Ayya Vaikundar

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Vaikundar : Historical vs Spiritual views

Lord Ayya Vaikundar (c.1809–c.1851; Tamil: அய்யா வைகுண்டர்), also known as tenth avatar or incarnation of Lord Vishnu, also called as Sriman Narayana Vaikundasamy or Narayana Pandaram, was a 19th-century social reformer and iconoclast who worked for the upliftment of downtrodden people in the Kingdom of Travancore. He is central to the Hindu denomination of Ayyavazhi, as per holy scripture. Akilattirattu Ammanai says that he was Lord Vishnu. In order to attain human form, Lord Vishnu used the body of previous (Lord Krishna) avatar for the incarnation of Lord Ayya Vaikundar, kept in Parvatha Ucchi Malai (a mythical mountain believed to be in this region) after the completion of the Lord Krishna Avatar. In order to attain natural growth of the human body, Lord Vishnu used the soul of Sampooranathevan a deva also called Mudisoodum Perumal, he was granted moksha (liberation from the cycle of death and birth, synonymous with heaven) before the Lord Ayya Vaikundar Avathar in the sea.[1]

The exact date of birth of Mudisoodum Perumal or Muthukutty is unknown. It is mostly placed in either 1810 or 1809,[2] while others follow the view of Akilam.[3][4][5]

Early life[edit]

Sampooranathevan also known as Muthukutty was born in 1809 to Ponnu Nadar and Veyilal Amma at Poovandanthope in the Kanyakumari District (part of Travancore then). They initially named the child Mudisoodum Perumal, meaning "Lord with a crown". But the people complained to authorities about the name and they forced the parents to change his name to Muthukutty.

Muthukutty was a religious boy who had special interest in Lord Vishnu. The holy book Akilam mentions that he set a pedestal for Lord Vishnu in his house.[6] At age of seventeen, Muthukutty started to live with Thirumalammal from the nearby village of Puviyur and she lived with him only to serve him during his public activities.[7] Thirumalammal had been married, but left her former husband to marry Muthukutty.[8] According to quotes found in Akilam, they had a male child, who was sired by her first husband. Muthukutty earned his living as a Palmyra palm climber and as an agricultural laborer.[9]


Ayyavazhi scripture Akilam tells of a legend of a child who was born dead. Next, immediately the soul of Sampooranathevan was installed into the body, kept in Parvatha Ucchi Malai (a mythical mountain believed to be in this region) after the completion of the Lord Krishna Avatar. According to the legend, the parents found the child still for a time immediately after birth, then the child began to behave normally. Thereafter, that boy grew up called Muthukutty in human history and Sampooranathevan in Ayyavazhi mythology.

Ayyavazhi beliefs[edit]

Lord Ayya Vaikundar Avathar[edit]

Ayyavazhi followers believe that Lord Vishnu itself incarnated as Lord Ayya Vaikundar during an encounter with a deity Goddess Lekshmi.

As per Akilam, Muthukutty in his twenty-fourth year, he was struck by illness and suffered for a year. His mother took her sick son to the temple at Thiruchendur, during a festival there. He went into the sea and disappeared. The parents searched for his body for one day. According to the legend, the day itself inside the sea Muthukutty also known as Sampooranathevan was granted moksha by Lord Narayana. Thereafter Lord Narayana itself incarnated as Lord Ayya Vaikundar as a son of Supreme Lord Narayana and Goddess Lekshmi, that is considered to be the unique in ayyavazhi mythology. On the third day, Lord Ayya Vaikundar appeared on the sea-shore. On seeing him, Muthukutty's mother mistook him for her son and tried to embrace him. He told her that he was no longer her son, but the son of Supreme Lord Narayana.[10] Then he started walking towards Detchanam. This place became a holy place for the devotees of Ayyavazhi and they erected a temple there named Avatharappathi. This event is celebrated during the festival of Ayya Vaikundar Avataram.

Lord Ayya Vaikundar, who arose from the sea at Thiruchendur (per Akilathirattu Ammanai) on 20th of the Tamil Month of Masi (4_March_1831 CE, Friday) is considered a unique avatar by the followers of Ayyavazhi. Akilam, speaks about it in great detail, as summarized below:

In each of the five yugas prior to the avathar of Lord Ayya Vaikundar, as each fragment of Kroni (evil or Devil) came into physical form, the Lord Vishnu incarnated as well, destroying them. However, in this the sixth yuga, the evil was called Kali, (not the Hindu deity)[11] and having no physical form (see Pre-Incarnational Events for this account) he occupied the mind of people of earth as the Mayai (illusion), causing them to behave discourteously. Kaliyan claimed, it was impossible to destroy him by the use of weapons in this yuga as in the previous ones as he held the boon from Supreme god Shiva, that is the reason Lord Narayan, to incarnate as "pandaram" in the world to destroy him.

Since God incarnated as "pandaram" the avathar of Lord Ayya Vaikundar in three stages.

  • The first stage of Avatar was the born dead child (birth of the Body).
  • Next, immediately the soul of Sampooranathevan was installed into the body, along with the body of Narayana kept in Parvatha Ucchi Malai (a mythical mountain believed to be in this region) after the completion of the Lord Krishna Avatar. This was the second stage of the Avatar.
  • Then in the sea (during the 24th year), the soul of Sampooranathevan was granted moksha (liberation from the cycle of death and birth, synonymous with heaven), unified to the Ultimate Soul. Now, Lord Narayana itself incarnated as Lord Ayya Vaikundar in the body of human being (Muthukutty) also known as the body of Narayana kept in Parvatha Ucchi Malai (a mythical mountain believed to be in this region) after the completion of the Lord Krishna Avatar. (see:The Incarnation) This is the third stage of Avatar and from then he was called Lord Ayya Vaikundar. Then Lord Ayya Vaikundar was given Vinchai by Narayanar.(see: Vinchai to Vaikundar).

According to Akilam Lord Ayya Vaikundar was not merely Narayana and not merely Shiva, and not merely Brama but all three. He had supreme power for the responsibility to destroy the evil of Kali.

Another view is that Lord Vishnu did not take a human body and showed only a bodily appearance[12] to mankind based upon quotes in Akilam.[13]


Upon reaching Poovantanthoppe, (present-day Swamithope), he undertook a penance. The penance consisted of three stages, each spanning two years. A tradition describes his postures during the six-year tavam as follows: during the first two years, he stood inside a six feet deep pit; during the next two years, he squatted on the ground; and during the last two years, he sat on a raised platform. His appearance was squalid, "long and entangled plait of hair" and frayed clothes. He spoke less and subsisted on frugal meals.[14]

Supernatural Abilities[edit]

Akilattirattu speaks of his incineration of evil spirits as an important event in Lord Ayya Vaikundar's incarnation. It took place when he was performing his penance, which he had announced to be the means of destroying the kalimayai - the illusory evil force. He gathered the people and caused some of them, both male and female, to be possessed of the evil spirits (peyattam).[15] The possessed ones danced in front of the crowd as if the evil spirits had come upon them. Vaikundar, then, ordered these evil spirits to make an oath, in front of the people, to surrender their powers and incinerate themselves. When he had finished his orders, the dancers fell flat on the ground and burned.[16]

Similarly, Vaikundar performed another action to 'seize the esoteric evil powers'. Akilam says that he took away the powers of those who knew to perform witchcraft, sorcery and other magical rituals. People living in the hills, called as Kanikkarar, were believed to be powerful shamans, having powers to contain or to provoke the demons. Vaikundar, in a trance, made some of them testify that they had surrendered their powers. People grew appreciative of Ayya's actions. They began addressing him as Vaikuntasami. This implied an attribution of divinity to Vaikundar.[15] Vaikundar exhorted the people as follows:

There are no demons, no devils. No ill effects of magical practices,
No disease, no pain and no extortion of taxes,
And, therefore, live courageously.

Five Citars[edit]

Lord Ayya Vaikundar has five disciples (citars). According to holy scripture Akilattirattu Ammanai the Pandavas of previous Dwapara Yukam was made to take birth in this Kali Yukam as Citars of Vaikundar. They are Dharma Citar, Bhima Citar, Arjunan Citar, Nakulan Citar and Sakatevan Citar.

Vaikundar as Narayana Pandaram[edit]

The things used by Ayya; 'Surai Koodu', 'Pirambu' and 'Thandayam'.

The fame of Vaikundar began to spread in the countries of Travancore and Tirunelveli and he was gradually recognised as a religious person with extraordinary powers.[17] He was addressed as a Pantaram, a religious person hailing from and serving the ordinary folk. Akilattirattu addresses him as Narayana Pantaram.[18]

People came to listen to his teachings and instructions, to be cured by him of different diseases, to witness, worship and serve a religious person. Vaikundar encouraged the people to come together around a well to take a ritual bath, irrespective of caste. He encouraged them to dine together in his presence.[19]

He stressed that he had come to abolish Kali Yukam and to usher in an age of Dharma Yukam, when the now-oppressed and suffering people would be liberated and rule the land under his leadership. 'Uplift of the lowly is dharmam’[20] was a constant refrain in his teachings.[17] People were encouraged to serve as catalysts for the destruction of Kali by transforming themselves to be 'people of Dharma Yukam' and to acquire a new character. The new character would come upon them, he said, if they learned to live with self-respect, social dignity and fearlessness. Underscoring the importance of self-respect and social dignity, he said, ‘if one lives with dignity and self-respect, the kali would destroy itself’ . He said when people grew out of kalimayai, Dharma Yukam would unfold and in that age, he would rule over the people as Dharma Raja, the king of Dharma Yukam.

According to the legend as per holy akilam, when Kaliyan was born, he got the boon from Supreme god Shiva, which has more powers than compare to which he got on previous yuga's. When he was on the way to earth, Lord Narayana was in the form of Pantaram stopped him and asked him to fight with. When Kaliyan was ignored, Lord Narayana asked him to promise, "going forward i won't fight or distrupt any Pantaram. If i will do so, will lose everything and will go to hell".

That is the reason Lord Narayana has taken his tenth avathar on this kaliyuga as Narayana Pantaram. [17]

Arrest and imprisonment[edit]

He made some controversial statements like mentioning the travancore king as ‘Devil in Ananthapuri’ and the British rule as ‘Rule of White Devils’. Against the background of the growing popularity of Vaikundar and the convergence of people around him in multitudes, a complaint was lodged against him with the king of Travancore. The Travancore king Swathi thirunal arrested Vaikundar in 1838 and imprisoned him at Singarathoppu jail in Travancore. After 110 days of imprisonment, on March 26, 1839 he was released by Swathithirunal on the advise of Thycaud Ayya who was the Guru of Swathi thirunal Maharaj and a disciple of Vaikundar as well.


After returning from the prison, Vaikundar inspired a group of his devotees to undertake a religious exercise called Thuvayal Thavasu.[21][22] He also performed miracles. He married Saptha Kanniyar as Narayanar (see: Marriage with the Seven Virgins), the Seven deities in the form of Ekam (see:Marriage with the Deities). He initiated festivities (see: Festivals and Celebrations)." The deities were made to 'come upon' some of the female devotees who became their human media and a marriage ceremony was performed.[23] Ceremonial processions were held amidst singing, incantations and shouts of joy by the followers. Several rites and rituals were instituted during these occasions.[24]

Lord Ayya Vaikundar at Vaikundam[edit]

Later Lord Ayya Vaikundar was invited by his devotees to their homes and treated in a grand manner. By way of soliciting his blessings, his devotees carried him to different places. During these occasions, he laid foundations in various places for small shrine-like centres, called Nizhal Thangals. Lord Ayya Vaikundar came to recognize five individuals as his closest disciples. Through one of his disciples, Hari Gopalan Citar, he wrote the holy book, called Akilam.[25]

Lord Ayya Vaikundar returned to Vaikundam on 3 June 1851. According to Ayyavazhi followers, he has returned to Vaikundam.[26] However, this date is disputed, as Samuel Mateer mentions the year as 1848.[27] As he returned to Vaikundam, his body was interned in a tomb and, around that, a pati (temple) was later built. His devotees continued to visit this site and performed the rituals as they used to do when Vaikundar was bodily present. His life and works remain the foundation of the Ayyavazhi. The head temple of the Ayyavazhi religion is the Swamithoppepathi and is located in the Village of Swamithope.

In popular culture[edit]

The film Ayyavazhi released in 2008 was based on the life of Lord Ayya Vaikundar.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Nadar 1989, verse 431-438 Narayana ordering two celestial saints to bring the body of Mudisoodum Perumal for the incarnation of Vaikundar
  2. ^ Chellam, p. 493, (foot note) "The researcher's views and my earlier views as 1803 should be corrected as 1810."
  3. ^ Ponnu 1983, p. 38.
  4. ^ Menon 2007, p. 400.
  5. ^ Arunan 1999, p. 28.
  6. ^ Nadar 1989, Suchindram 197.
  7. ^ Patrick 2003, p. 86.
  8. ^ Pathippakam 2004, p. 398.
  9. ^ Patrick 2003, p. 78.
  10. ^ Pandiyan 1992, p. 177.
  11. ^ Patrick 2003, p. 206.
  12. ^ Thuvarakapathi, p. 37.
  13. ^ Pathippakam 2004, p. 112.
  14. ^ Patrick 2003, p. 79 He seems to have spoken less and subsisted on frugal meals.
  15. ^ a b Patrick 2003, p. 80.
  16. ^ Nadar 1989, p. 254-260.
  17. ^ a b c Patrick 2003, p. 81.
  18. ^ Nadar 1989, p. 253.
  19. ^ Nadar 1989, p. 251.
  20. ^ Nadar 1989, p. 212.
  21. ^ Nadar 1989, pp. 290-298.
  22. ^ LMS Report 1838, p. 71.
  23. ^ Nadar 1989, p. 336-338.
  24. ^ Patrick 2003, p. 83.
  25. ^ Pathippakam 2004, p. 4.
  26. ^ Nadar 1989.
  27. ^ Mateer 1871, p. 222.


  • Arunan (1999). Tamilakatil Camuka Cirtirutam Irunuttantu Varalaru. Madurai: Vaihai Publications.
  • Chellam, V. T. Thamizaka Varalarum Panpadum.
  • LMS Report, 1838
  • Manibharathi (1 August 1995). "Samithoppu Ayya Narayana Cuvami". Tina Tanti Kutumba Malar.
  • Mateer, Samuel (1871). "The Land of Charity:": A Descriptive Account of Travancore and Its People, with Especial Reference to Missionary Labour. J. Snow and Company.
  • Menon, A Sreedhara (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6.
  • Thuvarakapathi, Thechanathu. Thechanathu Thuvarakapathi Akilathirattu Akakorvai.

External links[edit]