Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant, with heads of sweetly scented pink or white flowers that bloom in the summer. Valerian flower extracts were used as a perfume in the 16th century.
Native to Europe and parts of Asia, valerian has been introduced into North America. The flowers are frequently visited by many fly species, especially hoverflies of the genus Eristalis. It is consumed as food by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species including the grey pug.
Other names used for this plant include garden valerian (to distinguish it from other Valeriana species), garden heliotrope (although not related to Heliotropium), and all-heal (which is also used for plants in the genus Stachys). Red valerian, often grown in gardens, is also sometimes referred to as "valerian", but is a different species (Centranthus ruber) from the same family and not very closely related.
The amino acid valine is named after this plant.
- 1 History
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Valerian extract
- 4 Effect on other organisms
- 5 Floral symmetry
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Valerian has been used as a medicinal herb since at least the time of ancient Greece and Rome. Hippocrates described its properties, and Galen later prescribed it as a remedy for insomnia. In medieval Sweden, it was sometimes placed in the wedding clothes of the groom to ward off the "envy" of the elves. In the 16th century, the Anabaptist reformer Pilgram Marpeck prescribed valerian tea for a sick woman.
Known compounds detected in valerian that may contribute to its method of action are:
- Alkaloids: actinidine, chatinine, shyanthine, valerianine, and valerine
- Isovaleramide may be created in the extraction process.
- Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
- Isovaleric acid
- Iridoids, including valepotriates: isovaltrate and valtrate
- Sesquiterpenes (contained in the volatile oil): valerenic acid, hydroxyvalerenic acid and acetoxyvalerenic acid
- Flavanones: hesperidin, 6-methylapigenin, and linarin
Mechanism of action
Because of valerian's historical use as a sedative, antiseptic, anticonvulsant, migraine treatment, and pain reliever, most basic science research has been directed at the interaction of valerian constituents with the GABA receptor. Many studies remain inconclusive and all require clinical validation. The mechanism of action of valerian in general, and as a mild sedative in particular, has not been fully elucidated. However, some of the GABA-analogs, particularly valerenic acids as components of the essential oil along with other semivolatile sesquiterpenoids, generally are believed to have some affinity for the GABAA receptor, a class of receptors on which benzodiazepines are known to act. Valeric acid, which is responsible for the typical odor of mostly older valerian roots, does not have any sedative properties. Valeric acid is related to valproic acid, a widely-prescribed anticonvulsant; valproic acid is a derivative of valeric acid.
Valerian also contains isovaltrate, which has been shown to be an inverse agonist for adenosine A1 receptor sites. This action likely does not contribute to the herb's possible sedative effects, which would be expected from an agonist, rather than an inverse agonist, at this particular binding site. Hydrophilic extractions of the herb commonly sold over the counter, however, probably do not contain significant amounts of isovaltrate. Valerenic acid in valerian stimulates serotonin receptors as a partial agonist.
The chief constituent of valerian is a yellowish-green to brownish-yellow oil which is present in the dried root, varying from 0.5 to 2.0%, though an average yield rarely exceeds 0.8%. This variation in quantity is partly explained by location; a dry, stony soil yields a root richer in oil than one that is moist and fertile. The volatile oils that form the active ingredient are extremely pungent, somewhat reminiscent of well-matured cheese. Though some people remain partial to the earthy scent, some may find it to be unpleasant, comparing the odor to that of unwashed feet. Valerian tea should not be prepared with boiling water, as this may drive off the lighter oils.
Valerian is most often used as an alternative medicine for insomnia in place of hypnotic drugs. It is also sometimes used as an alternative for sedatives, such as benzodiazepines, in the treatment of certain anxiety disorders.
Whether or not valerian is an efficacious treatment for insomnia is still a very open question. Multiple recent systematic reviews of the medical research literature and meta-analyses have produced conflicting conclusions regarding its efficacy. One systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2006 concluded, "The available evidence suggests that valerian might improve sleep quality without producing side effects." An article in the Medical Science Monitor states that, "...based on cellular and animal studies as well as human clinical trials the literature supports a role for these preparations [including valerian root] as useful alternatives in the management of the stress and anxiety of everyday life." However, another systematic review, published in 2007 in the journal Sleep Medicine Reviews, concluded valerian was safe but not clinically efficacious for insomnia.
Oral forms, usage, and adverse effects
Oral forms are available in both standardized and unstandardized forms. Standardized products may be preferable considering the wide variation of the chemicals in the dried root, as noted above. When standardized, it is done so as a percentage of valerenic acid or valeric acid.
Few adverse events attributable to valerian have been reported. Large doses may result in stomachache, apathy, and a feeling of mental dullness or mild depression.[medical citation needed] Because of the herb's tranquilizer properties, it may cause dizziness or drowsiness, effects that should be considered before driving or operating heavy or hazardous equipment.[unreliable medical source?]
Because the compounds in valerian produce central nervous system depression, they should not be used with other depressants, such as ethanol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, opiates, kava, or antihistamine drugs. Moreover, non-pregnant adult human hepatotoxicity has been associated with short-term use (i.e., a few days to several months) of herbal preparations containing valerian and Scutellaria (commonly called skullcap). Withdrawal after long-term use in a male has also been associated with benzodiazepine-like withdrawal symptoms, resulting in cardiac complications and delirium.
The very limited animal and human data do not allow a conclusion as to the safety of valerian during pregnancy. Moreover, as a natural, unregulated product, the concentration, contents, and presence of contaminants in valerian preparations cannot be easily determined. Because of this uncertainty and the potential for cytotoxicity in the fetus and hepatotoxicity in the mother, the product should be avoided during pregnancy.
Effect on other organisms
An unusual feature of valerian is that valerian root and leaves are a cat attractant similar to, and as safe as, catnip. Valerian contains the cat attractant actinidine. Cat attractants might mimic the odor of cat urine, which is caused by 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol. Anecdotal reports claim that valerian is also attractive to rats—so much so that it had been used to bait traps. Stories describe the Pied Piper of Hamelin using both his pipes and valerian to attract rats. Research also shows that valerian root is the strongest chemoattractant of slime molds such as Physarum polycephalum.
Valerian is unusual in having flowers with "handedness", that is, having neither radial nor bilateral symmetry.
- Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (2015). "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers" (PDF). Plant Biology. doi:10.1111/plb.12328.
- Thorpe, Benjamin; Northern Mythology, Vol. 2, pp. 64–65
- Torsten Bergsten (1958). "Two Letters by Pilgram Marpeck". Mennonite Quarterly Review 32: 200.
- Harper, Douglas. "valerian". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Latin definition for: valeo, valere, valui, valitus. latin-dictionary.net
- Fereidoon Shahidi and Marian Naczk, Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals (Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 2004), pp. 313–314 ISBN 1-58716-138-9.
- Although many sources list "catinine" as an alkaloid present in extracts from the root of Valeriana officinalis, those sources are incorrect. The correct spelling is "chatinine". It was discovered by S. Waliszewski in 1891. See: S. Waliszewski (15 March 1891) L'Union pharmaceutique, page 109. Abstracts of this article appeared in: "Chatinine, alcaloïde de la racine de valériane" Répertoire de pharmacie, series 3, vol. 3, pp. 166–167 (April 10, 1891) ; American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 66, p. 285 (June 1891).
- Isovaleramide does not appear to be a naturally occurring component of valerian plants; rather, it seems to be an artifact of the extraction process; specifically, it is produced by treating aqueous extracts of valerian with ammonia. See: Balandrin, M. F., Van Wagenen, B. C. and Cordell, G. A. (1995). "Valerian-derived sedative agents. II. Degradation of Valmane-derived valepotriates in ammoniated hydroalcoholic tinctures". Journal of Toxicology – Toxin Review 14 (2): 165 ff. doi:10.3109/15569549509097280.
- Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Valerian. Ods.od.nih.gov (2008-01-16). Retrieved on 2012-01-09.
- Isovaleric acid does not appear to be a natural constituent of V. officinalis; rather, it is a breakdown product that is created during the extraction process or by enzymatic hydrolysis during (improper) storage. See pp. 22 and 123 of Peter J. Houghton, Valerian: the genus Valeriana (Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Harwood Academic Press, 1997) ISBN 90-5702-170-6.
- Yuan CS, Mehendale S, Xiao Y, Aung HH, Xie JT, Ang-Lee MK (2004). "The gamma-aminobutyric acidergic effects of valerian and valerenic acid on rat brainstem neuronal activity.". Anesth Analg 98 (2): 353–8, table of contents. doi:10.1213/01.ANE.0000096189.70405.A5. PMID 14742369.
- R.B.H. Wills and D. Shohet (July 2009). "Changes in valerenic acids content of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. s.l.) during long-term storage". Food Chemistry 115 (1): 250–253. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.011.
- Marder M, Viola H, Wasowski C, Fernández S, Medina JH, Paladini AC (2003). "6-methylapigenin and hesperidin: new valeriana flavonoids with activity on the CNS". Pharmacol Biochem Behav 75 (3): 537–45. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(03)00121-7. PMID 12895671.
- Fernández S, Wasowski C, Paladini AC, Marder M (2004). "Sedative and sleep-enhancing properties of linarin, a flavonoid-isolated from Valeriana officinalis". Pharmacol Biochem Behav 77 (2): 399–404. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2003.12.003. PMID 14751470.
- Joseph I. Boullata and Angela M. Nace (2000). "Safety Issues with Herbal Medicine: Common Herbal Medicines". Pharmacotherapy 20 (3). doi:10.1592/phco.20.4.257.34886.
- Holzl J, Godau P. (1989). "Receptor binding studies with Valeriana officinalis on the benzodiazepine receptor". Planta Medica 55 (7): 642. doi:10.1055/s-2006-962221.
- Mennini T, Bernasconi P, et al. (1993). "In vitro study in the interaction of extracts and pure compounds from Valerian officinalis roots with GABA, benzodiazepine and barbiturate receptors". Fitoterapia 64: 291–300.
- Lacher, Svenja K.; Mayer, Ralf; Sichardt, Kathrin; Nieber, Karen; Müller, Christa E. (2007). "Interaction of valerian extracts of different polarity with adenosine receptors: Identification of isovaltrate as an inverse agonist at A1 receptors". Biochemical Pharmacology 73 (2): 248–58. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2006.09.029. PMID 17097622.
- Patočka, Jiří; Jakl, Jiří (2010). "Biomedically relevant chemical constituents of Valeriana officinalis". Journal of Applied Biomedicine 8 (1): 11–18. doi:10.2478/v10136-009-0002-z.
- "Valerian". botanical.com. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
- Harrington, H.D., Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains, The University of New Mexico Press, 1967, LCCN 67-29685, p. 225
- "Questions and Answers About Valerian for Insomnia and Other Sleep Disorders". Office of Dietary Supplements. National Institutes of Health. 2006-04-13. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- Hadley S, Petry JJ (2003). "Valerian". Am Fam Physician 67 (8): 1755–8. PMID 12725454.
- "Valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.)". Medline Plus. 2006-10-01. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
- Schmitz M, Jäckel M (1998). "[Comparative study for assessing quality of life of patients with exogenous sleep disorders (temporary sleep onset and sleep interruption disorders) treated with a hops-valarian preparation and a benzodiazepine drug]". Wien Med Wochenschr (in German) 148 (13): 291–8. PMID 9757514.
- Bent S, Padula A, Moore D, Patterson M, Mehling W (2006). "Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Am. J. Med. 119 (12): 1005–12. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.02.026. PMID 17145239.
- Weeks, Benjamin S. (2009). "Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian.". Medical Science Monitor 15 (11): RA256–262. PMID 19865069.
- Taibi D, Landis C, Petry H, Vitiello M (2007). "A systematic review of valerian as a sleep aid: Safe but not effective". Sleep Medicine Reviews 11 (3): 209–230. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2007.03.002.
- "Valerian Roots Side Effects at LoveToKnow Herbs". Retrieved 2008-09-30.
- Klepser TB, Klepser ME (1999). "Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies". Am J Health-Syst Pharm 56 (12538): 125–38; quiz 139–41. PMID 10030529.
- Wong AHC, Smith M, Boon HS (1998). "Herbal remedies in psychiatric practice". Arch Gen Psychiatry 55 (103344): 1033–44. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.55.11.1033. PMID 9819073.
- Miller LG (1998). "Herbal medicines. Selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions". Arch Intern Med 158 (220011): 2200–11. doi:10.1001/archinte.158.20.2200. PMID 9818800.
- MacGregor FB, Abernethy VE, Dahabra S, Cobden I, Hayes PC (1989). "Hepatotoxicity of herbal remedies". British Medical Journal 299 (11567).
- Garges HP, Varia I, Doraiswamy PM (1998). "Cardiac complications and delirium associated with valerian root withdrawal". JAMA 280 (15667): 1566–7. doi:10.1001/jama.280.18.1566-a. PMID 9820254.
- Adamatzky, Andrew (31 May 2011). "On attraction of slime mould Physarum polycephalum to plants with sedative properties". Nature Precedings. doi:10.1038/npre.2011.5985.1.
- Weberling, Focko (1992). Morphology of Flowers and Inflorescences. Cambridge University Press. p. 19. ISBN 0 521 25134 6.