Tereshkova in March 2017
|Deputy of the State Duma|
from Yaroslavl Oblast
|Assumed office |
21 December 2011
|Born||6 March 1937|
Bolshoye Maslennikovo, Tutayevsky District, Yaroslavl Oblast, Soviet Union
|Other names||Valentina Nikolayeva-Tereshkova|
|Rank||Major general, Air Force|
Time in space
|2 days, 22 hours, and 50 mins|
|Selection||1st female group|
Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (Russian: Валентина Владимировна Терешкова, IPA: [vɐlʲɪnʲˈtʲinə vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvnə tʲɪrʲɪʂˈkovə] (listen); born 6 March 1937) is a member of the Russian State Duma, engineer, and former cosmonaut. She is the first and youngest woman to have flown in space with a solo mission on the Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963. She orbited the Earth 48 times, spent almost three days in space, and remains the only woman to have been on a solo space mission.
Before her selection for the Soviet space program, Tereshkova was a textile factory worker and an amateur skydiver. She joined the Air Force as part of the Cosmonaut Corps and was commissioned as an officer after completing her training. After the dissolution of the first group of female cosmonauts in 1969, Tereshkova remained in the space program as a cosmonaut instructor. She later graduated from the Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy and re-qualified for spaceflight but never went to space again. She retired from the Air Force in 1997 having attained the rank of major general.
Tereshkova was a prominent member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, holding various political offices including being a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1974 to 1989. She remained politically active following the collapse of the Soviet Union but twice lost elections to the national State Duma in 1995 and 2003. Tereshkova was later elected in 2008 to her regional parliament, the Yaroslavl Oblast Duma. In 2011, she was elected to the national State Duma as a member of the United Russia party and re-elected in 2016.
Valentina Tereshkova was born on 6 March 1937 in the Bolshoye Maslennikovo, a village on the Volga River 270 kilometres (170 mi) northeast of Moscow and part of the Yaroslavl Oblast in central Russia. Her parents had migrated from Belarus. Her father, Vladimir Tereshkov, was a former tractor driver and a sergeant in command of a tank in the Soviet Army. He died in the Finnish Winter War during World War II when Tereshkova was two years old. He and her mother Elena Fyodorovna Tereshkova had three children. After her father's death, her mother moved the family to Yaroslavl, seeking better employment opportunity, and became employed at the Krasny Perekop cotton mill.
Tereshkova was first enrolled in school at age 10 and graduated at 17. She began working at a tyre factory, and later at a textile mill, but continued her education by correspondence courses to graduate from the Light Industry Technical School in 1960. Tereshkova also became interested in parachuting from a young age, and trained in skydiving at the local Aeroclub, making her first jump at age 22, on 21 May 1959. While still employed as textile worker, she trained as a competitive parachutist, which she kept a secret from her family. Tereshkova also joined the local Komsomol (Communist Youth League) in Yaroslavl, serving as the secretary of the organisation in 1960 and 1961. She became a member of the Communist Party in 1962.
Soviet space program
Selection and training
Tereshkova had not held any previous desire to go to space, and it was her experience in skydiving that would contribute to her selection as a cosmonaut. After the flight of Yuri Gagarin in 1961, Nikolai Kamanin, director of cosmonaut training, read in American media that female pilots were training to be astronauts. In his diary, he wrote, "We cannot allow that the first woman in space will be American. This would be an insult to the patriotic feelings of Soviet women." Approval was granted for five female cosmonauts in the next group, which would begin training in 1963. To increase the odds of sending a Soviet woman into space first, the female cosmonauts began their training before the males. The rules required that the potential cosmonaut be a parachutist under 30 years of age, less than 170 cm (5 ft 7 in) in height, no more than 70 kg (154 lb) in weight. By January 1962, the All-Union Voluntary Society for Assistance to the Army, Air Force and Navy (DOSAAF) had selected 400 candidates for consideration. After the initial screening, 58 of those candidates met the requirements, which Kamanin reduced to 23. On 16 February 1962, Tereshkova was selected along with four other candidates to join the female cosmonaut corps.
Since they had no military experience, they started with the rank of private in the Soviet Air Forces. Training included isolation tests, centrifuge tests, thermo-chamber tests, decompression chamber testing, and pilot training in MiG-15UTI jet fighters. Tereshkova underwent water recovery training at sea where several motorboats were used to agitate the waters to simulate rough conditions. She also began studying at the Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy and graduated a few years after her flight. The group spent several months in basic training and, after finishing their training and passing an examination, Kamanin offered them the option to be commissioned as regular Air Force officers. With advice from the male cosmonauts, they chose to accept Kamanin's offer, as it would make it harder for the program to get rid of them after the first flight. All five women became junior lieutenants in the Air Force in December 1962. Tatyana Kuznetsova became ineligible for the first flight due to illness and Zhanna Yorkina was performing poorly in training, leaving Tereshkova, Irina Solovyova, and Valentina Ponomaryova as the leading candidates.
Originally, a joint mission profile was developed that would see two women launched into space on solo Vostok flights on consecutive days in March or April 1963, and it was intended that Tereshkova would launch first in Vostok 5 while Ponomaryova would follow her into orbit in Vostok 6. However, this flight plan was altered in March 1963. Vostok 5 would now carry a male cosmonaut Valery Bykovsky flying along side a woman aboard Vostok 6, both to be launched in June 1963. The State Space Commission nominated Tereshkova to pilot Vostok 6 at their meeting on 21 May. Kamanin called her, "Gagarin in a skirt." Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was happy with the propaganda potential of her selection, since she was the daughter of a collective farm worker who died in the Winter War, and confirmed her selection. Solovyova was appointed as her first backup. Tereshkova was promoted to lieutenant before her flight and to captain mid-flight.
After the successful launch of Vostok 5 on 14 June, Tereshkova began final preparations for her own flight. On the morning of 16 June 1963, Tereshkova and her backup Solovyova were both dressed in spacesuits and taken to the launch pad by bus. Following the tradition set by Gagarin, Tereshkova also urinated on the bus tire, becoming the first woman to do so. After completing her communication and life support checks, she was sealed inside the Vostok. After a two-hour countdown, Vostok 6 launched faultlessly, and Tereshkova became the first woman in space; she remains the only woman to fly to space solo, and the youngest at 26 years old.[a] Her call sign in this flight was Chaika (Russian: Ча́йка, lit. 'Seagull'), later commemorated as the name of an asteroid, 1671 Chaika. After her launch, she radioed down:
It is I, Seagull! Everything is fine. I see the horizon; it's a sky blue with a dark strip. How beautiful the Earth is ... everything is going well.
Vostok 6 was the final Vostok flight and was launched two days after Vostok 5 which carried Bykovsky into a five-day mission. The two vessels spent three days in orbital planes 30° apart and, during Tereshkova's first orbit, approached each other to within 5 km (3.1 mi). Although they were able to communicate via radio, neither could be sure if they saw each other. Cameras placed inside both the spacecrafts transmitted live footage that was broadcast on Soviet state television. Tereshkova also maintained a flight log and took photographs of the horizon, which were later used to identify aerosol layers within the atmosphere.
With a single flight, she logged more flight time than the combined times of all American astronauts who had flown before that date. Her mission was used to continue the medical studies on humans in spaceflight and offered comparative data of the effects of space travel on women. Although Tereshkova experienced nausea and physical discomfort for much of the flight, she orbited the earth 48 times and spent 2 days, 22 hours, and 50 mins in space. As planned in all Vostok missions, Tereshkova ejected from the capsule during its descent at about four miles above the Earth and made a parachute landing 620 km (385 mi) north-east of Karaganda, Kazakhstan at 8:20 am UTC on 19 June. Bykovsky landed three hours after her.
Later on, Tereshkova revealed that she had difficulty controlling the parachute due to strong winds. However, she landed safely but received a bruise on her nose, then she had dinner with some local villagers in the Altai Krai who helped her to get out of her spacesuit.
After the Vostok 6 flight
According to the Russian newspaper Pravda, one million flowers were brought in to celebrate the success of the dual flights and greet the cosmonauts in Moscow. On 22 June 1963, Khrushchev greeted Bykovsky dressed in his uniform who saluted while Khrushchev hugged and kissed Tereshkova who was dressed in civilian attire. In front of the thousands in attendance, the Premier also announced that both the cosmonauts were awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union medal. All three made speeches from atop Lenin's Tomb on the Red Square; Tereshkova said, "my father perished defending our country and my mother brought up her three children. We know the bitterness of that war. We don't need war," referring to the anniversary of the German invasion of Russia that began 22 years ago that day. Sometime after her mission, she was reportedly asked how the Soviet Union should thank her for her service to the country; Tereshkova requested that the government search for and publish the location of where her father was killed in action. This was done, and a monument was erected at the site in the Lemetti, Karelia—now on the Russian side of the border. The evening of 22 June, a reception was held in the Kremlin in which both Bykovsky and Tereshkova were awarded the Order of Lenin.
Less than a week after her return from space, Moscow hosted the International Women's Congress on 24 June where Tereshkova and Bykovsky were greeted by a gathering of about 2,000 women from 119 countries. Of all the Russian cosmonauts, Tereshkova received the most requests to visit foreign nations. Her trips in particular required pre-approval from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defense, and the KGB and were ultimately authorized by the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the highest political bureau in the Soviet Union.
All the Vostok astronauts toured extensively, but Tereshkova most of all; she made 42 trips abroad between 1963 and 1970. On 1 October 1963, Tereshkova arrived in Havana, Cuba, and met Fidel Castro. She toured the country which at the time was dealing with effects of Hurricane Flora. The following month she presented a silver cup, which went to the team from the Soviet Union who won gold in all five boat classes, at the women's 1963 European Rowing Championships held in Khimki near Moscow. By February 1964, Tereshkova had been promoted to captain and was pregnant when she visited Elizabeth II of England who was also pregnant at the time. Except for a few-months break that year, Tereshkova went on a continuous and exhausting world tour, returning to her public duties only two months after the birth of her daughter.
Tereshkova was a well-known representative of the Soviet Union abroad. She became a member of the World Peace Council in 1966 and a member of the Yaroslavl Soviet in 1967. She was also the Soviet representative to the UN Conference for the International Women's Year in Mexico City in 1975. She led the Soviet delegation to the World Conference on Women in Copenhagen and was "interested in socialist internationalism and women's roles in guaranteeing world peace". Tereshkova was also chosen for several political positions; she was a member of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (1966–1974), a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (1969–1991), and a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1974–1989). She was appointed vice president of the International Woman’s Democratic Federation and president of the Soviet-Algerian Friendship Society.
Although she desired to continue pursuing a career as a cosmonaut and engineer, her superiors had a different plan for her in politics. Following Gagarin's death, the Soviet space program was not willing to risk losing another hero. Against her wishes, she was appointed as the leader of the Committee for Soviet Women in 1968. A few months after she graduated with honours from the Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy in October 1969, the team of women cosmonauts was disbanded and a woman would not go to space again until Svetlana Savitskaya in 1982.
By 1976, Tereshkova was a colonel in the Soviet Air Forces. In April 1977, she earned a doctorate in aeronautical engineering and underwent the medical examinations to qualify for spaceflight when selection of a new class of women cosmonauts began in 1978. Although she did not go to space again, she remained an instructor at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center.
Later political career
She remained politically active following the collapse of the Soviet Union but lost elections to the national State Duma in 1995. In 1995, Tereshkova was promoted to an honorary rank of major general. On 28 April 1997, she left the Russian Air Force due to reaching the age of compulsory retirement at 60 years old. In 2003, Tereshkova ran again for a seat in the State Duma. In 2007, Tereshkova was invited to Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's residence in Novo-Ogaryovo for the celebration of her 70th birthday. While there she said that she would like to fly to Mars, even if it meant that it was a one-way trip. She was later elected in 2008 to her regional parliament, the Yaroslavl Oblast Duma.
On 4 December 2011, Tereshkova was elected to the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian legislature, as a representative of the Yaroslavl Oblast and a member of the United Russia party. In the 6th State Duma, together with Yelena Mizulina, Irina Yarovaya and Andrey Skoch, she was a member of the inter-factional committee for the protection of Christian values. In this capacity, she supported the introduction of amendments to the preamble of Constitution of Russia, to add that "Orthodoxy is the basis of Russia's national and cultural identity".
Tereshkova married cosmonaut Andriyan Nikolayev on 3 November 1963 at the Moscow Wedding Palace with Khrushchev presiding at the wedding party together with top government and space programme leaders. The marriage was encouraged by the Soviet space authorities as a "fairy-tale message to the country". General Kamanin, head of the space program, described it as "probably useful for politics and science". On 8 June 1964, nearly one year after her space flight, she gave birth to their daughter Elena Andrianovna Nikolaeva-Tereshkova, the first person with both a mother and father who had travelled into space.
Later in their marriage, the couple grew apart and refused to even stand next to each other in photographs. Tereshkova told the biographer Lady Lothian that the marriage ended in 1977; she and Nikolayev divorced in 1982 and Tereshkova married Yuli Shaposhnikov, a surgeon she had met during her medical examinations to re-qualify as a cosmonaut.[b] They remained married until Shaposhnikov's death in 1999.
Awards and honours
- Merited Master of Sports of the Soviet Union (June 1963)
- Hero of the Soviet Union (1963)
- Order of Lenin (1963, 1981)
- Order of the October Revolution (1971)
- Order of the Red Banner of Labour (1987)
- Order of the Friendship of Peoples
- Pilot-Cosmonaut of the Soviet Union (1963)
- Gold star Hero of Socialist Labor (Czechoslovakia, August 1963)
- Gold star Hero of Socialist Labor (Bulgaria) (9 September 1963)
- Order of Georgi Dimitrov (Bulgaria, 9 September 1963)
- Order of Karl Marx (East Germany, October 1963)
- Artur Becker Medal (East Germany, October 1963)
- Cross of Grunwald, 1st class (Poland, October 1963)
- Order of the Flag of the Republic of Hungary, 1st class (April 1965)
- Star of the Republic of Indonesia, 2nd class (November 1963)
- Order of the Volta (Ghana, January 1964)
- Gold Star Medal of the Hero of the Mongolian People's Republic (May 1965)
- Order of Sukhbaatar (Mongolia, May 1965)
- Order of the Enlightenment (Afghanistan, August 1969)
- Order of Planets (Jordan, December 1969)
- Order of the Nile (Egypt, January 1971)
- Gold Star of Hero of Labor (Vietnam, October 1971)
- Order of Bernardo O'Higgins (Chile, March 1972)
- Order of Ana Betancourt (Cuba, 1974)
- Order of Friendship (Laos, 1997)
- Order of Duke Branimir, with sash (Croatia, presented on 8 September 2005)
- She received the Eduard Rhein Ring of Honor from the German Eduard Rhein Foundation in 2007.
- Order of Merit for the Fatherland:
- Order of Alexander Nevsky (2013)
- Order of Honour (10 June 2003)
- Order of Friendship (12 April 2011)
- Russian Federation State Prize for outstanding achievements in the field of humanitarian action in 2008 (4 June 2009)
- Participant of the Military Operation in Syria Medal (2016)
- Strengthening the Military Community Medal (2018)
- Certificates of appreciation from the Government of the Russian Federation;
- 3 March 1997, – for the contribution to the development of space, the strengthening of international scientific and cultural ties and years of diligent work
- 12 June 2003, – for large contribution to the development of manned space flight
- 16 June 2008, – for long-term fruitful state and public activities, considerable personal contribution to the development of manned space flight and in connection with the 45th anniversary of spaceflight
- Gold Medal of the British Society for interplanetary communications "For achievements in space exploration" (February 1964)
- Gold Space Medal (FAI, 1963)
- Honorary doctorate from the University of Edinburgh (1990)
- Order of St. Euphrosyne of Moscow (January 2008)
In 1967, Gregory Postnikov created a sculpture of Tereshkova for Cosmonaut Alley in Moscow. There is a monument in Bayevsky District of Altai Territory, Siberia, close to her landing place of 53°N, 80°E. In August 1970, Tereshkova was among first group of living people to have a lunar crater named after them. Tereshkova crater is located on the far side of the Moon.
None of the other four in Tereshkova's early group flew and, in October 1969, the pioneering female cosmonaut group was dissolved. Even though there were plans for further flights by women, it took 19 years until the second woman, Svetlana Savitskaya, flew into space.
In 1997, London-based electronic pop group Komputer released a song entitled "Valentina" which gives a more-or-less direct account of her career as a cosmonaut. It was released as a single and appears on their album The World of Tomorrow. The 2000 album Vostok 6 by Kurt Swinghammer is a concept album about Tereshkova. The 2015 album The Race for Space by Public Service Broadcasting also has a song featuring the Smoke Fairies entitled "Valentina". In the same year, Findlay Napier's album VIP: Very Interesting Persons included a song "Valentina", written in her honour by Napier and Boo Hewerdine. In 2015, a short film entitled Valentina's Dream was released by Meat Bingo Productions. The film stars Rebecca Front as Tereshkova and is based on an interview by the former cosmonaut where she expressed a desire to journey to Mars.
The Cosmos Museum was opened 25 January 1975 near Yaroslavl. Among its exhibits is a replica of her childhood home. The city library was named after her in 2013. The school she attended as a child was renamed for her. A planetarium in Yaroslavl was built and named for her in 2011. The International Women of the Year association named her as the "greatest woman achiever of the 20th century". Tereshkova was a torchbearer of the 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay in Saint Petersburg and the 2014 Winter Olympics torch relay in Sochi.
Streets in Ukraine that bore Tereshkova's name have been renamed due to the country's 2015 decommunisation law. A proposal was also brought forward in 2015 to move a monument to Tereshkova in Lviv, Ukraine to the Territory of Terror Memorial Museum. Monuments of communist leaders are removed from the public and placed in the museum as a part of decommunization efforts.
- Evans 2010, p. 52.
- "Preface" 2003, pp. 4–7.
- "Першая жанчына‑касманаўт ў дзяцінстве гаварыла па‑беларуску" [The first woman in space spoke Belarusian as a child]. Nasha Niva (in Belarusian). 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Sylvester 2011, p. 198.
- Cavallaro 2017, pp. 2–3.
- "Valentina Tereshkova". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. 8 March 2017. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
- Clements 2008, pp. 214–215.
- Gerovitch 2011, p. 87.
- Dejevsky, Mary (29 March 2017). "The first woman in space: 'People shouldn't waste money on wars'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- Siegel, Ethan (6 March 2017). "The First Woman In Space Turns 80, And You Probably Never Heard Of Her". Forbes. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- Burgess & Hall 2009, p. 229.
- Shayler & Moule 2006, p. 45.
- Evans 2010, p. 49.
- Burgess & Hall 2009, pp. 229–231.
- Burgess & Hall 2009, p. 231.
- Burgess & Hall 2009, p. 233.
- Hall, Shayler & Vis 2007, p. 100.
- Shayler & Moule 2006, p. 64.
- Hall, Shayler & Vis 2007, p. 127.
- Evans 2010, p. 50.
- Burgess & Hall 2009, pp. 233–234.
- Sever, Megan (June 2014). "June 16, 1963 & June 18, 1983: Valentina Tereshkova and Sally Ride Become First and Third Women in Space". Earth. 59 (6): 60–61. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Burgess & Hall 2009, p. 236.
- Hall, Shayler & Vis 2007, p. 103.
- "Валентина Владимировна (Николаева-)Терешкова" [Valentina Vladimirovna (Nikolaeva-)Tereshkova]. Astronaut.ru. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "First Woman in Space ‹ HistoricWings.com :: A Magazine for Aviators, Pilots and Adventurers". fly.historicwings.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
- Sylvester 2011, p. 195.
- Wall, Mike (23 April 2019). "The Most Extreme Human Spaceflight Records". Space.com. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "Who was the first woman in space?". Royal Museums Greenwich. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- Reichhardt, Tony (5 August 2011). "The First Photographer in Space". Air & Space. Smithsonian. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Knight, Kelly (June 2003). "Earth calling Seagull". Astronomy. 31 (6): 30.
- Shayler & Moule 2006, p. xxviii.
- "NASA – NSSDCA – Spacecraft – Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
- Harvey 2007, p. 176.
- Knapton, Sarah (17 September 2015). "Russia forgot to send toothbrush with first woman in space". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- "Russ Orbit Couple Closes Gap". St. Cloud Times. AP. 17 June 1963. Retrieved 9 July 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Tereshkova, Valentina (4 January 1964). "Three days in outer space". The Saturday Evening Post. 237 (1): 62–63.
- Shayler & Moule 2006, p. xxvii.
- "Валентина Терешкова: чьей воле покорялась женщина, покорившая космос" [Valentina Tereshkova: the Woman who Conquered Space]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 16 June 2006. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Kennedy, Maev (17 September 2015). "First woman in space recalls mission's teething troubles". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Obituaries, Telegraph (1 April 2019). "Valery Bykovsky, cosmonaut who held the record for the longest solo space flight – obituary". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
- "8 surprising facts about stellar career of Valentina Tereshkova, the 1st woman in space". RT. 6 March 2017.
- "Valentina Tereshkova: First Woman in Space". space.com. 22 January 2018.
- "Russians Hail Boy and Girl Space Team". The Daily Item. Associated Press. 22 June 1963. p. 1. Retrieved 9 July 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Hugs, Kisses Welcome Russ Space Duet Team". Wisconsin State Journal. Associated Press. 23 June 1963. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
- "First Girl in Space Gets a Rousing Welcome from Communist Women". The Town Talk. Alexandria, Louisiana. UPI. 24 June 1953. p. 8 – via Newspapers.com.
- Gerovitch 2011, p. 94.
- Gerovitch 2011, p. 92.
- Gerovitch 2011, p. 94. "During the years 1961–70, the cosmonauts made two hundred trips abroad; Tereshkova alone made forty-two foreign trips. She received by far the most invitations among the cosmonauts."
- Oller, Jorge Oller (4 April 2019). "Glorioso abril de 1961" [Glorious April 1961]. Cubaperiodistas.cu (in Spanish). Unión de Periodistas de Cuba. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
- "Fünf Europatitel für UdSSR-Ruderinnen". Neues Deutschland (in German). 18 (247). 9 September 1963. p. 6. Archived from the original on 14 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- "Tereshkova Will Fly After She's a Mother". The New York Times. 5 February 1964. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- Ghodsee, Kristen (Winter 2012). "Rethinking State Socialist Mass Women's Organizations: The Committee of the Bulgarian Women's Movement and the United Nations Decade for Women, 1975–1985". Journal of Women's History. 24 (4): 57. doi:10.1353/jowh.2012.0044 – via Project MUSE.
- "Inductee Profile". International Space Hall of Fame :: New Mexico Museum of Space History. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
- Ilic, Reid & Attwood 2004, pp. 235–236.
- Milkus, Alexander (6 March 2007). "Первая в мире женщина-космонавт Валентина Терешкова: Я чуть было навсегда не осталась на орбите". Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian). Retrieved 6 July 2019.
- French & Burgess 2009, p. 326.
- Magill 2013, p. 3641.
- "To the 40th Anniversary of the spaceflight performed by Valentina Tereshkova". RSC Energia. June 2003. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- "Единая Россия официальный сайт Партии / Кто есть кто". er.ru. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- "First woman in space dreams of flying to Mars". Reuters. 6 March 2007. Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2008.
- "First female astronaut Valentina Tereshkova wants one-way Mars ticket". News.com.au. 9 June 2013. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- "Валентина Терешкова - депутат от "Единой России"" [Valentina Tereshkova – United Russia deputy]. Телекомпания НТМ [NTM Broadcasting Company]. 16 December 2011. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- "Кто есть кто: Терешкова Валентина Владимировна" [Who's who: Tereshkova, Valentina Vladimirovna]. United Russia. 2018. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "Терешкова Валентина Владимировна" [Tereshkova, Valentina Vladimirovna]. The State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. 2016. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- "Госдума может изменить Конституцию, чтобы выделить историческую роль православия". Новая газета (in Russian). 22 November 2013. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "Терешкова Валентина Владимировна" [Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova]. Государственная Дума (in Russian). Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Eidelman, Tamara (2013). "A Cosmic Wedding". Russian Life. 56 (6): 22–25.
- Dejevsky, Mary (29 March 2017). "The first woman in space: 'People shouldn't waste money on wars'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
- "Fifty years ago, Tereshkova became first woman in space". ABC. AFP. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
- Gibson 2014, p. 55.
- "Space Couple Wins Title". The Evening Sun. Associated Press. 20 June 1963. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Hugs, Kisses Welcome Russ Space Duet Team". Wisconsin State Journal. Associated Press. 23 June 1963. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- "Space Woman Gets Bear Hug, Kiss from Nik". The Greenville News. Greenville, South Carolina. Associated Press. 23 June 1963. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Čestný titul Hrdina socialistické práce s právem nosit zlatou hvězdu Hrdiny socialistické práce" [Honorary title, Hero of socialist work with the right to wear golden star, Heroes of Socialist Labor] (PDF) (in Czech). ARCHIV KANCELÁŘE PREZIDENTA REPUBLIKY. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- "Rednauts Get Top Marx". Daily News. New York, New York. 22 October 1963. p. 210 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Ghana Honors Tereshkova". The New York Times. UPI. 23 January 1964. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- Randall, Margaret (1975). ""We Need a Government of Men and Women ...!" Notes on the Second National Congress of the Federacion de Mujeres Cubanos, November 25-29, 1974". Latin American Perspectives. 2 (4): 114, 117. ISSN 0094-582X. JSTOR 2633222.
- "Первая женщина-космонавт Валентина Терешкова" [The first woman cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- "Heroina Sovjetskog Saveza: Prije 55 godina bila je prva žena u svemiru, a osvojila je čak i simpatije Vladimira Putina" [The heroine of the Soviet Union: 55 years ago she was the first woman in the space and she even gained the appreciation of Vladimir Putin]. Prvi.hr (in Croatian). Primum media. 16 June 2018. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
- "The Eduard Rhein Ring of Honor Recipients". Eduard Rhein Foundation. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
- "Ring of Honor 2007 – Dr. techn. Dr.h.c.mult. Valentina V. Tereschkova". Eduard Rhein Foundation (in German). Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
- "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 1 марта 2017 года № 95 "О награждении государственными наградами Российской Федерации"" [Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated 1 March 2017 No. 95 "On awarding state awards of the Russian Federation"] (in Russian). Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "The Japan News". the-japan-news.com.
- "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 12 июня 2013 года № 557 "О награждении государственными наградами Российской Федерации"" [Presidential Decree of 12 June 2013 No. 557 "On awarding state awards of the Russian Federation"] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 19 October 2013.
- "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 12 апреля 2011 года № 434 "О награждении орденом Дружбы"" [Presidential Decree of 12 April 2011 No. 434 "On awarding the Order of Friendship"] (PDF). Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Gamov, Alexander (22 June 2016). "Иосифу Кобзону и Валентине Терешковой вручены боевые медали за Сирию" [Joseph Kobzon and Valentina Tereshkova were awarded military medals for Syria]. Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian). Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- "Валентине Терешковой вручили медаль Минобороны РФ "За укрепление боевого содружества"" [Valentina Tereshkova was awarded the medal of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation "For strengthening the military community"] (in Russian). TASS. 16 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- "О награждении Почетной грамотой Правительства Российской Федерации Терешковой В.В." [About rewarding with the Certificate of Honor of the Government of the Russian Federation V. Tereshkova.] (in Russian). Lexpro. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- "Распоряжение Правительства РФ от 12.06.2003 N 778-р "О награждении Почетной грамотой Правительства Российской Федерации Быковского В.Ф. и Терешковой В.В."" [Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 12 June 2003 N 778-p "On awarding Bykovsky V.F. and Tereshkova VV" with the Certificate of Honor of the Government of the Russian Federation] (in Russian). Levonevsky. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- "Распоряжение Правительства РФ от 16.06.2008 N 863-р "О награждении Почетной грамотой Правительства Российской Федерации Терешковой В.В."" [Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 16 June 2008 No. 863-p "On awarding Tereshkova V.V. with the Certificate of Honor of the Government of the Russian Federation"] (in Russian). Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- "Red Cosmonaut Meets Queen, Down-to-Earth". The Salt Lake Tribune. Salt Lake City, Utah. Reuters. 6 February 1964. p. 7 – via Newspapers.com.
- "FAI Awards". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. 10 October 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- "Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova, DSc, Hero of the Soviet Union, Order of Lenin". The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- "Площадь Терешковой" [Tereshkova Square]. Tver Planet. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- Egorov, Boris (13 April 2018). "Why was a sculptor who promoted Communism executed by the Bolsheviks?". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "САМЫЙ ЗАГАДОЧНЫЙ РЫБИНСКИЙ ПАМЯТНИК" [THE MOST MYSTERIOUS MONUMENT TO RYBINSK] (in Russian). РЫБИНСКА Неделя. 6 December 2018.
- Rosen, Rebecca J. (16 June 2013). "The Remote Siberian Monument to the First Woman in Space, Who Launched 50 Years Ago Today". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 2 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- "500 Men Have Moon Craters Named for Them". Messenger-Inquirer. Owensboro, Kentucky. Associated Press. 22 August 1970. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.
- Andersson, Leif E.; Whitaker, Ewen A. (October 1982). "NASA Catalogue of Lunar Nomenclature" (PDF). NASA. p. 68. RP-1097. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 March 2019.
- Chao, Tom (6 March 2011). "The Astronaut's Playlist: Groovy Songs for Space Travelers". Space.com. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- Koli 2018, p. 86.
- "Valentia – Komputer". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- Bush, John. "The World of Tomorrow – Komputer". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- Carruthers, Sean. "AllMusic Review by Sean Carruthers". AllMusic. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- Burrows, Marc (17 February 2015). "Album Review: Public Service Broadcasting – The Race for Space". DrownedInSound. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- Rivers, Joe (3 February 2015). "Public Service Broadcasting – The Race For Space". Clash Magazine. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- Woodgate, Paul (4 March 2015). "Findlay Napier – VIP: Very Interesting Persons". Folk Radio UK. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- Keywood, Sean (4 August 2014). "Rebecca Front to star in Exmouth filmmakers' new short". Exmouth Journal. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- Tatarkenkov, Oleg (17 June 2003). "На родине Валентины Терешковой" [In the homeland of Valentina Tereshkova]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Archived from the original on 28 July 2003. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- "Детская библиотека № 4" [Children's library № 4]. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- Williams, Matt (29 November 2016). "Who Was The First Woman To Go Into Space?". Universe Today. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- "Who Was The First Woman To Go Into Space?". Universe Today. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
- Vesti.ru, 8 April 2011 Archived 13 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Vesti.ru.
- Kamalakaran, Ajay (8 March 2016). "5 Russian women who built a great legacy". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- "Cosmonaut is Woman of the Century". BBC. 11 October 2000. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- "Олимпийский огонь понесут Друзь, Фрейндлих и Плющенко". Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian). 16 October 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- Sharp, Tim (22 January 2018). "Valentina Tereshkova: First Woman in Space". Space.com. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
- "Muscovite renamed all the streets Valentina Tereshkova". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 12 April 2014. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- "The scandal with the renaming in Odessa: the city Council gave the answer". z-news.link. 29 April 2017. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- "Во Львове предложили отправить памятник Терешковой в музей террора" [In Lviv, a proposal to send a monument to Tereshkova to the Territory of Terror Memorial Museum] (in Russian). RBC. 21 May 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Burgess, Colin; Hall, Rex (2009). The First Soviet Cosmonaut Team. Chichester, UK: Praxis Publishing. ISBN 978-0-387-84824-2. LCCN 2008935694.
- Cavallaro, Umberto (2017). Women Spacefarers: Sixty Different Paths to Space. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-34048-7.
- Clements, Barbara Evans (2008). Smith, Bonnie G. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514890-9.
- Evans, Ben (2 April 2010). Escaping the Bonds of Earth: The Fifties and the Sixties. Springer Science & Business Media. Bibcode:2009ebe..book.....E. ISBN 978-0-387-79094-7.
- French, Francis; Burgess, Colin (1 September 2009). Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961–1965. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-2639-5.
- Gerovitch, Slava (2011). "The Human inside a Propaganda Machine". In Andrews, James T.; Siddiqi, Asif A. (eds.). Into the Cosmos: Space Exploration and Soviet Culture. University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 978-0-8229-7746-9.
- Gibson, Karen (2014). Women in Space: 23 Stories of First Flights, Scientific Missions, and Gravity-Breaking Adventures. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-61374-847-3.
- Hall, Rex D.; Shayler, David J.; Vis, Bert (2007). Russia's Cosmonauts: Inside the Yuri Gagarin Training Center. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-73975-5.
- Harvey, Brian (2007). Soviet and Russian Lunar Exploration. Springer New York. Bibcode:2007srle.book.....H. ISBN 978-0-387-21896-0.
- Ilic, M.; Reid, S.; Attwood, L. (2004). Women in the Khrushchev Era. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-52343-2.
- Koli, Monika (2018). 20 Greatest Astronauts of the World. Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN 978-8184305593.
- Magill, Frank N. (13 May 2013). The 20th Century O-Z: Dictionary of World Biography. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-59362-8.
- Nikolaeva-Tereshkova, Valentina Vladimirovna (2015). "Preface". The 'First Lady of Space': In Her Own Words. Bethesda, MD: SpaceHistory101.com Press. ISBN 978-1-887022-99-6. OCLC 930799309. Reprint of Tereshkova, Valentina (2003). "The 'First Lady of Space' Remembers". Quest: The History of Spaceflight Quarterly. 10 (2): 6–21.
- Shayler, David; Moule, Ian A. (29 August 2006). Women in Space – Following Valentina. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-84628-078-8.
- Sylvester, Roshanna P. (2011). "She Orbits over the Sex Barrier". In Andrews, James T.; Siddiqi, Asif A. (eds.). Into the Cosmos: Space Exploration and Soviet Culture. University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 978-0-8229-7746-9.
- Vselennoĭ, Bereg (2014). Bank of the Universe. Kiev: Phoenix. ISBN 978-966-136-169-9.
- O'Neil, Bill (14 August 1993). "Whatever became of Valentina Tereshkova?". New Scientist. Vol. 139 no. 1886. p. 21.
- Lothian, Antonella (1993). Valentina: The First Woman in Space. The Pentland Press. ISBN 978-1-85821-064-3.
- Eidelman, Tamara (May – June 2008). "The First Woman in Space". Russian Life. Vol. 51 no. 3. pp. 19–21.
- Eidelman, Tamara (May – June 2003). "The Extraordinary Destiny of an 'Ordinary' Woman". Russian Life. Vol. 46 no. 3. p. 19.
- Gauthier, Daniel (July – August 1991). "Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova". Ad Astra. Vol. 3 no. 6. p. 29.
- Griswold, Robert (Summer 2012). "'Russian Blonde in Space': Soviet Women in the American Imagination, 1950–1965". Journal of Social History. 45 (4): 881–907. doi:10.1093/jsh/shr147.
- Woodmansee, Laira (Summer 2005). "Two who dared". Ad Astra. Vol. 17 no. 2. p. 48.
- Sharpe, Mitchell R. (1975). "It is I, Sea gull;": Valentina Tereshkova, first woman in space. Crowell. ISBN 978-0-690-00646-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Valentina Tereshkova.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Commons:RIA Novosti/Tereshkova.|
- Astronautix biography of Tereshkova
- "Testing of rocket and space technology – the business of my life" Events and facts – A.I. Ostashev, Korolyov, 2001.;
- "First woman in space" at History.com
- A.I. Ostashev, Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov – The Genius of the 20th Century — 2010 M. of Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training MGUL ISBN 978-5-8135-0510-2.
- "S. P. Korolev. Encyclopedia of life and creativity" – edited by C. A. Lopota, RSC Energia. S. P. Korolev, 2014 ISBN 978-5-906674-04-3