|Completed:||34 (list of ships)|
|General characteristics (first series)|
|Length:||360–362 m (1,181–1,188 ft)|
|Beam:||65 m (213 ft)|
|Draught:||22–23 m (72–75 ft)|
|Depth:||30 m (98 ft)|
|Installed power:||Low speed diesel engine (approx. 29,000 kW)|
|Propulsion:||Single shaft; fixed-pitch propeller|
|Speed:||15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)|
Valemax ships are a fleet of very large ore carriers (VLOC) owned or chartered by the Brazilian mining company Vale S.A. to carry iron ore from Brazil to European and Asian ports. With a capacity ranging from 380,000 to 400,000 tons deadweight, the vessels meet the Chinamax standard of ship measurements for limits on draft and beam. Valemax ships are the largest bulk carriers ever constructed, when measuring deadweight tonnage or length overall, and are amongst the longest ships of any type currently in service.
The first Valemax vessel, Vale Brasil, was delivered in 2011. Initially, all 35 ships were expected to be in service by 2013, but as of May 2016[update] one ship is still under construction. Chinese shipping companies ordered 30 more in 2015–2016, with deliveries starting in 2017. This brings the total number of Valemax vessels in service, under construction or ordered to 65.
- 1 Construction
- 2 Career
- 3 Naming
- 4 Design
- 5 Criticism
- 6 List of Valemax vessels
- 7 References
In 2008, Vale placed orders for twelve 400,000-ton Valemax ships to be constructed by Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries (RSHI) in China and ordered seven more ships from South Korean Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME) in 2009. In addition sixteen more ships of similar size were ordered from Chinese and South Korean shipyards for other shipping companies, and chartered to Vale under long-term contracts. As of 2016[update], all but one of the 35 Valemax vessels have been delivered.
Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries
The first Valemax vessels were ordered on 3 August 2008 when Vale signed a contract with the Chinese shipbuilder Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries (RSHI) for the construction of twelve 400,000-ton ore carriers. The development had reportedly started in 2007. The contract, worth $1.6 billion, was the world's biggest single shipbuilding contract by deadweight tonnage.
The first Chinese-built Valemax vessel, Vale China, was launched at the Nantong shipyard on 9 July 2011 and delivered on 25 November 2011. Although it was expected that the first Chinese-built Valemax vessel would call a Chinese port on its maiden voyage, the ship was diverted to the new transshipment hub Vale had constructed in Philippines.
The second RSHI-built Valemax ship for Vale (Vale Dongjiakou) was delivered on 9 April 2012, the third (Vale Dalian) on 20 May, the fourth (Vale Hebei) on 28 September, the fifth (Vale Shandong) on 7 December 2012, the sixth (Vale Jiangsu) on 23 March 2013, the seventh (Vale Caofeidian) on 22 July 2013, the eighth (Vale Lianyungang) on 22 November 2013, the ninth (Ore Majishan; renamed before delivery) on 11 July 2014, the tenth (Ore Tianjin; renamed before delivery) on 18 October 2014, and the eleventh (Ore Rizhao; renamed before delivery) on 15 December 2014. The twelfth and last Valemax vessel of the original order by Vale, Ore Ningbo (renamed before delivery), was delivered on 23 January 2015.
On 2 November 2008, Oman Shipping Company signed a framework agreement with RSHI for the construction of four 400,000-ton vessels to transport iron ore from Brazil to the Port of Sohar in Oman, where Vale is expected to open a steel plant in near future. The shipbuilding contract, worth US$483 million, was signed in July 2009. Initially the ships were to be named Jazer, Yanqul, Al Kamil and Wafi, but instead they will be named Vale Liwa, Vale Sohar, Vale Shinas and Vale Saham. The steel cutting ceremony for the first two vessels was held on 8 July 2010 and they were launched on 19 March 2012. Vale Liwa entered service in August 2012, followed by Vale Sohar in September 2012, Vale Saham in January 2013, and Vale Shinas in March 2013. The ships reportedly received additional strengthening due to the Vale Beijing incident. The ships built for Oman Shipping Company were later removed from the Det Norske Veritas registry and moved to other classification societies such as American Bureau of Shipping and Lloyd's Register.
The Chinese shipbuilder's ability to deliver any of the very large ore carriers ordered by Vale in time was doubted already before the first ship was built. In May 2011, it was announced that only two or three Valemax vessels will be delivered from the Chinese shipyard in 2011 instead of the planned six due to delays in construction. In the end only, one ship (Vale China) was delivered before the end of the year. Furthermore, later reports claimed that the ships ordered by Vale had a capacity of only 380,000 tons even though according to the Det Norske Veritas database entries all Chinese-built ships have a deadweight tonnage in excess of 400,000 tons and in the past Vale has referred to the ships ordered from Rongsheng as "400,000-ton" vessels. The reduction in cargo capacity, at least on paper, may have been due to the reluctance of Chinese officials to accept the 400,000-ton ships to Chinese ports.
In April 2012, it was reported that Vale had refused delivery for three Valemax ships recently completed by Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries. This was seen as a move against the Chinese officials who have not allowed the 400,000-ton ships to dock in Chinese ports. However, the reports were rebutted by RSHI, who called them "inaccurate and unfounded".
Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering
On 26 October 2009, Vale ordered four Valemax vessels from the South Korean shipbuilder Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME) for $460 million. Further three ships were ordered from DSME in July 2010, bringing the total order to seven 400,000-ton Valemax vessels. Despite receiving the order later than the Chinese shipyard, DSME launched the first Valemax class ore carrier, Vale Brasil, on 31 December 2010 and delivered the ship to Vale in March 2011.
Vale Brasil was followed by Vale Rio de Janeiro on 22 September 2011, Vale Italia on 25 October 2011, Vale Malaysia on 27 March 2012, Vale Carajas on 29 May 2012, and Vale Minas Gerais on 13 July 2012. The last Valemax ship to be built by DSME, Vale Korea, was delivered on 9 April 2013.
STX Offshore & Shipbuilding
In addition to the ships Vale ordered for itself, more ships of similar size were to be built for other shipping companies and chartered to Vale under exclusive long-term contracts. Eight very large ore carriers were ordered from the South Korean shipbuilder STX Offshore & Shipbuilding in Jinhae, South Korea (STX Jinhae), and Dalian, China (STX Dalian). The shipping company, STX Pan Ocean, signed a 25-year contract with Vale in 2009. The deadweight tonnage of the Valemax vessels built by STX, 374,400 tons, is slightly smaller than that of the similar ships built by DSME and RSHI.
The first STX-built Valemax vessel, Vale Beijing, was delivered by STX Jinhae on 27 September 2011. Although another vessel was expected to take delivery later that year, only one ship was delivered. The second ship, Vale Qingdao, was delivered also by STX Jinhae on 13 April 2012, but the third and fourth ships, Vale Espirito Santo and Vale Indonesia, were built by STX Dalian and delivered on 17 September 2012 and 30 October 2012, respectively. The fifth ship, Vale Fujiyama, was again built by STX Jinhae and delivered on 26 November 2012. The sixth ship, Vale Tubarao, was delivered by STX Dalian on 30 January 2013. While both of the two remaining ships were supposed to be delivered by the end of 2013, only Vale Maranhao entered service on 29 August.
The last Valemax vessel to be built by STX, originally named Vale Ponta da Madeira but later referred to by its yard number "STX Dalian 1707", was launched sometime in 2015. However, the vessel was never finished and instead was listed as "for sale" in an unfinished state. In March 2016, it was reported that the last of the original 35 Valemax vessels to be built had been sold for just $16.8 million. Initially anonymous, the buyer was later identified as Pan Ocean (formerly STX Pan Ocean), the shipping company who originally ordered the vessel. The unfinished vessel will be completed by the Chinese shipyard Shanhaiguan Shipbuilding and named Sea Ponta da Madeira.
Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry
On 30 April 2007 Berge Bulk signed a contract with the Chinese shipbuilding company Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry for the construction of four 388,000-ton very large ore carriers. Although initially scheduled for delivery in 2010, the first vessel, Berge Everest, was delivered on 23 September 2011. It was followed by Berge Aconcagua on 15 March 2012 and Berge Jaya on 12 June 2012. The remaining ship, Berge Neblina, was initially also scheduled to be delivered in 2012, but entered service on 4 January 2013.
Had Vale not ordered the Valemax fleet in 2008, these ships would have become the largest bulk carriers in the world, surpassing Berge Bulk's own Berge Stahl. The four ships have since been chartered by Vale and, despite slight differences in design and contract date predating that of the ships ordered by Vale, they are also referred to as Valemax vessels.
In March 2016, it was reported that three Chinese companies China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company (COSCO), China Merchants Energy Shipping and ICBC Financial Leasing Co. had ordered ten Valemax vessels each from four Chinese shipyards. The total price for 30 vessels is US$2.5 billion. The Valemax ships ordered by China Merchants Energy Shipping will be built by Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding (4 ships), Qingdao Beihai Shipbuilding (4 ships), and China Merchants Group-controlled China Merchants Heavy Industry (Jiangsu) (2 ships). China COSCO Shipping Corporation has awarded the construction of all of its ten 400,000-ton ore carriers to Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding. ICBC Financial Leasing Co. announced that six of its ships would be built by the Chinese privately-owned shipyard Yangzijian Shipbuilding while the remaining four would be awarded to Qingdao Beihai Shipbuilding. The deliveries are scheduled to begin in 2018.
Initial career and ban
On 24 May 2011, Vale Brasil received her first cargo at the Brazilian port Terminal Marítimo de Ponta da Madeira, 391,000 tons of iron ore bound for Dalian in China. However, in June, after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, the ship was rerouted to Taranto, Italy, and turned back towards the Atlantic Ocean. There had been speculation that Vale Brasil was not allowed to enter the Chinese port fully laden, but according to Vale the destination was changed due to commercial, not political reasons. The ship arrived at the port of Taranto on 14 July 2011 to discharge her cargo. Since then, fully laden Valemax vessels have unloaded at various ports, such as Dalian in China, Sohar in Oman, Rotterdam, Ōita in Japan, Dangjin in South Korea, and the transshipment hub Vale has constructed at Subic Bay in the Philippines.
On 31 January 2012, the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China officially banned dry bulk carriers with capacity exceeding 300,000 tons from entering Chinese ports in order to protect the domestic freight industry. Prior to this, only one of the new very large ore carrier chartered by Vale, Berge Everest, had unloaded Brazilian iron ore at a Chinese port — the ship arrived at Dalian on 28 December 2011 — but this was assumed to be a bureaucratic fluke as no Chinese port has regulatory approval to receive dry bulk carriers of that size.
According to Vale, the discussions about allowing the Valemax ships to enter Chinese ports had been ongoing since the ban came into force and the Chinese officials had given a preliminary go-ahead for the construction of new berths capable of accommodating the 400,000-ton ships. According to the Ningbo Port Company, the construction of the new port facilities would take two to three years, causing further delays for Vale which in the meantime is losing $2–3 per ton of ore due to the ban. On 15 April 2013, Vale Malaysia became the first 400,000-ton Valemax vessel to call a Chinese port. The partially loaded ship docked at the port of Lianyungang en route from the Vale transshipment hub in Subic Bay, Philippines. However, at the time the Chinese officials had not yet lifted the ban for fully laden Valemax vessels. The first fully laden Valemax vessel to call a Chinese port since 2012, Shandong Da Ren, docked at the Dongjiakou port in Qingdao on 2 October 2014. The ban was officially lifted in July 2015.
Sale of ships
Originally, Vale planned to own and manage a fleet of 19 Valemax vessels by itself in order to control the wildly fluctuating charter prices for large bulk carriers which had dropped from US$233,988 per day in June 2008 to as low as US$2,400 by December of the same year. However, because of the global economic downturn and the reluctance of Chinese ports to accept the fully laden ships, the new board of directors decided to focus capital allocation to mining. As a result, Vale decided to sell the ships and charter them back under long-term contracts. Although Vale was expected to suffer financial losses from selling the ships, they would have been covered by the profit from iron ore sales even at depressed ore prices if only one or two full shipments could be unloaded in Chinese ports.
In September 2014, Vale signed a framework agreement for strategic co-operation in iron ore shipping with the state-owned China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company (COSCO). Later that month, a 25-year freight contract was signed between Vale and China Merchants Group. As part of the agreement, the Chinese shipping company will construct 10 new very large ore carriers to transport iron ore from Brazil to China. Following these agreements, China's ban for Valemax vessels has been effectively lifted and fully laden ships have called Chinese ports.
In May 2015, four ships were sold China Ore Shipping Pte. Ltd, a joint venture between COSCO and China Shipping Development Company, for US$445 million. These were the first Valemax vessels to officially change ownership. Later, four more ships were sold to China Merchants Energy Shipping. In December 2015, Vale announced that the remaining 11 Valemax ships owned by the mining company would be sold and leased back from the new owners.
Structural failure of Vale Beijing
On 5 December 2011 it was reported that Vale Beijing, operated by STX Pan Ocean, had suffered structural damage during her first cargo loading and was in danger of sinking at the port of Ponta da Madeira in Brazil due to sea water entering ruptured ballast tanks and cargo holds. The South Korean-built Valemax ship, partially loaded with 260,000 tons of iron ore, was towed away from Pier 1 by tugboats in the following day and as a precaution against environmental damage the Brazilian authorities requested her fuel tanks to be emptied. Since there are no facilities to unload iron ore from the ship at Ponta da Madeira and no large shipyards in the region, emergency repairs had to be performed by divers and the cargo redistributed while the ship is anchored offshore before it could be towed to a shipyard.
The cause of the damage has not been published by STX, but design or construction flaws, material fatigue and incorrect loading have all been suspected. According to calculations performed by DNV the damage was not caused by global strength issues or single pass loading, but is assumed to be related to local buckling strength in some areas of the web frames in the aft ballast tanks. Vale Beijing remained anchored off Ponta da Madeira with a crawler crane on the deck and an oceangoing tug standing by until 19 February 2012, when it left São Luís for Oman. After unloading at Sohar, the ship headed to South Korea for dry docking and arrived at STX shipyard in Jinhae, where it was delivered in September 2011, for inspection and repairs on 21 April 2012. Vale Beijing returned to service in July 2012.
Had Vale Beijing sunk at the pier instead of being moved to an anchorage area outside the port shortly after the leak was detected, the incident would have severely delayed the operations at the port which ships out about 10 percent of the world's iron ore production. While Vale Beijing delayed the loading of only 750,000 tons of iron ore, on 11 November 1994 Trade Daring, a 145,000 DWT ore-bulk-oil carrier, broke in two at the same location due to incorrect loading, blocking the deepwater pier of Ponta da Madeira for more than six weeks before the wreck was removed and scuttled offshore.
After the incident, the China Shipowners' Association (CSA) questioned the safety of the 400,000-ton ore carriers commissioned by Vale. CSA was particularly concerned about the ability of the newly built ships to withstand various sea conditions and the pollution resulting from fuel oil leaks in case of structural damage — each Valemax ship can carry around 10,000 tons of fuel oil. In January 2012 China officially banned the vessels from Chinese ports. However, in April 2013, The China Shipping Association confirmed that the first Valemax vessel was allowed to dock in the Chinese port of Lianyungang in the Jiangsu province. The ban was officially lifted in July 2015 as China’s transport ministry and National Development and Reform Commission announced that four ports would be opened up for 400,000-ton vessels.
Grounding of Vale Indonesia
On 7 September 2013, Vale Indonesia ran aground on a sandbar about 40 nautical miles (74 km; 46 mi) north of São Luís. The vessel, operated by STX Pan Ocean, was fully laden with 390,000 tons of iron ore bound for Vale's transhipment hub in Subic Bay. Two ballast tanks were reportedly breached, but there were no injuries or pollution, and the vessel was not in danger of sinking.
All Valemax vessels, with the exception of those owned and operated by Berge Bulk, were initially given names consisting of the word Vale and a place name, either one related to the mining operations of Vale S.A. in Brazil or a potential destination for the new iron ore carriers.
When Vale signed a $500 million contract with the Chinese shipping company Shandong Shipping for the operation of four Valemax vessels, the ships were given new names beginning with Shandong. Similarly, when four Valemax vessels were sold to China Ore Shipping, the vessels were given names beginning with Yuan and ending with Hai. Additional four Valemax vessels were given names starting with Pacific after Vale sold the ships to China Merchants Energy Shipping.
Additionally, a number of Valemax vessels have been renamed by replacing Vale with Ore or Sea but retaining the second part of the name. Vale Sohar, Vale Saham, Vale Liwa and Vale Shinas have also been renamed Sohar Max, Saham Max, Liwa Max and Shinas Max, respectively.
Although similar in size, the Valemax vessels built by different shipyards in South Korea and China have some differences in main dimensions, cargo capacity, machinery and external appearance.
The Valemax ships are 360 to 362 metres (1,181 to 1,188 ft) long, making them some of the longest ships currently in service. With a maximum draught of between 22 and 23 metres (72 and 75 ft) while loaded, the ships are limited only to a few deepwater ports in Brazil, Europe and China. In ballast the ships draw around 12 metres (39 ft) of water. The breadth of the Valemax ships is about 65 metres (213 ft). The size of the ships is limited mainly by Chinese ports and the ships of this size are generally referred to as Chinamax vessels.
The Valemax vessels have seven cargo holds with a total gross volume of almost 220,000 cubic metres (287,749 cu yd). In addition to increasing the strength of the hull special attention has also been paid to improve the speed and efficiency of the loading and discharging operations. Each cargo hold can be fully loaded by a shiploader in a single step with a loading rate of 13,500 tonnes per hour and can carry almost as much iron ore as a small Panamax carrier. In addition the space inside the cargo hold that cannot be reached by grabs during discharging, the so-called "dead spots", is minimized.
With a deadweight tonnage of 400,000 tons, a fully laden Valemax vessel is carrying as much iron ore as around 11,150 trucks, enough to produce steel for three Golden Gate bridges. Once all 35 Valemax ships are in service and if each ship does four round trips per year, they will be capable of carrying about 15% of the annual iron ore exports from Brazil to all destinations.
Like most modern bulk carriers, each Valemax vessel will be powered by a single two-stroke low-speed crosshead diesel engine directly coupled to a fixed-pitch propeller. The ships built by DSME and STX in South Korea will be powered by 7-cylinder MAN B&W 7S80ME-C8 and 7S80ME-C engines, respectively, and the ships built by RSHI and Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry will receive Wärtsilä 7RT-flex82T and 7RT-flex84T engines, respectively. The Wärtsilä RT-flex82T engines are manufactured in China under licence. Both MAN and Wärtsilä engines will have a maximum continuous rating of around 29,000 kW (39,000 hp) when turning the 10-metre (33 ft) propeller at 76–78 rpm, giving the ships a service speed of around 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph) while burning almost 100 tons of heavy fuel oil per day. However, due to the large size of the vessels the emissions per cargo ton-mile are very low and thus the Valemax vessels are in fact among the most efficient long-distance dry bulk carriers in service — Vale has reported a 35% drop in emissions per ton of cargo carried in comparison to older ships.
All Valemax vessels will be classified by Det Norske Veritas, although some have dual classification with the Korean Register of Shipping. However, the Valemax vessels built for Oman Shipping Company have been removed from the DNV database.
The new ships are considerably larger than the previous record holder, 364,767-ton Berge Stahl, which had been the largest bulk carrier in the world since it was built in 1986. While the draft of the old vessel is the same as that of the Valemax vessels — 23 metres (75 ft) — the new ships are 20 metres (66 ft) longer and 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) wider than the old freighter, and can carry about 10% more cargo.
The Valemax vessels are also the second largest ships in service by deadweight tonnage, second only to the TI-class supertankers that have a deadweight tonnage of over 440,000 tons. They are still far from the largest ship ever constructed — Seawise Giant (labeled as the Knock Nevis in the adjacent image), built in 1979 and broken up in 2009, was 458.46 metres (1,504.1 ft) long and had a deadweight tonnage of 564,650 tons — and also considerably shorter than the longest ship currently in service, the 399.67-metre (1,311 ft) container ship CSCL Globe.
Vale's decision of constructing a fleet of 400,000-ton ore carriers has been widely criticized by other shipping companies. The new Valemax ships, expected to cut the company's transportation costs by 20–25%, are blamed for driving down the freight rates for the entire industry, swelling the already oversupplied bulk transportation market and stalling the recovery of the shipping business after the financial crisis.
The freight rates, down 80% from 2008, are expected to drop further down to the levels of 1977. According to the chief executive of BIMCO, the Valemax vessels could displace up to 168 150,000–180,000-ton capesize bulk carriers, around 15% of the existing fleet, from the long haul voyages and force them to less profitable shorter routes. Vale has responded to the criticism by stating that the company aims to permanently cut the costs of Atlantic-Pacific dry bulk shipping to make Brazilian ore more competitive against iron ore produced in Australia, which is closer to major customers in Asia.
Vale has also faced opposition from the China Shipowners' Association which claim that the Brazilian mining company is seeking to control the freight market as it has already done with the iron ore prices. In the past the Chinese ports were not allowed to increase their capacity to more than 300,000 tons for dry bulk carriers due to safety and environmental concerns, and if the 400,000-ton Valemax vessels are allowed to Chinese ports, Vale's monopoly on the route may result in losses for other shipping companies operating capesize ore carriers. Also, when Vale Brasil was diverted to Italy on her maiden voyage, there was speculation that the domestic steel industry of China had urged the authorities to protect their commercial interests. However, Vale has also received support from the Chinese steel companies as they would benefit from lower transportation costs.
As a precaution against prolonged ban of Valemax vessels from the Chinese ports, Vale started constructing both land- and offshore-based transshipment hubs where iron ore can be loaded to smaller ships for final delivery. Ore Fabrica, a 280,000 DWT crude oil tanker converted in China, arrived at Subic Bay, Philippines, in late January 2012 and has since unloaded a number of Valemax ships. This backup plan has also been criticized by the vice-executive chairman of the CSA, Zhang Shouguo, who called it "waste of resource" and questioned Vale's ability to run the fleet as properly as professional shipping companies. There have been rumors that as a result Vale intends to sell or lease its planned fleet of Valemax bulk carriers to Chinese shipping companies with long-term charter contracts to avoid such criticism and allow the ships to enter Chinese ports, but as of 2014[update] no Valemax ship has changed owners, although several have been chartered to other companies and changed their names.
In May 2012, the largest Chinese operator of dry bulk carriers, state-owned China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company (COSCO), claimed that Vale had refused to use the company's ships since March as a protest against banning the Valemax vessels from Chinese ports. Vale has refused to give comments on the issue.
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, the former president of Brazil, also publicly criticized Vale's former CEO Roger Agnelli for the decision of ordering ships from Asian shipyards instead of building them in Brazil, where Lula da Silva has been trying to revitalize the shipbuilding industry to create more jobs and increase local demand for steel and other products. Agnelli, who later left his position following continued criticism, replied that the Brazilian shipyards did not have the capacity to build such ships and stated that during the past few years Vale had commissioned 51 vessels from Brazilian shipyards.
List of Valemax vessels
|Current name||Previous names||Shipping company||Year built||Yard number||IMO number||Status||Ref|
|Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering|
|Ore Brasil||Vale Brasil (2011–2014)||Vale Shipping||2011||1201||9488918||In service|||
|Shandong Da De||Vale Rio de Janeiro (2011–2013)||Shandong Shipping||2011||1202||9572329||In service|||
|Ore Italia||Vale Italia (2011–2014)||Vale Shipping||2011||1203||9572331||In service|||
|Shandong Da Ren||Vale Malaysia (2012–2014)||Shandong Shipping||2012||1204||9572343||In service|||
|Shandong Da Cheng||Vale Carajas (2012–2014)||Shandong Shipping||2012||1212||9593919||In service|||
|Shandong Da Zhi||Vale Minas Gerais (2012–2013)||Shandong Shipping||2012||1213||9593957||In service|||
|Ore Korea||Vale Korea (2013–2014)||Vale Shipping||2013||1214||9593969||In service|||
|STX Offshore & Shipbuilding|
|Sea Beijing||Vale Beijing (2011–2014)||Pan Ocean||2011||1701||9575448||In service|||
|Sea Qingdao||Vale Qingdao (2012–2014)||Pan Ocean||2012||1702||9575450||In service|||
|Sea Espirito Santo||Vale Espirito Santo (2012–2014)||Pan Ocean||2012||1703||9575462||In service|||
|Sea Indonesia||Vale Indonesia (2012–2014)||Pan Ocean||2012||1704||9575474||In service|||
|Sea Fujiyama||Vale Fujiyama (2012–2014)||Pan Ocean||2012||1705||9575486||In service|||
|Sea Tubarao||Vale Tubarao (2013–2014)||Pan Ocean||2013||1706||9575498||In service|||
|Sea Ponta da Madeira||Vale Ponta da Madeira[i] STX Dalian 1707[ii]||Pan Ocean||2016[iii]||1707||9575503||Launched|||
|Sea Maranhao||Vale Maranhao (2013–2014)||Pan Ocean||2013||1708||9575515||In service|||
|Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries|
|Ore China||Vale China (2011–2014)||Vale Shipping||2011||H1105||9522972||In service|||
|Ore Dongjiakou||Vale Dongjiakou (2012–2014)||Vale Shipping||2012||H1106||9532513||In service|||
|Pacific Warrior||Vale Dalian (2012–2014) Ore Dalian (2014–2015)||China Merchants Energy Shipping||2012||H1107||9532525||In service|||
|Ore Hebei||Vale Hebei (2012–2014)||Vale Shipping||2012||H1108||9532537||In service|||
|Ore Shandong||Vale Shandong (2012–2014)||Vale Shipping||2012||H1109||9532549||In service|||
|Yuan Zhen Hai||Vale Jiangsu (2013–2014) Ore Jiangsu (2014–2015)||China Ore Shipping||2013||H1110||9532551||In service|||
|Yuan Shi Hai||Vale Caofeidian (2013–2014) Ore Caofeidian (2014–2015)||China Ore Shipping||2013||H1111||9532575||In service|||
|Yuan Jian Hai||Vale Lianyungang (2013–2015)||China Ore Shipping||2013||H1112||9532587||In service|||
|Yuan Zhuo Hai||Vale Majishan[iv] Ore Majishan (2014–2015)||China Ore Shipping||2014||H1113||9532599||In service|||
|Pacific Merchants||Vale Tianjin[iv] Ore Tianjin (2014–2015)||China Merchants Energy Shipping||2014||H1114||9532604||In service|||
|Pacific Winner||Vale Rizhao[iv] Ore Rizhao (2014–2015)||China Merchants Energy Shipping||2014||H1115||9532616||In service|||
|Pacific Mariner||Vale Ningbo[iv] Ore Ningbo (2015)||China Merchants Energy Shipping||2015||H1116||9532628||In service|||
|Sohar Max||Vale Sohar (2012–2014)||Oman Shipping Company||2012||H1125||9565065||In service|||
|Liwa Max||Vale Liwa (2012–2015)||Oman Shipping Company||2012||H1126||9566514||In service|||
|Shinas Max||Vale Shinas (2013–2015)||Oman Shipping Company||2013||H1127||9566538||In service|||
|Saham Max||Vale Saham (2013–2015)||Oman Shipping Company||2013||H1128||9566526||In service|||
|Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry|
|Berge Everest||Berge Bulk||2011||BH416-1||9447536||In service|||
|Berge Aconcagua||Berge Bulk||2012||BH416-2||9447548||In service|||
|Berge Jaya||Berge Bulk||2012||BH416-3||9447550||In service|||
|Berge Neblina||Berge Bulk||2013||BH416-4||9447562||In service|||
|Name||Shipping company||Year built||Yard number||IMO number||Status||Ref|
|Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding|
|China Merchants Energy Shipping||2018 (planned)||9806976||Ordered|||
|China Merchants Energy Shipping||2018 (planned)||9806988||Ordered|||
|China Merchants Energy Shipping||2018 (planned)||9806990||Ordered|||
|China Merchants Energy Shipping||2019 (planned)||9807009||Ordered|||
|China COSCO Shipping Corporation||2018 (planned)||9806873||Ordered|||
|China COSCO Shipping Corporation||2018 (planned)||9806885||Ordered|||
|China COSCO Shipping Corporation||2018 (planned)||9806897||Ordered|||
|China COSCO Shipping Corporation||2018 (planned)||9806902||Ordered|||
|China COSCO Shipping Corporation||2019 (planned)||9806914||Ordered|||
|China COSCO Shipping Corporation||2019 (planned)||9806926||Ordered|||
|China COSCO Shipping Corporation||2019 (planned)||9806938||Ordered|||
|China COSCO Shipping Corporation||2019 (planned)||9806940||Ordered|||
|China COSCO Shipping Corporation||2019 (planned)||9806952||Ordered|||
|China COSCO Shipping Corporation||2019 (planned)||9806964||Ordered|||
|Qingdao Beihai Shipbuilding|
|China Merchants Energy Shipping||2018 (planned)||9807011||Ordered|||
|China Merchants Energy Shipping||2018 (planned)||9807023||Ordered|||
|China Merchants Energy Shipping||2019 (planned)||9807035||Ordered|||
|China Merchants Energy Shipping||2019 (planned)||9807047||Ordered|||
|ICBC Financial Leasing Co.||2018 (planned)||OC400K-1||9807724||Under construction|||
|ICBC Financial Leasing Co.||2018 (planned)||OC400K-2||9807736||Under construction|||
|ICBC Financial Leasing Co.||2019 (planned)||OC400K-3||9807748||Under construction|||
|ICBC Financial Leasing Co.||2019 (planned)||9807750||Ordered|||
|China Merchants Heavy Industry (Jiangsu)|
|China Merchants Energy Shipping||2019 (planned)||9807059||Ordered|||
|China Merchants Energy Shipping||2019 (planned)||9807061||Ordered|||
|ICBC Financial Leasing Co.||2018 (planned)||9807657||Ordered|||
|ICBC Financial Leasing Co.||2018 (planned)||9807669||Ordered|||
|ICBC Financial Leasing Co.||2018 (planned)||9807671||Ordered|||
|ICBC Financial Leasing Co.||2019 (planned)||9807683||Ordered|||
|ICBC Financial Leasing Co.||2019 (planned)||9807695||Ordered|||
|ICBC Financial Leasing Co.||2019 (planned)||9807700||Ordered|||
- Energy efficiency and productivity . Vale S.A. Retrieved 2011-09-04.
- Chinese Shipping Majors Splash $2.5 Billion for 30 Giant Valemax Vessels . The Wall Street Journal, 10 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-14.
- DSME delivering Vale Brasil, the world's largest ore carrier. Det Norske Veritas, 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- China Set to Deliver Two Mega-ships to Vale. Caixin Online, 6 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- Breaking News: DNV awarded class for the world's biggest shipbuilding contract ever!, Det Norske Veritas, 9 September 2008. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- China: RSHI Launches World’s Most Advanced VLOC for Iron Ore Supplier Vale. Shipbuilding Tribune, 11 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- "Ore China (30059)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- CHIA RONG : China Rongsheng Heavy Industries' 400,000 DWT Vloc Named and Launched - Lowers Cost for Vale and Forges Long-Term Cooperation, First Vlocs to be Delivered Soon. 4-traders.com, 10 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- Vale gets 1st China-built mega iron ore carrier, market shudders. International Business Times, 12 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- With China shut, Vale iron-ore ships head to Philippines. Mining Weekly, 26 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
- "Ore Dongjiakou (30060)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-11-06.
- "Pacific Warrior (30061)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
- "Ore Hebei (30062)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-07-31.
- "Ore Shandong (30063)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-05-11.
- "Yuan Zhen Hai (30064)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2015-06-24.
- "Yuan Shi Hai (30230)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2015-06-10.
- "Yuan Jian Hai (30231)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2015-06-10.
- "Yuan Zhuo Hai (30232)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2015-06-24.
- "Pacific Merchant (30233)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
- "Pacific Winner (30234)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
- "Pacific Mariner (30235)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
- Sultanate and Brazil, Agreement to Lease four ships for Steel Ore. Oman Shipping Company News Press Releases, 2 November 2008. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- Jiangsu Rongsheng Signs US$483 Newbuild VLOC Deal With Oman Shipping. Business Monitor International, 13 July 2009. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
- Fleet. Oman Shipping Company. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- RSHI’s 400,000 DWT VLOC Began Construction. Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries, 8 July 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
- China: Rongsheng Heavy Launches VLOC VALE SOHAR Built for OSC. World Maritime News, 9 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-09.
- Rongsheng VLOCs strengthened . Marine News China, 29 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-18.
- "Liwa Max (9566514)". Equasis. French Ministry for Transport. Retrieved 2015-09-24. (registration required (. ))
- "Sohar Max (9565065)". Equasis. French Ministry for Transport. Retrieved 2014-10-24. (registration required (. ))
- Delivery doubts plague Vale’s VLOC newbuilds programme. Lloyd's List Asia, 30 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
- Rongsheng May Deliver Two Large Ore Ships in 2011, Six Fewer Than Planned. Eshiptrading.com, 26 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- CH RONGSHENG (01101) 2011 delivery target: 2-3 vessels to VALE COMMON-DRS. AASTOCKS.com, 24 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
- Vale’s giant ore carriers go on a diet. Lloyd's List, 25 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
- Vale iron-ore ship built in Korea is smaller than first planned. The Business Times, 28 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
- Vale refuses delivery on Chinese ships. Global Times, 20 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- Vale refuses delivery on Chinese ships. Maritime Bulletin, 20 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- Rongsheng scorns VLOC reports. Tradewinds. (Registration required)
- "Ore Brasil (30616)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
- DSME bags VLOC order. The Motor Ship, 28 October 2009. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- DSME wins order 3 VLOCs from Vale. Maritime Press, 25 June 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- "Shandong Da De (30617)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
- "Ore Italia (30618)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2011-10-29.
- "Shandong Da Ren (30619)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- "Shandong Da Cheng (31641)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
- "Shandong Da Zhi (31642)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-01-11.
- "Ore Korea (31643)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
- ME-Engine Firmly Established in Brazilian Market. MAN Diesel & Turbo. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- STX Pan Ocean in pact with Vale to ship iron ore. Resource Investor, 21 September 2009. Retrieved 2011-09-04.
- "Vale Beijing (30991)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "Sea Qingdao (30992)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-07-31.
- "Sea Espirito Santo (32459)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
- "Sea Indonesia (32460)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-07-04.
- Delivering World’s Largest VLOC and Best-performing Drillship in A Row. STX Mobile, 26 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
- "Sea Fujiyama (32457)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-07-04.
- "Sea Tubarao (32461)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-07-04.
- STX acquires world-largest VLOC. Maritime Press, 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
- "Sea Maranhao (32458)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2014-11-06.
- Unfinished STX Dalian valemax sells for just $16.8m. Splash 24/7, 10 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-15.
- Pan Ocean acquires unfinished valemax for $17m. Lloyd's List, 11 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-15.
- Shanhaiguan Shipbuilding to complete unfinished STX Dalian valemax. Splash 24/7, 29 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-06.
- "Berge Everest (28514)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas.
- "Berge Aconcagua (28515)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- "Berge Jaya (28516)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
- China Bohai Shipbuilding to soon deliver 1st mega dry bulk ship. Reuters, 20 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- Building the world's largest bulk carriers. Det Norske Veritas, 30 January 2008. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- "Berge Neblina (28517)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2013-01-22.
- http://www.lloydslist.com/ll/sector/dry-cargo/article386077.ece. Lloyd's List, 8 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- First of Vale's mega ships to arrive in Asia next week. Reuters, 8 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-08.
- Three Chinese Shipbuilders to Build Ten VLOC Vessels for CMES. Silky Sea, 24 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
- COSCOCS Closes Deal for 10 VLOCs at SWS. World Maritime News, 1 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
- ICBC Reveals Builders of Its Valemax Series. World Maritime News, 12 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
- Chinese shipping companies submit orders for 30 Valemax vessels. Maritime News, 7 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
- Vale Brasil Sails For The Port Of Dalian In China. The TEX Report, 31 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Vale reroutes China-bound iron cargo to Italy. Reuters, 21 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Vale diverts China ore ship for commercial reasons. Lee Universal Enterprises, 22 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Vale Brasil discharged iron ore carrier at Taranto in Italy for Ilva. Steelguru, 22 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- China bans 400,000 dwt 'Valemax' vessels. The Business Times, 2 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
- Iron ore mega-ship offloads first 400,000 tonnes at Sohar jetty. Royal Haskoning, 29 September 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
- Vale Rio is haven binnengevaren. Rijnmond, 8 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
- Valemax ore carrier docks in Japan for first time. SteelOrbis, 19 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- South Korean port receives a Valemax class vessel for the first time. Vale S.A., 4 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
- Vale readies iron ore transshipment hub in Philippines. Reuters, 31 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
- Vale Says Discussions 'Going On' Over China Valemax Access. Hellenic Shipping News, 23 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- China gives preliminary go-ahead to building valemax berths. Lloyd's List, 29 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-06.
- Vale losing $2-$3/t of ore due to China Valemax ban. Mineweb, 6 December 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-26.
- Vale's Valemax Service Still Faces Hurdles In China. Forbes, 4 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
- Valemax enters China port for first time since ban. South China Morning Post, 18 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- Chinese port first to take in valemax giant. Lloyd's list, 18 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- Valemax finally allowed to dock at Chinese port. MineWeb, 10 October 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- China lifts ban on giant Valemax ships. The Financial Times, 2015-07-03. Retrieved 2015-07-04.
- Vale looking to sell Valemax iron ore carriers. Steel Guru, 22 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- Vale VLOCs a "loss-leader". TradeWinds, 22 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-23.
- Vale and Cosco sign cooperation agreement on VLOCs. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
- Vale and China Merchants Group sign agreement on VLOCs. Vale SA, 26 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
- Valemax ban 'effectively' lifted. Mining.com, 24 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
- COSCO and China Shipping Signed Vessel Purchase Agreement with Vale. COSCO. Retrieved 2015-06-24.
- China Merchants Energy Shipping Signed COA with VALE. Vesselfinder.com, 29 September 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
- UPDATE 1-Vale says Valemax ship sale, leaseback could fetch $1.1 bln. Reuters, 4 December 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-05.
- Vale says put 260,000 tonnes of ore on damaged ship. Wall Street On Demand, 25 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
- Vale Beijing Update. Maritime Bulletin, 9 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-11.
- Huge Vale ore carrier disabled at Brazil port. Reuters, 6 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Huge Vale ore carrier may sink at Brazil port. Mining Weekly, 6 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Vale port moves damaged ore ship from berth. Reuters, 6 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- VALE BEIJING: Situation remains serious SeaNews Turkey, 8 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-11.
- Vale Beijing incident not related to global strength issues or single pass loading. Det Norske Veritas, 16 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-01-22.
- VLOC Vale Beijing still anchored off Sao Luis, offloading ore in barges. Maritime Bulletin, 20 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
- Vale Beijing Heading to South Korea for Inspections, Owner Says. BloombergBusinessweek, 4 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- Vale's huge iron-ore ship back in service after maiden accident. Mining Weekly, 16 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-16.
- Damaged Vale ore ship moved, shipments normalized. Reuters, 6 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
- Trade Daring. The Brazilian Register of Shipping (RBNA). Retrieved 2011-12-07.
- China questions safety of Brazil’s dry bulk carriers, the world’s largest. MercoPress, 14 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-23.
- M.V. Vale Brasil - Ships particulars. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- China permits giant Valemax to dock, Hook. Leslie, Financial Times - Shipping (18 April, 2013)
- Valemax Vale Indonesia grounded and breached off Ponta da Madeira, Brazil. Maritime Bulletin, 9 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-11.
- Valemax Vale Indonesia hits sandbar in Brazil port. Seatrade Global, 10 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-11.
- Shandong Shipping agrees to operate Vale's giant iron ore ships. Yahoo! Finance, 1 November 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
- "STX Dalian 1707 (9575503)". Equasis. French Ministry for Transport. Retrieved 2015-06-10. (registration required (. ))
- The world's largest ore carriers. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Vale mulling 63% iron-ore production increase by 2015 . Mining Weekly, 22 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- Machine Support services on world's largest dry bulk carrier. Machine Support News. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- Biggest iron-ore ships can enter 3 Chinese ports. China Daily, 2011-06-23. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- Interactive presentation. Vale S.A. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
- The ‘Chinamax’ aka* ‘Valemax’: an (iron) ore carrier drama. Carbon Positive, 17 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-26.
- Vale - A Global Strategic Partner. Vale S.A. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Vale’s fleet ambitions loaded with super-sized risks. Lloyd's List, 30 July 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-04.
- World’s Largest Bulk Carrier Uses Low-Speed B&W Power on Chinese Route. Diesel Facts 2/2011, page 9. MAN Diesel, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- MS Berge Stahl. Ships and Yacht Information, 11 March 2008. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- "Berge Stahl (14702)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- Tankers International (2008). "Fleet List". tankersinternational.com. Tankers International. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- Auke Visser. "Jahre Viking". International Super Tankers. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
- "CSCL Globe (117654)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Germanischer Lloyd. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
- Vale mega ships to cut freight costs by 20-25 pct. Reuters, 17 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- Vale’s giant ships ‘to drive rates to 1977 lows’. Lloyd's List, 22 October 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- Mega-Ships to stall maritime recovery. Commodities Now, December 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- Vale Brasil Sends Shipping Returns Plummeting: Freight Markets. Business Week, 27 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- Vale New Giant Ships to be Built in China and Korea. SteelHome, 6 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- China's Shippers Lobby to Foil Vale's Ore Fleet. SteelHome, 28 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- Vale’s Giant Ships Get Support from Chinese Steelmakers. Trefix, 10 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
- Gloves come off in China's Vale scrap. Lloyd's List, 1 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-23.
- China Shipowners’ Association’s Comment and View on Vale’s Construction of Transshipment Hub and Distribution Centre in Philippines and Malaysia to Transport Iron Ore Imported by China. China Shipowners' Association, 6 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-23.
- Exclusive: Vale in talks to sell giant ships to China. Reuters, 5 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- Cosco Says Vale Shuns Its Vessels on China Mega-Ship Ban. Bloomberg Businessweek, 9 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-18.
- Brazil Vale takes delivery of 400,000-ton ore carrier. Bulk Inside, 19 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- "Shinas Max (13216324)". ABS Record. American Bureau of Shipping. Retrieved 2015-06-10.
- "Saham Max (9566526)". Equasis. French Ministry for Transport. Retrieved 2015-01-23. (registration required (. ))