Pennine Alps

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Pennine Alps
French: Alpes Pennines, Alpes valaisannes, German: Walliser Alpen, Italian: Alpi Pennine, Latin: Alpes Poeninae
Valais Alps.jpg
View of Pennine Alps from Riederalp
Highest point
Peak Dufourspitze
Elevation 4,634 m (15,203 ft)
Coordinates 45°56′12″N 7°52′00″E / 45.93667°N 7.86667°E / 45.93667; 7.86667
Geography
Alps locator map (Walliser Alpen).png
Pennine Alps (red)
Countries Switzerland and Italy
Canton/Regions Valais, Piedmont and Aosta Valley
Range coordinates 46°05′N 7°50′E / 46.083°N 7.833°E / 46.083; 7.833Coordinates: 46°05′N 7°50′E / 46.083°N 7.833°E / 46.083; 7.833
Parent range Alps
Borders on Graian Alps, Lepontine Alps, Bernese Alps and Po plain

The Pennine Alps (German: Walliser Alpen, French: Alpes Pennines, Italian: Alpi Pennine, Latin: Alpes Poeninae), also known as the Valais Alps, are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland (Valais) and Italy (Piedmont and the Aosta Valley).

Geography[edit]

The Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea, Sesia and Toce, tributaries of the Po. The Swiss side is drained by the Rhône.

The Great St Bernard Tunnel, under the Great St Bernard Pass, leads from Martigny, Switzerland to Aosta.

Morphology[edit]

The main chain (watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and Adriatic Sea) runs from west to east on the border between Italy (south) and Switzerland (north). From Mont Vélan, the first high summit east of St Bernard Pass, the chain rarely goes below 3000 metres and contains many four-thousanders such as Matterhorn or Monte Rosa. The valleys are quite similar on both side of the border, being generally oriented perpendicular to the main chain and descending progressively into the Rhône Valley on the north and the Aosta Valley on the south. Unlike many other mountain ranges, the higher peaks are often located outside the main chain and found themselves between the northern valleys (Grand Combin, Weisshorn, Mischabel, Weissmies).

Peaks[edit]

The chief peaks of the Pennine Alps are:

Name Height
Dufourspitze 4,634 m (15,203 ft)
Dunantspitze 4,632 m (15,197 ft)
Grenzgipfel 4,618 m (15,151 ft)
Nordend 4,609 m (15,121 ft)
Zumsteinspitze 4,563 m (14,970 ft)
Signalkuppe 4,554 m (14,941 ft)
Dom 4,545 m (14,911 ft)
Liskamm 4,538 m (14,888 ft)
Weisshorn 4,506 m (14,783 ft)
Täschhorn 4,491 m (14,734 ft)
Matterhorn 4,478 m (14,692 ft)
Parrotspitze 4,432 m (14,541 ft)
Dent Blanche 4,364 m (14,318 ft)
Nadelhorn 4,327 m (14,196 ft)
Grand Combin 4,314 m (14,154 ft)
Lenzspitze 4,294 m (14,088 ft)
Stecknadelhorn 4,241 m (13,914 ft)
Castor 4,230 m (13,878 ft)
Zinalrothorn 4,223 m (13,855 ft)
Hohberghorn 4,219 m (13,842 ft)
Alphubel 4,206 m (13,799 ft)
Rimpfischhorn 4,199 m (13,776 ft)
Strahlhorn 4,190 m (13,747 ft)
Dent d'Hérens 4,171 m (13,684 ft)
Breithorn 4,164 m (13,661 ft)
Bishorn 4,153 m (13,625 ft)
Breithornzwillinge 4,139 m (13,579 ft)
Pollux 4,092 m (13,425 ft)
Ober Gabelhorn 4,073 m (13,363 ft)
Dürrenhorn 4,035 m (13,238 ft)
Allalinhorn 4,027 m (13,212 ft)
Weissmies 4,031 m (13,225 ft)
Lagginhorn 4,010 m (13,156 ft)
Fletschhorn 3,993 m (13,100 ft)
Adlerhorn 3,988 m (13,084 ft)
Schalihorn 3,974 m (13,038 ft)
Jägerhorn 3,970 m (13,025 ft)
Grand Cornier 3,962 m (12,999 ft)
Ulrichshorn 3,925 m (12,877 ft)
Wellenkuppe 3,903 m (12,805 ft)
Feechopf 3,888 m (12,756 ft)
Klein Matterhorn 3,883 m (12,740 ft)
Pointe du Mountet 3,877 m (12,720 ft)
La Ruinette 3,879 m (12,726 ft)
Name Height
Mont Blanc de Cheilon 3,870 m (12,697 ft)
Bouquetins 3,838 m (12,592 ft)
Brunegghorn 3,833 m (12,575 ft)
Tour de Boussine 3,833 m (12,575 ft)
Cima di Jazzi 3,818 m (12,526 ft)
Balfrin 3,802 m (12,474 ft)
Pigne d'Arolla 3,796 m (12,454 ft)
Mont Vélan 3,765 m (12,352 ft)
Kinhorn 3,750 m (12,303 ft)
Tête Blanche 3,750 m (12,303 ft)
L'Évêque 3,738 m (12,264 ft)
Le Pleureur 3,706 m (12,159 ft)
Aiguille de la Tsa 3,668 m (12,034 ft)
Besso 3,667 m (12,031 ft)
Mont Collon 3,637 m (11,932 ft)
Les Diablons 3,605 m (11,827 ft)
Le Ritord 3,556 m (11,667 ft)
Dents de Bertol 3,547 m (11,637 ft)
Mont Gelé 3,518 m (11,542 ft)
Petite Aiguille 3,517 m (11,539 ft)
Becca di Luseney 3,506 m (11,503 ft)
Château des Dames 3,489 m (11,447 ft)
Tällihorn 3,448 m (11,312 ft)
Pigne de la Lé 3,396 m (11,142 ft)
Grand Tournalin 3,379 m (11,086 ft)
Rosablanche 3,348 m (10,984 ft)
Wasuhorn 3,343 m (10,968 ft)
Mont Avril 3,341 m (10,961 ft)
Almagellhorn 3,327 m (10,915 ft)
Grande Rochère 3,326 m (10,912 ft)
Corno Bianco 3,320 m (10,892 ft)
Testa Grigia 3,315 m (10,876 ft)
La Cassorte 3,301 m (10,830 ft)
Böshorn 3,268 m (10,722 ft)
Le Parrain 3,259 m (10,692 ft)
Sasseneire 3,259 m (10,692 ft)
Bösentrift 3,248 m (10,656 ft)
Festihorn 3,248 m (10,656 ft)
Grand Golliat 3,240 m (10,630 ft)
Jazzihorn 3,227 m (10,587 ft)
Pizzo Bianco 3,216 m (10,551 ft)
Mont de la Gouille 3,212 m (10,538 ft)
Latelhorn 3,207 m (10,522 ft)
Jegihorn 3,206 m (10,518 ft)
Name Height
Schwarzhorn 3,204 m (10,512 ft)
Lammenhorn 3,190 m (10,466 ft)
Gornergrat 3,136 m (10,289 ft)
Pointe d'Ar Pitetta 3,133 m (10,279 ft)
Frilihorn 3,124 m (10,249 ft)
Mont Rogneux 3,084 m (10,118 ft)
Le Boudri 3,070 m (10,072 ft)
Mont Néry 3,070 m (10,072 ft)
Seetalhorn 3,037 m (9,964 ft)
Bella Tola 3,028 m (9,934 ft)
Le Toûno 3,018 m (9,902 ft)
Sparruhorn 2,988 m (9,803 ft)
Monte Tagliaferro 2,964 m (9,724 ft)
Pointe de Barasson 2,963 m (9,721 ft)
Riffelhorn 2,931 m (9,616 ft)
Palanche de la Cretta 2,927 m (9,603 ft)
Bec de la Montau 2,922 m (9,587 ft)
Ochsehorn 2,912 m (9,554 ft)
Signalhorn 2,911 m (9,551 ft)
Sex de Marinda 2,906 m (9,534 ft)
Aiguille des Angroniettes 2,885 m (9,465 ft)
Balmahorn 2,870 m (9,416 ft)
Roc d'Orzival 2,853 m (9,360 ft)
Le Mourin 2,766 m (9,075 ft)
Pletschuhorn 2,751 m (9,026 ft)
Becca de Corbassière 2,749 m (9,019 ft)
Cima del Rosso 2,624 m (8,609 ft)
Wenghorn 2,587 m (8,488 ft)
Cima di Bo 2,556 m (8,386 ft)
Ergischhorn 2,526 m (8,287 ft)
Glishorn 2,525 m (8,284 ft)
Crêta de Vella 2,519 m (8,264 ft)
Six Blanc 2,445 m (8,022 ft)
Cima Verosso 2,444 m (8,018 ft)
Guggilihorn 2,351 m (7,713 ft)

Glaciers[edit]

Weissmies
Grand Combin

Main glaciers:

Passes[edit]

Great St Bernard pass

The chief passes of the Pennine Alps are:[1]

Mountain pass location type elevation
Sesiajoch Zermatt to Alagna snow 4,424 14,515
Domjoch Randa to Saas-Fee snow 4,286 14,062
Lisjoch Zermatt to Gressoney-La-Trinité snow 4,277 14,033
Mischabeljoch Zermatt to Saas-Fee snow 3,856 12,651
Alphubel Pass Zermatt to Saas-Fee snow 3,802 12,474
Adler Pass Zermatt to Saas-Fee snow 3,798 12,461
Moming Pass Zermatt to Zinal snow 3,745 12,287
Schwarztor Zermatt to Ayas snow 3,741 12,274
Ried Pass Sankt-Niklaus to Saas-Fee snow 3,597 11,800
Neues Weisstor Zermatt to Macugnaga snow 3,580 11,746
Allalin Pass Zermatt to Saas-Fee snow 3,570 11,713
Col de Valpelline Zermatt to Aosta snow 3,562 11,687
Biesjoch Randa to Turtmann snow 3,549 11,644
Triftjoch Zermatt to Zinal snow 3,540 11,615
Col du Sonadon Bourg-Saint-Pierre to the Val de Bagnes snow 3,489 11,447
Col d'Herens Zermatt to Evolène snow 3,480 11,418
Col Durand Zermatt to Zinal snow 3,474 11,398
Col des Maisons Blanches Bourg-Saint-Pierre to the Val de Bagnes snow 3,426 11,241
Col de Bertol Arolla to the Col d'Herens snow 3,414 11,200
Col du Mont Rouge Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Hérémence snow 3,341 10,962
Theodulpass Zermatt to Valtournenche snow 3,322 10,899
Col de Tracuit Zinal to Turtmann snow 3,252 10,670
Zwischbergen Pass Saas-Fee to Gondo snow 3,248 10,657
Col d'Oren Val de Bagnes to the Valpelline snow 3,242 10,637
Col de Seilon Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Hérémence snow 3,200 10,499
Col du Cret Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Hérémence snow 3,148 10,329
Col de Valcournera Valtournenche to the Valpelline snow 3,147 10,325
Col de Collon Arolla to Aosta snow 3,130 10,270
Col de Valsorey Bourg-Saint-Pierre to Aosta snow 3,113 10'214
Col de Chermontane Val de Bagnes to Arolla snow 3084 10,119
Cimes Blanches Valtournenche to Ayas bridle path 2,980 9,777
Col de Torrent Evolène to the Val de Torrent bridle path 2,924 9,593
Augstbord Pass Sankt-Niklaus to Turtmann bridle path 2,893 9,492
Col de Crête Sèche Val de Bagnes to the Valpelline snow 2,888 9,475
Col d'Olen Alagna to Gressoney bridle path 2,871 9,420
Monte Moro Saas-Fee to Macugnaga bridle path 2,862 9,390
Pas de Chevres Arolla to the Val d'Hérémence footpath 2,851 9,354
Antrona Pass Saas-Fee to Antrona bridle path 2,844 9,331
Col de Sorebois Zinal to the Val de Torrent bridle path 2,825 9,269
Col de Vessona Valpelline to Nus footpath 2,794 9,167
Fenêtre de Durand Val de Bagnes to Aosta bridle path 2,786 9,141
Z'Meiden Pass Zinal to Turtmann bridle path 2,772 9,095
Turlo Pass Alagna to Macugnaga footpath 2,736 8,977
Fenêtre de Ferret Great St Bernard to the Swiss Val Ferret bridle path 2,699 8,855
Bettaforca Pass[2] (Bättforko) Ayas to Gressoney-La-Trinité bridle path 2,676 8,780
Col Serena Great St Bernard to Morgex footpath 2,538 8,327
Col Ferret Courmayeur to Orsières bridle path 2,533 8,311
Col de Valdobbia Gressoney to the Val Sesia bridle path 2,479 8,134
Great St Bernard Martigny to Aosta road 2,472 8,111
Col de Moud Alagna to Rima bridle path 2,323 7,622
Col d'Egua Rima to the Valle Anzasca bridle path 2,236 7,336
Simplon Pass Brig to Domodossola road 2,009 6,592
Bocchetta del Croso Piedicavallo to Valsesia bridle path 1,941 6,374
Baranca Pass Varallo to the Val Anzasca bridle path 1,820 5,971

Nature conservation[edit]

Some regional nature parks, like the Parco Naturale Alta Valsesia (6,511 ha - Piedmont, IT),[3] the Riserva Naturale Mont Mars (390 ha - Aosta Valley, IT) [4] and the Regional park of Binn valley (15,891 ha - Valais, CH),[5] have been established on both sides of the main water divide.

See also[edit]

Maps[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wikisource Coolidge, William Augustus Brevoort (1911). "Alps". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 743.
  2. ^ Hilary Sharp, Tour of Monte Rosa: A Trekker's Guide.
  3. ^ Parco Naturale Alta Valsesia site on www.parks.it (accessed in April 2012)
  4. ^ Parco del Mont Avic park site on www.parks.it (accessed in April 2012)
  5. ^ Ein regionaler Naturpark, park site on www.landschaftspark-binntal.ch (accessed in April 2012)