. ^ a b c Coran AG, Caldamone A, Adzick N, Krummel T, Laberge J, Shamberger R (2012). Pediatric Surgery. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1599. ISBN 978-0-323-09161-9.
  21. ^ Lardenoije C, Aardenburg R, Mertens H (2009-05-26). "Imperforate hymen: a cause of abdominal pain in female adolescents". BMJ Case Reports. 2009: bcr0820080722. doi:10.1136/bcr.08.2008.0722. PMC 3029536. PMID 21686660.
  22. ^ Goel, Neerja; Rajaram, Shalini; Mehta, Sumita (2013). State-of-the-art : vaginal surgery (2nd ed.). New Delhi. p. 6. ISBN 9789350902875. OCLC 858649878.
  23. ^ Wang LC, Poppas DP (January 2017). "Surgical outcomes and complications of reconstructive surgery in the female congenital adrenal hyperplasia patient: What every endocrinologist should know". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 165 (Pt A): 137–144. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.03.021. PMID 26995108.
  24. ^ "Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology". 2017-02-21.
  25. ^ "Developmental disorders of the female genital tract". MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
  26. ^ a b Laronda MM, Unno K, Butler LM, Kurita T (October 2012). "The development of cervical and vaginal adenosis as a result of diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero". Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity. 84 (3): 252–60. doi:10.1016/j.diff.2012.05.004. PMC 3443265. PMID 22682699.
  27. ^ a b Kranl C, Zelger B, Kofler H, Heim K, Sepp N, Fritsch P (July 1998). "Vulval and vaginal adenosis". The British Journal of Dermatology. 139 (1): 128–31. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.1998.02329.x. PMID 9764164.
  28. ^ a b c d "Developmental disorders of the female genital tract". MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  29. ^ a b "What is Cloacal Exstrophy?". Urology Care Foundation. Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  30. ^ a b c Biason-Lauber A, De Filippo G, Konrad D, Scarano G, Nazzaro A, Schoenle EJ (January 2007). "WNT4 deficiency--a clinical phenotype distinct from the classic Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome: a case report". Human Reproduction. 22 (1): 224–9. doi:10.1093/humrep/del360. PMID 16959810.
  31. ^ a b c d "What is Vaginal Agenesis?". Urology Care Foundation. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  32. ^ a b Jindal G, Kachhawa S, Meena GL, Dhakar G (July 2009). "Uterus didelphys with unilateral obstructed hemivagina with hematometrocolpos and hematosalpinx with ipsilateral renal agenesis". Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences. 2 (2): 87–9. doi:10.4103/0974-1208.57230. PMC 2800935. PMID 19881156.
  33. ^ a b c d González-Zárate AC, Velásquez-Mamani J (September 2014). "[Primary amenorrhea by transverse vaginal septum: a case report and review of the literature]". Ginecologia y Obstetricia de Mexico. 82 (9): 623–6. PMID 25412556.
  34. ^ a b Callens N, De Cuypere G, De Sutter P, Monstrey S, Weyers S, Hoebeke P, Cools M (2014). "An update on surgical and non-surgical treatments for vaginal hypoplasia". Human Reproduction Update. 20 (5): 775–801. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmu024. PMID 24899229.
  35. ^ a b c d e f "Mullerian Anomalies". Penn Medicine. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  36. ^ Coran AG, Caldamone A, Adzick N, Krummel T, Laberge J, Shamberger R (2012-01-25). Pediatric Surgery E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-323-09161-9.
  37. ^ a b c d Heinonen PK (March 2006). "Complete septate uterus with longitudinal vaginal septum". Fertility and Sterility. 85 (3): 700–5. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.08.039. PMID 16500341.
  38. ^ Perez-Brayfield MR, Clarke HS, Pattaras JG (September 2002). "Complete bladder, urethral, and vaginal duplication in a 50-year-old woman". Urology. 60 (3): 514. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(02)01808-3. PMID 12350504.
  39. ^ a b Pfeifer S (2016-06-30). Congenital Müllerian Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management. Springer. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-319-27231-3.
  40. ^ a b Mwenda, Aruyaru Stanley (2013). "Imperforate Hymen - a care cause of acute abdominal pain and tenesmus: case report and review of the literature". Pan African Medical Journal. 15: 28. doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.15.28.2251. PMC 3758851. PMID 24009804.
  41. ^ Kaiser, Georges L. (2012). Symptoms and Signs in Pediatric Surgery. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 556. ISBN 9783642311611.
  42. ^ a b Mueller I, Kametriser G, Jacobs VR, Bogner G, Staudach A, Koch H, Wolfrum-Ristau P, Schausberger C, Fischer T, Sedlmayer F (September 2016). "Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina : Diagnosis and multimodal treatment of a rare tumor and analysis of worldwide experience". Strahlentherapie und Onkologie. 192 (9): 668–71. doi:10.1007/s00066-016-1004-x. PMC 4996863. PMID 27349710.
  43. ^ Chattopadhyay A, Kher AS, Udwadia AD, Sharma SV, Bharucha BA, Nicholson AD (1993). "Fraser syndrome". Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 39 (4): 228–30. PMID 7996504.
  44. ^ a b Slavotinek AM, Tifft CJ (September 2002). "Fraser syndrome and cryptophthalmos: review of the diagnostic criteria and evidence for phenotypic modules in complex malformation syndromes". Journal of Medical Genetics. 39 (9): 623–33. doi:10.1136/jmg.39.9.623. PMC 1735240. PMID 12205104.
  45. ^ "WNT4 Deficiency - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2018-01-22.
  46. ^ Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) OEIS Complex -258040
  47. ^ Yerkes EB, Rink RC (2016-07-26). "Exstrophy and Epispadias: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology".
  48. ^ a b "OMIM Entry - 258040 - OEIS COMPLEX". Retrieved 2018-02-08.
  49. ^ a b Nigam A, Raghunandan C, Yadav R, Tomer S, Anand R (September 2011). "OHVIRA syndrome: rare cause of chronic vaginal discharge in an unmarried female". Congenital Anomalies. 51 (3): 153–5. doi:10.1111/j.1741-4520.2010.00293.x. PMID 20726998.
  50. ^ Fernández Fernández JÁ, Parodi Hueck L (September 2015). "[Congenital recto-vaginal fistula associated with a normal anus (type H fistula) and rectal atresia in a patient. Report of a case and a brief revision of the literature]". Investigacion Clinica. 56 (3): 301–7. PMID 26710545.
  51. ^ Vinluan ML, Olveda RM, Ortanez CK, Abellera M, Olveda DU, Chy DC, Ross AG (October 2015). "Access to essential paediatric surgery in the developing world: a case of imperforate anus with rectovaginal and rectocutaneous fistulas left untreated". BMJ Case Reports. 2015: bcr2015210084. doi:10.1136/bcr-2015-210084. PMC 4620226. PMID 26490998.
  52. ^ a b "Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  53. ^ "What Causes Congenital Vaginal Obstruction?". Urology Care Foundation. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  54. ^ Jenkins, Dagan; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Thomasson, Louise; Malcolm, Sue; Warne, Stephanie A.; Feather, Sally A.; Flanagan, Sarah E.; Ellard, Sian; Bingham, Coralie (2007). "Mutational analyses of UPIIIA, SHH, EFNB2, and HNF1β in persistent cloaca and associated kidney malformations". Journal of Pediatric Urology. 3 (1): 2–9. doi:10.1016/j.jpurol.2006.03.002. PMC 1864944. PMID 17476318.
  55. ^ a b "Urogenital Sinus - CHOC Children's". CHOC Children's. Retrieved 2018-02-02.
  56. ^ "Urology Care Foundation - What Are Urogenital Sinus Abnormalities?". Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  57. ^ "WNT4 Deficiency - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2018-01-22.
  58. ^ François J (1965). "Syndrome malformatif avec cryptophtalmie". Ophthalmologica. 150 (3): 215–218. doi:10.1159/000304848. PMID 4955880.
  59. ^ Francannet C, Lefrançois P, Dechelotte P, Robert E, Malpuech G, Robert JM (August 1990). "Fraser syndrome with renal agenesis in two consanguineous Turkish families". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 36 (4): 477–9. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320360421. PMID 2389805.
  60. ^ van Haelst MM, Scambler PJ, Hennekam RC (December 2007). "Fraser syndrome: a clinical study of 59 cases and evaluation of diagnostic criteria". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. 143A (24): 3194–203. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31951. PMID 18000968.
  61. ^ Kalpana Kumari MK, Kamath S, Mysorekar VV, Nandini G (2008). "Fraser syndrome". Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology. 51 (2): 228–9. doi:10.4103/0377-4929.41664. PMID 18603689.
  62. ^ Smyth I, Scambler P (October 2005). "The genetics of Fraser syndrome and the blebs mouse mutants". Human Molecular Genetics. 14 Spec No. 2: R269–74. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddi262. PMID 16244325.
  63. ^ Narang M, Kumar M, Shah D (February 2008). "Fraser-cryptophthalmos syndrome with colonic atresia". Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 75 (2): 189–91. doi:10.1007/s12098-008-0030-9. PMID 18334805.
  64. ^ "WNT4 Deficiency - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2018-01-22.
  65. ^ Beales PL, Elcioglu N, Woolf AS, Parker D, Flinter FA (June 1999). "New criteria for improved diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome: results of a population survey". Journal of Medical Genetics. 36 (6): 437–46. doi:10.1136/jmg.36.6.437 (inactive 2019-03-08). PMC 1734378. PMID 10874630.
  66. ^ McKusick-Kaufman syndrome at Who Named It?
  67. ^ Slavotinek AM, "McKusick-Kaufam Syndrome", GeneReviews, 1993-2015
  68. ^ Mandava A, Prabhakar RR, Smitha S (April 2012). "OHVIRA syndrome (obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly) with uterus didelphys, an unusual presentation". Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 25 (2): e23–5. doi:10.1016/j.jpag.2011.11.004. PMID 22421561.
  69. ^ Aveiro AC, Miranda V, Cabral AJ, Nunes S, Paulo F, Freitas C (July 2011). "Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome: a rare cause of pelvic pain in adolescent girls". BMJ Case Reports. 2011: bcr0420114147. doi:10.1136/bcr.04.2011.4147. PMC 3139160. PMID 22689557.
  70. ^ Tug N, Sargin MA, Çelik A, Alp T, Yenidede I (November 2015). "Treatment of Virgin OHVIRA Syndrome with Haematometrocolpos by Complete Incision of Vaginal Septum without Hymenotomy". Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 9 (11): QD15–6. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2015/15532.6826. PMC 4668488. PMID 26676254.
  71. ^ Han BH, Park SB, Lee YJ, Lee KS, Lee YK (2013-07-01). "Uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome) suspected on the presence of hydrocolpos on prenatal sonography". Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 41 (6): 380–2. doi:10.1002/jcu.21950. PMID 22678931.
  72. ^ a b "Müllerian Agenesis: Diagnosis, Management, and Treatment". ACOG. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  73. ^ a b Aittomäki K, Eroila H, Kajanoja P (2001). "A population-based study of the incidence of Müllerian aplasia in Finland". Fertility and Sterility. 76 (3): 624–5. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(01)01963-X. PMID 11570363.
  74. ^ "Exstrophy-epispadias complex | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) – an NCATS Program". Retrieved 2018-02-08.
  75. ^ Bachelot A, Grouthier V, Courtillot C, Dulon J, Touraine P (April 2017). "MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: update on the management of adult patients and prenatal treatment". European Journal of Endocrinology. 176 (4): R167–R181. doi:10.1530/eje-16-0888. PMID 28115464.
  76. ^ Li S, Qayyum A, Coakley FV, Hricak H (2000). "Association of renal agenesis and mullerian duct anomalies". Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 24 (6): 829–34. doi:10.1097/00004728-200011000-00001. PMID 11105695.
  77. ^ a b c d e f g Lensen EJ, Withagen MI, Kluivers KB, Milani AL, Vierhout ME (October 2013). "Surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse: a historical review with emphasis on the anterior compartment". International Urogynecology Journal. 24 (10): 1593–602. doi:10.1007/s00192-013-2074-2. PMID 23494056.
  78. ^ "Mullerian Duct Anomalies: Overview, Incidence and Prevalence, Embryology". 2016-06-01.

External links[edit]