Valery Tsepkalo

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Valery Tsepkalo
Валерый Цапкала
Валерий Цепкало
Valery Tsepkalo (cropped).jpg
Born
Valery Vil'yamovich Tsepkalo (Russian: Валерий Вильямович Цепкало)

(1965-02-22) 22 February 1965 (age 56)
Alma materMoscow State Institute of International Relations
OccupationPolitician, diplomat, executive, and a tech entrepreneur
Spouse(s)Veronika Tsepkalo
Children2

Valery Tsepkalo (Russian: Валерий Цепкало) or Valery Tsapkala (Belarusian: Валерый Цапкала; Doctor of Law, born 22 February 1965) is a Belarusian politician, diplomat, executive, and entrepreneur.

After graduating from the Moscow State Institute of Foreign Affairs and serving in the Embassy of the Soviet Union in Finland Valery Tsepkalo joined the stuff of Belarus Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He later became an Advisor on foreign political and economic relations to the Chairman of Belarus Parliament Stanislav Shushkevich and then a Senior Advisor to the Secretary General of Commonwealth of Independent States. At the age of 29 Valery Tsepkalo led Alexander Lukashenko's presidency campaign of 1994 and later took the post of the First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs. From 1997 to 2002 Valery Tsepkalo served as Belarus Ambassador in the USA and Mexico.

Valery Tsepkalo is the architect of the country’s only significant economic success[1]. In 2005 he initiated and started Belarus High Technologies Park (HTP), and led it until 2017 creating the largest IT cluster in Central and Eastern Europe.

In May 2020 Tsepkalo joined presidential race. He was considered to be a major challenger to Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko,[2] who had decided to invalidate the majority of his signatures on false grounds to bar him from running for president.[3] On 24 July 2020, Valery Tsepkalo fled to Russia with his children after receiving a tip that his arrest was imminent and the authorities were prepared to strip him of parental rights[4].

Early life[edit]

Valery Tsepkalo was born in Grodno on 22 February 1965. He was the only child in the family of chemical engineers William and Nina Tsapkalo, who came to Grodno to build a nitrogen plant, where they worked all their lives. His father graduated from Odessa Polytechnic Institute, and mother graduated from Kharkov Engineering-Economic Institute.[5]

Valery graduated from Grodno Secondary school No.14 with an advanced study of the English language.

Education and career[edit]

In 1982 he entered the Belarusian State Technological University in Minsk, but in 1984 he was drafted into the army and served in the Strategic Missile Forces for two years.[6][7][8][9][10] Due to the Soviet–Afghan War, the deferment for university students at the time was lifted.

After the military service, he entered the Moscow State Institute of International Relations of the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs and graduated with honors in 1991.[11] He pursued a postgraduate program there, graduated with honors as well, lectured at MGIMO, and got his Ph.D. degree in International Law.[6][7][8][10]

Diplomatic career[edit]

Valery Tsepkalo started his diplomatic career in 1991 as a member of the Soviet Embassy in Finland. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, he returned to Belarus and in 1992 took the position of the second secretary in the MFA.

In 1993—1994 he was a foreign policy adviser to the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Stanislav Shushkevich.[12][13][8] After the resignation of Stanislav Shushkevich from the post of the Chairman of the Supreme Council of Belarus, Tsepkalo moved to work in the CIS Secretariat as an advisor to the Executive Secretary. Shushkevich recalled Tsepkalo as a "skillful psychologist and professional" who was always "on a verge of the right and wrong", and appreciated his help in times when Shushkevich was in disfavour.[8][7][10]

In August 1994 Tsepkalo was appointed First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Belarus. From 1997 to 2002 he served as the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Belarus to the United States and the United Mexican States.[10][14][8][7] After the diplomatic service in the USA, he became the presidential adviser on science and technologies.[15] During this period of time he worked as an Alternate Governor of Belarus to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank[16] and from February to October 2005 he was a representative in the National Assembly of Belarus.[17] In 2005 Tsepkalo became the Governmental Expert for UN Secretary-General on communication and information technologies and data security.[18] In 2009 he also joined the Global Alliance for Information and Communication Technologies and Development.[19]

Creation of High Tech Park[edit]

The idea to establish a Belarusian Silicon Valley first appeared when Valery Tsepkalo was visiting Silicon Valley during his diplomatic service in the USA. Tsepkalo was impressed by the effectiveness of the ecosystem, which stimulated the development of technology companies.[20] According to Tsepkalo, it took him a year and a half to persuade the Belarusian authorities to establish infrastructure and a centre of attraction for Belarusian IT companies. On the backdrop of the Dot-com bubble burst, the establishment was very skeptical about the IT industry. The work on popularization of the high technologies among the public officials was later described in Tsepkalo's book Belarus Hi-Tech Park: 10 Years of Development.[21][22][23]

}}</ref> In July 2004 head of the Presidential Administration Ural Latypov and Tsepkalo gave an online press-conference where they described the future par's concept. The organization was established on 22 September 2005, and on 7 October 2005 Tsepkalo received the director's post.[24][25][26] He saw HTP as a tool to stop the IT-experts drain and an enabling environment for Belarusian start-ups. In 2009 he called the Park the "Belarusian Silicon Valley".[20]

In 2005 the authorities provided 50 hectares of land near Uručča district in Minsk. In ten years the campus grew into a scientific-research centre with offices, conference centres, apartments, hotels, shopping malls, etc.[27] The government guaranteed a 1-year $300,000 loan with a 17% interest rate to help get it up and running, the HTP paid it back in two years.[28][29] The export performance was expected to reach $300–350 mln up to 2015.[28] A special preferential tax regime was introduced to make HTP, as Tsepkalo said, an oasis of the new economy.[30][23][31][32][33]

By 2014 138 companies were registered in the Park, its total production reached $650 mln. In the software export capacity per person, Belarus surpassed the US and India. The public image of programmist careers raised rapidly, some public schools initiated additional education courses in it.[34] According to Tsepkalo, IT industry growth in Belarus surpassed the world average several times and the HTP net export exceeded the total of the national industrial plants.[28][34][29]

In 2015 a conflict erupted between the government and the HTP administration when the authorities announced a 1% tax raise and triple its contribution to the Social Security Fund. Tsepkalo warned the authorities of the brain drain danger and referred to data that even with reduced taxes a programmer from HTP pays three times the size of an average citizen. The tax rates were locked until 2020 based on the agreement that the companies from HTP would benefit not only the IT industry but the Belarusian economics in general.[28][35][36] Apart from the active defence of HTP residents and employees' interests, Tsepkalo on multiple occasions supported the detained IT entrepreneurs. In 2016 he voted for the exclusion of "illegal business practices" criminal rule from the Criminal Code of Belarus, except for "medical, associated with people's lives, and financial, associated with the production of counterfeit money, the construction of various financial pyramids". According to Tsepkalo, the rule was "a relic of the Soviet-era" that undermined Belarusian developers' position on foreign markets. In his opinion, for Apple it would be much more difficult to develop if Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were born in Belarus. Aliaksandr Kaniuk, who was the Prosecutor General then, declared that he was obliged to follow the letter of the law.[37][38]

On 2 March 2017, Tsepkalo was dismissed from the director's post at the HTP by presidential decree. The news came out of the blue for HTP employees. According to Tsepkalo, his dismissal was in fact provoked by his active social position and a conflict with security officials.[39] By early 2017 the software development industry annual turnover in Belarus reached $1 bln, such companies as Wargaming.net, Maps.me, Viber were among the HTP members.[28] The industry growth in Belarus didn't yield to any other countries of Eastern Europe. In comparison to Ukraine's outsource industry, the Belarusian market was growing 9% faster, while the tax burden was three times higher. The total share of Belarus on the global market reached several basis points.[40] According to media, Tsepkalo's dismissal had been grounded on his unwillingness to redirect the HTP companies towards the development of other Belarusian industries. Noting Tsepkalo's merits in the creation and development of the HTP, analysts paid attention to its weaknesses: selectivity of the HTP residents, prevalence of outsourcing developers, excessive bureaucratization, and officialism.[35][23][21][41][28]

After Tsepkalo left the HTP leadership, his successors tried to belittle his achievements, and sometimes to blacken the former director. In particular, new HTP director Vsevolod Yanchevski told in a media interview that Tsepkalo could have gone to prison even during his leadership of the HTP: charges of tax violations affected one of the companies, they were compensated and the case was closed.[42]

After the HTP Tsepkalo continued his career in international consulting on innovative enterprises. He consulted governments of the former USSR countries on the establishment of strong IT clusters and took part in a large IT project in Saudi Arabia. He contributed to the development of the Mirzo Ulugbek Innovation Center (ICSU) in Uzbekistan.[43] In 2018 he founded Prabook.com, an online biographical library.[20][44]

His first active comeback to the Belarusian media was in 2018 when he commented on the intended growth of the HTP members number. According to Tsepkalo, such a step would significantly damage the quality of provided services.[45] Only in 2018, HTP got 15 thousand new employees.[30]

Political career[edit]

1994 presidential campaign[edit]

During the 1994 presidential campaign Valery Tsepkalo joined the team of Alexander Lukashenko, who was the youngest candidate then. Tsepkalo was in charge of international affairs. He organized Lukashenko's visit to Moscow, where he visited the State Duma and met with senior officials of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, the Agrarian Party of Russia, and the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. The trip was intended to disavow Kebich team's statements that Lukashenka was going to break off relations with Russia.[46][47][7][8][48][10] After Lukashenko's victory, Tsepkalo continued his diplomatic career.

2020 presidential campaign[edit]

Valery Tsepkalo announced his run for the Belarusian presidency on 8 May 2020, on his Facebook page. He called the existing regime "a dysfunctional system when the whole nation daily monitors the mood of one person".[49] ‘Belhard’ director Igor Mamonenko considered him to be a compromise candidate from the establishment. Some analysts from the IT industry believed that Tsepkalo was a decoy candidate, approved by the Presidential Administration. The philosopher Vladimir Matzkevich considered that the task of Tsepkalo is to inspire the sympathy of the disgruntled nomenklatura, and not to be involved in dirty ties with the opposition.[50]

Tsepkalo affirmed his candidacy on 12 May, he made a statement that the society demanded reforms and the decades of Lukashenko’s presidency led the country into stagnation, common apathy, and indifference.[51] In the meantime, HTP used a phone tree among the employees to emphasize Lukashenko's contribution to the enterprise's success.[52][53][13]

The nomination of two liberal candidates (Tsepkalo and Viktar Babaryka) demonstrated the growing social discontent of the urban middle class. Both candidates offered programs of mild reforms and economic liberalization.[54][55] Tsepkalo reiterated the need to modernize the economy, end the state assistance to inefficient enterprises, and increase investments in education and health industries.[56] He offered to use the experience of Scandinavia and modernize Belarusian Thermal power stations instead of building a nuclear power plant. He promoted Court and Parliament independence, offered to reject the presidential system, and introduce a two-term limit for presidents. He claimed his intentions to establish a proper environment for education and life. He stated that "Lukasneko was detached from society and unaware of people's needs and expectations".[57] Tsepkalo explained that the "battles for harvests" were useless and the most harm to economics was made by ineffective and outdated management. He refused an oppositionist reputation and worked on a public image of a technocrat, who intends to bring his experience in the IT industry into the government.[58][49] He offered to implement a transparent decision-making mechanism as a way to root out the corruption in the government. At the first press conference, he stated that he would pursue a multifaceted foreign policy with a priority in friendly terms with all countries. He supported the Union State initiative in case some parts of the agreement would be altered. He intended to develop better relations with both the USA and the EU. He emphasized that he saw no stereotypical difference between Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians, and wanted to keep the high status of the Russian language in case of victory in the elections.[59][60][61][62][63][64][65]

In May 2020 Lukashenko announced that he had incriminating materials on Tsepkalo, meaning the reasons for his dismissal from the director’s post at HTP. However, Lukashenko refused to reveal them.[66][67] In one of the interviews, Lukashenko compared Tsepkalo to a hog, alluding to his wife Veronika Tsepkalo’s use of IVF treatment.[68] Tsepkalo responded by saying that his dismissal was linked to his protest against businessmen detentions and consecutive conflicts with the General Prosecutor and Investigating Committee.[69] Insulting comments of Lukashenko Tsepkalo called "an ordinary practice in the current political system" and explained them as an awkward try to raise his ratings.[57] The candidate announced that he wanted to "reintroduce respect, return respect to everyone".[70] He also commented that Lukashenko's security should be guaranteed after his resignation.[71]

On 20 May 2020, 884 activists were registered by the Central Election Commission of the Republic of Belarus and initiated a campaign to collect signatures in Tsepkalo's support.[72][73] By early July they collected about 220 thousand signatures, 160 thousand were chosen and provided to the Election Commission. The Commission said only 75,000 were valid — less than the 100,000 needed. Hundreds of Belarusians protested the exclusions in the center of Minsk[74]. The European Union called the decision to deny Babariko and Tsepkalo spots on the ballot “seemingly arbitrary.” EU foreign policy chief Josep Borell said in a statement that it “limits the possibility for the Belarusian people to express their will and already undermines the overall integrity and democratic nature of the elections.” The Commission also revealed the discrepancy between the actual and declared income of Veronika Tsepkalo. According to the political analyst Pavel Usov, the authorities decided to put Tsepkalo out of the play first to disorient people and create an illusion that Babaryka may succeed.[55][75][76][77] Tsepkalo’s office disputed the Committee decision and challenged it in the High Court, but without success.[78][79][80][81][82] The Committee acknowledged violations only in Babruysk, the results in the rest of the regions were called "not having any grounds to be doubted".[83] When the voters applied for a reexamination of the collected signatures and documents, the Committee refused on the pretext that there were no such procedures.[84] The candidate then could not make a public appearance because he was in isolation after COVID-19 exposure.[85] Meanwhile, Veronika Tsepkalo explained the difference between her actual and declared incomes. Received the inheritance after the death of her mother she "forgot about the existence of shares... For all of 2019 she accrued 32 rubles 99 kopecks (about 13.5 USD) in dividends"[86].[87] On 14 July the incumbent High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Josep Borrell called the situation in Belarus an intended resistance to let Belarusians vote free. In Minsk, Pruzhany, Gomel, and Brest people went on the streets to manifest their support of Babaryka and Tsepkalo, the massive detentions followed.[88][89] On 16 June three opposition forces teamed up under the lead of Maria Kalesnikava, Veronika Tsepkalo and Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, who entered the run for the presidency after the detention of her husband, candidate Sergei Tikhanovsky. The united opposition called upon the people to vote and announced the intention to fight for honest, open re-election of the president.[82]

Political activities[edit]

On 11 August 2020 Tsepkalo announced the establishment of the ‘National Salvation Committee’ to mobilize people against Lukashenko’s violent capture of the power.[90]

On 6 January 2021 Tsepkalo announced the creation of the Belarusian Democratic Forum that will be held online in response to the decision to convene the All Belarusian People's Assembly.[91]

Prosecution related to election campaign[edit]

To finance the election campaign Tsepkalo sold his 418.3 m2 house on leaseback terms but did not stop using the premises. On 24 June 2020, a Belarusian businessman of Turkish origin Sedat Igdegji turned to the General Prosecutor's office with a sue against Tsepkalo. According to Igdegji, when Tsepkalo was the director of HTP, he accepted a $200 thousand bribe in the form of building the mansion and $1 mln in cash and secured Igdegji a win of a construction contract for HTP. When Igdegji refused to pay additional money, Tsepkalo allegedly facilitated the annulment of the company’s license. Igdegji claimed that he had $15 mln losses. Igdegji witnessed that Tsepkalo in private mentioned his offshores in Cyprus. Answering these accusations, Tsepkalo stated that Igdegji’s company failed to uphold the tasks and was suspended by Prime Minister Mikhail Myasnikovich. Both sides accused each other of perjury and offense. In the letter to the General Prosecutor Igdegji claimed that his family members and he had received threats, though allegedly the sue had no connection to Tsepkalo’s political activity. Igdegji confirmed that he reported the bribery with a few years delay and tried to prevent Tsepkalo from using the money on his election campaign. Tsepkalo believed the sue was a deliberate provocation.[83][92][93][94][95][96] No Tsepkalo’s representatives visited the first court session.[97][98][99][100][101] On 15 August 2020, a criminal case was brought against Tsepkalo, in Russia and Belarus a warrant was issued for his arrest. Tsepkalo called the case against him politically motivated and not supported by evidence.[102]

Forced emigration[edit]

On 24 July 2020, Tsepkalo left for Moscow, fearing that he would be jailed and the children would be taken away from the family.[103][104] Tsepkalo explained that the prosecutors visited his kids’ school and initiated the procedures to deprive Veronika of her maternity rights. The authorities rejected these accusations. Knowing that the children could be used as a crackdown tool, Tsepkalo took them away from the country.[105][85] During the investigations, the security forces detained and questioned Veronika and Tsepkalo’s sister-in-law. The latter was detained at a parking lot by plain-clothes officers and for some time the relatives could not find or contact her.[106]

Tsepkalo believed there were no reasons to extradite him from Russia but assured the readiness to come back to Belarus if the political situation heats up. For some time he made it a priority to give press conferences exposing the events in Belarus.[107][108] He also wrote an open letter to more than 30 world leaders with a plea to help Belarus conduct honest elections.[109]

On 2 August 2020, Tsepkalo moved to Kyiv, in a week followed by his wife. Her departure was urged by the detaining of Maria Kolesnikova, who was taken by mistake instead of Tsepkalo.[110] His wife, Veronika Tsepkalo, continued her political activity, she recorded a video statement with a claim to acknowledge Svetlana Tikhanovskaya an elected president and to stop ‘the mayhem of violence’.[111] Veronika Tsepkalo was detained by border guards on her way to Kyiv, the situation was perceived as a political crackdown.[112] Soon Tsepkalo announced his plans to move to Poland and meet some influential politicians.[113][114][115] The reunited family came to Warsaw on 18 August.[116][115]

In October 2020, Tsepkalo and his family moved to Riga, Latvia.[117]

Prabook[edit]

In November 2018 Valery Tsepkalo introduced Prabook.com, a biographical library that was created to secure ‘digital immortality’. At launch, the project had the world’s largest biographical database. The developers claimed that the machine-generated library is based on open-source texts and images.[118][119][120] The project faced a controversial reception for its potential identity hazard because data were aggregated without permissions of affected people.[121] As disclosed later, Tsepkalo used his director position to make HTP employees work on Prabook.[122][10]

Criticism[edit]

On 8 May 2020, Tsepkalo announced his run for presidency. Soon he gave an interview to Dev.by, a Belarusian IT-media. As stated by the editors office, later Tsepkalo called off the text of the interview and sent with a courier a censored version with only 8 answers to the journalist’s question, instead of 30. He also enclosed a written prohibition to publish the original version.[122][123] On 12 May, Dev.by accused Valery Tsepkalo of pressure on the edition. According to Dev.by, in 2016 Tsepkalo was displeased with its publications and urged HTP companies to cease collaboration. The edition also stated that Tsepkalo tried to intimidate TUT.by editors office and personally the editor-in-chief Yuri Zisser. Tsepkalo denied all accusations and explained that as the director of HTP he was unhappy with articles on Dev.by which persuaded the programmers to emigrate.[124][122] A lot of readers reacted to the controversial articles and commented on subjectivity and timing of the publications.[125]

There were attempts to edit Tsepkalo’s page on Russian Wikipedia in May 2020, cutting off the criticism, Prabook project info, news on leasing on the house, and connections to Lukashenko.[126]

Research and publications[edit]

Tsepkalo published three books:

  • ‘By the Road of Dragon’, a book on economic development of newly industrialized nations of South-East Asia;
  • ‘Man Everlasting’, a book dedicated to mysteries of death and resurrection;
  • ‘Hi-Tech Park: 10 Years of Development’.

Tsepkalo published 80 articles on religion, world economy, and foreign policy,[127] 20 articles on e-government, information technology, and intellectual property,[127] including publications in Foreign Affairs.[128]

He holds a patent on the method of searching people based on collateral features,[129] that is used in Prabook project.[120]

Family[edit]

Married to Veronika Tsepkalo. Veronika is from Mogilev, she graduated from the Faculty of International Relations (Belarusian State University), then studied at the Higher school of management and business of Belarus State Economic University. She studied business management in India and worked for a major international company for the past 10 years. The couple has two children.[130][131]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Higgins, Andrew (9 August 2020). "Belarus Says Longtime Leader Is Re-elected in Vote Critics Call Rigged". New York Times.
  2. ^ Solzhenitsyn, Dmitry (8 July 2020). "Belarus's Top At-Large Opponent to the Lukashenko Regime". National Review (7).
  3. ^ Jegelevicius, Linas (1 July 2020). "Key challenger Valery Tsepkalo barred as Lukashenko rivals trimmed". Euronews.
  4. ^ Karmanau, Yuras (4 August 2020). "Ex-teacher hopes to free Belarus from president's iron fist". Associated Press.
  5. ^ «Вы б і Стыва Джобса арыштавалі»: пяць фактаў пра Валерыя Цапкалу "You would have arrested Steve Jobs too": five facts about Valery Tsapkala] - Nasha Niva, 8 May 2020
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  15. ^ Valery Tsepkalo
  16. ^ "ANNUAL MEETINGS OF THE BOARDS OF GOVERNORS" (PDF). World Bank Document.
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  18. ^ Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security
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  35. ^ a b Spasuck, Helen (2 March 2017). "Увольнение Цепкало. Президент предупреждал: "Ребята, прекратите шалить"" [Tsepkalo Fired. President Warned: “Guys, Stop Messing Around”]. naviny.by (in Russian). Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  36. ^ "Почему отставка Цепкало не угрожает льготам ПВТ" [Why Tsepkalo Dismiss Doesn't Threat HTP Benefits] (in Russian). Dev.by. 2 March 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  37. ^ "Незаконная предпринимательская деятельность: соразмерна ли ответственность?" [Illegal business practices: Is the Responsibility in Proportion?] (in Russian). bel.biz. 26 August 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  38. ^ "Генпрокурор: "Как мы можем выбросить статью о незаконном предпринимательстве из УК?"" [Prosecutor General: "How Can We Simply Exclude the Criminal Rule from the Code?"] (in Russian). Dev.by. 16 June 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  39. ^ ""Лукашенко сказал: чтобы таракан не пробежал". Цепкало об отборе в ПВТ" [Tsepkalo on HTP Selection: Lukashenko Ordered Not to Leave Anyone Unnoticed] (in Russian). Dev.by. 8 May 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  40. ^ Gursky, D. (27 February 2017). "Беларусь: IT-чудо или небольшой региональный игрок с сотыми долями процента рынка" [Belarus:Miracle in IT or Small Regional Player with Only Several BPs on Global Market] (in Russian). TUT.by. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  41. ^ "Источник: увольнение Цепкало связано с его нежеланием развернуть резидентов ПВТ в пользу белорусской экономики" [Source: Tsepkalo Dismissed for Refusing to Redirect HTP towards Belarusian Economy] (in Russian). БелаПАН. 2 March 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  42. ^ "Янчевский рассказал, как Цепкало "стоял на пороге тюремной камеры"". TUT.by. 20 August 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  43. ^ "Неожиданный кандидат. Создатель ПВТ и экс-посол в США Валерий Цепкало заявил об участии в выборах" [The Unexpected Candidate: HTP Founder and Former Ambassador Valery Tsepkalo Runs for Presidency] (in Russian). Office Life. 8 May 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  44. ^ "Где сейчас первый директор ПВТ Валерий Цепкало" [Where Is Former HTP Head Valery Tsepkalo] (in Russian). Minsk News. 2 December 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  45. ^ "Экс-глава Парка Валерий Цепкало не понимает, зачем стартапам нужен ПВТ. Стартапы объяснили" [Former Director Wonders Why Start-Ups Need HTP. Start-Ups Explain] (in Russian). Dev.by. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  46. ^ Feduta, Alexandra (May 2020). "Как познакомились Валерий Вильямович и Александр Григорьевич: свидетельство соучастника" [How Did Valery Vil'yamovich and Alexander Grigoryevich Meet: Evidence of an Accomplice] (in Russian). The Belarusian Partisan. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  47. ^ Zolotnitsky, Alexander (10 July 2009). "Президент без команды" [The President Without Team] (in Russian). Naviny.by. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  48. ^ Zolotnitsky, Alexander (12 July 2016). "Пять избирательных кампаний Лукашенко. 1994 год. Из грязи в князи" [Five Presidential Campaigns of Alexander Lukashenko. 1994. From rags to riches] (in Russian). Naviny.by. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  49. ^ a b ""Президентом будет мужик": Белоруссия готовится к выборам" [President Will Be Male: Belarus Gets Ready for Elections] (in Russian). Газета.ру. 13 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  50. ^ Владимир Мацкевич: никакой фронды в номенклатуре и элите нет, но настроения чиновников не в пользу Лукашенко
  51. ^ "Бывший директор Парка высоких технологий идет в кандидаты на пост президента Беларуси" [Former Belarusian HTP Director Runs for Presidency] (in Russian). Komsomolskaya Pravda. 8 May 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  52. ^ "Президентские выборы в Беларуси пройдут 9 августа" [9 May: President Elections in Belarus] (in Russian). TUT.BY. 8 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  53. ^ "Многоходовка или пиар? Зачем бывший глава ПВТ Цепкало бросил вызов Лукашенко" [PR or Multimove Game? Why Former HTP Director Tsepkalo Challenges Lukashenko] (in Russian). BelaPan. 12 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  54. ^ Shreibman, A. (27 May 2020). "Выборы перед новой эрой. Почему выходцы из элиты бросили вызов Лукашенко" [Elections Before New Age: Why Elites Emerge to Confront Lukashenko?] (in Russian). Moscow Carnegie Centre. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  55. ^ a b "Кандидаты на пост президента Белоруссии сходят с дистанции" [Candidates Fall Off the Presidential Race] (in Russian). Kommersant. 1 July 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  56. ^ "Цепкало объяснил, почему решил участвовать в выборах президента" [Tsepkalo Explains Run for Presidency] (in Russian). Интер-Смит. 21 May 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  57. ^ a b "Цепкало о Лукашенко: Сейчас он полностью оторвался от жизни, не знает, чем живет народ" [Tsepkalo on Lukashenko: He’s Completely Detached from Life and Doesn’t Know How People Live] (in Russian). TUT.by. 8 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  58. ^ "Цепкало выступил на родине жены: о смертной казни, БелАЭС, президентстве, хорошем вине и коровках Лукашенко" [Tsepkalo in His Wife’s Motherland Speaks on Death Sentences, Belarusian Nuclear Plants, Presidency, Good Wine and Lukashenko’s Cows] (in Russian). Tut.by. 27 May 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  59. ^ "Москву обвиняют, что она виновата в наших бедах, а мы золотые и прекрасные" [We Blame Russia for All Our Troubles and Only Cherish Ourselves] (in Russian). Kommersant. 7 June 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  60. ^ "Цепкало: "особые отношения с Россией" и "русский язык — наше достояние"" [Tsepkalo: We Have Very Special Relationship with Russia, Russian Language is our Legacy] (in Russian). euroradio.fm. 21 May 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  61. ^ ""Белорусы должны получать землю для строительства бесплатно". Большое интервью с потенциальным кандидатом в президенты Валерием Цепкало" [Belarusians Should Receive Lands for Free. Big Interview with Candidate Tsepkalo] (in Russian). Realt.by. 22 June 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  62. ^ "Валерий Цепкало говорил в Витебске про отношения Беларуси с Россией, единую валюту и таможенный союз" [Tsepkalo in Vitebsk on Belarus/Russia Relationship, Single Currency and Customs Union] (in Russian). Vitebsk Courier. 8 June 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  63. ^ "Цепкало: Беларуси нужна модернизация во всех областях — от промышленности до образования" [Tsepkalo: Belarus needs Modernization in All Industries, from Production to Education] (in Russian). naviny.by. 21 May 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  64. ^ "Цепкало ответил избирателям на вопросы о налогах, коррупции, медицине, армии" [Tsepkalo Speaks on Taxes, Corruption, Healthcare, Army] (in Russian). Ex-press.by. 26 May 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  65. ^ ""30% программистов получают больше директора". Цепкало о налогах, коррупции, армии" [30% of Programmers Earn More than Director: Tsepkalo on Taxes, Corruption, Army] (in Russian). Dev.by. 25 May 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  66. ^ "Лукашенко рассказал о компромате на Цепкало и назвал Тихановского "шелудивым"" [Lukashenko Announces Damaging Information on Tsepkalo and Calls Tikhanovsky ‘Mangy’] (in Russian). TUT.by. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  67. ^ "Лукашенко про Цепкало: Пусть скажет, почему я его уволил. И ему не захочется идти на выборы" [Lukashenko: Let Him Say Why I Fired Him, then He Won't Go for Presidency] (in Russian). Nasha Niva. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  68. ^ "Лукашенко сравнил своего оппонента на выборах с хряком" [Lukashenko told about the rooster, boars and sows in the presidential race] (in Russian). Regnum. 4 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  69. ^ ""Пускай публикует" — Цепкало ответил Лукашенко на угрозу компромата и подписался за выдвижение Тихановской" [‘Let Him Publish it’: Tsepkalo Comments on Likashenko’s Threats and Signes for Tikhanovskaya] (in Russian). Telegraf.by. 30 May 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  70. ^ ""Я хочу вернуть уважение ко всем гражданам". Цепкало жестко ответил Лукашенко, который назвал его "хряком"" [‘I Want to Reintroduce Respect to All Citizen’. Tsepkalo Responds to Lukashenko’s Insults] (in Russian). Mogilev Online. 5 June 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  71. ^ "Названный хряком белорусский оппозиционер гарантировал Лукашенко безопасность" [The Insulted Candidate Ready to Guarantee Lukashenko Security] (in Russian). Piter.tv. 8 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  72. ^ "ЦВК зарэгістравала групы Бабарыкі, Цапкалы і яшчэ 13 патэнцыйных кандыдатаў у прэзыдэнты, 40 прэтэндэнтам адмовілі" [Central Election Commission Registers Tsepkalo, Babaryka and 13 Other Candidates for Presidency, 40 Candidates Refused] (in Belarusian). Radio Freedom. 31 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  73. ^ "Валерий Цепкало ответил, есть ли у него программа для участия в выборах президента" [Valery Tsepkalo Answers on Questions About His Programme] (in Russian). Inter-Smith. 11 May 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
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  75. ^ "Цепкало не станет кандидатом в президенты Беларуси. А что с Бабарико?" [Tsepkalo Excluded from Presidency Run: What about Babaryka?] (in Russian). DW. 2 July 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  76. ^ "Без Цепкало, но с Бабарико. ЦИК: борьбу за кресло президента Беларуси продолжат 6 человек" [Without Tsepkalo, With Babaryka. Central Election Commission Announces 6 Candidates for Presidency] (in Russian). TUT.by. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  77. ^ "В Беларуси будет создана IT-платформа против фальсификаций на выборах" [Belarus Will Introduce Anti-Fraud IT Solution for Elections] (in Russian). DW. 19 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  78. ^ "Штаб Цапкалы: 94,36% подпісаў забракавалі, бо дату "паставіў ня той чалавек", але экспэртызаў не праводзілі" [94,36% Signatures for Tsepkalo Rejected because ‘Not the Signer’ Filled in Date but No Expert Examination] (in Russian). Svoboda. 13 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  79. ^ "ЕС раскритиковал Беларусь за отказ в регистрации Бабарико" [EU Criticizes Belarus for Rejecting Babaryka] (in Russian). DW. 14 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  80. ^ "Как в Беларуси задерживали на акциях в поддержку Бабарико и Цепкало" [Babaryka and Tsepkalo Supporters Detained at Meetings] (in Russian). DW. 14 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  81. ^ "В Беларуси проходят стихийные акции в поддержку Бабарико и Цепкало" [People Go on Streets to Support Babaryka and Tsepkalo] (in Russian). DW. 14 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  82. ^ a b "Штабы соперников Лукашенко на выборах в Беларуси объединились" [Lukashenko Opponents Unite] (in Russian). DW. 16 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  83. ^ a b ""Никто власть не поменяет": как Лукашенко остался без конкурентов" [‘No Rotations in Power’: Lukashenko has no Opponents] (in Russian). Gazeta. 14 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  84. ^ "В ЦИК ответили на жалобы по неучтенным подписям Бабарико и Цепкало" [Election Committee Comments Complaints on Babaryka and Tsepkalo Rejected Signatures] (in Russian). Naviny.by. 2 July 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  85. ^ a b "Валер Цапкала вместе с детьми уехал в Россию. Его жена Вероника осталась в Беларуси, участвуя в кампании Тихановской". Свобода. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  86. ^ "Wife Tsepkalo explained identified Central election Commission of Belarus Declaration errors".
  87. ^ "Жена Цепкало объяснила "ошибку" в декларации, которая стала одной из причин нерегистрации супруга" [Veronika Tsepkalo Explains why Her Declaration ‘Mistake’ Was Used against Husband] (in Russian). TUT.by. 15 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  88. ^ "Штаб Цепкало обжалует отбраковку избиркомами подписей за его выдвижение" [Tsepkalo’s Office Appeal to Court against Rejected Signatures] (in Russian). TUT.by. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  89. ^ "Валерий Цепкало запросил в избирательных комиссиях акты выбраковки подписей" (in Russian). Komsomolskaya Pravda. 2 July 2020. Retrieved 19 November 2020.
  90. ^ "Белорусская оппозиция объявила о создании "Комитета государственного спасения"" [Belarusian Opposition Establishes ‘National Salvation Committee’] (in Russian). TV Rain. 11 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  91. ^ For the sake of the future: opposition created the Belarusian Democratic Forum
  92. ^ ""На Цепкало закончилась фантазия?" — В соцсетях отреагировали на компромат с проститутками и взятками" (in Russian). Telegraf.by. 20 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  93. ^ ""Если нужно, на Веронику тоже напишу заявление". Турецкий бизнесмен подал в суд на Валерия Цепкало" [‘If needed, I’ll Sue Veronika, too’: Turkish Businessman Sues Valery Tsepkalo] (in Russian). TUT.by. 21 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  94. ^ "Кто такой Седат Игдеджи, написавший на Валерия Цепкало заявление в Генпрокуратуру?" [Who Is Sedat Igdegji, Who Reported on Tsepkalo to General Prosecutor] (in Russian). Belsat. 1 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  95. ^ "Застройщик: "Цепкало за дом не заплатил". Выслушали все стороны" [Developer Claims Tsepkalo Didn’t Pay for House. Hearing All Sides]. dev.by. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  96. ^ "Штаб Цепкало ответил застройщику" [Tsepkalo’s Office Answers the Developer]. dev.by (in Russian). Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  97. ^ "В Минске начался суд Седат Игдеджи vs Валерий Цепкало" [Tsepkalo vs. Igdegji in Minsk] (in Russian). Euroradio. 21 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  98. ^ "Александру Лукашенко грозит нехватка оппонентов" [Alexander Lukashenko Feels Deficit of Opponents]. Коммерсантъ (in Russian). Kommersant. 29 June 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  99. ^ ""Проста я хачу вярнуць свае грошы". Бізнэсовец пра сваю заяву на Валера Цапкалу" [‘I Simply Want My Money Back’: Businessman Who Sued Tsepkalo] (in Belarusian). Svoboda. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  100. ^ "Седат Игдеджи: Отношения с Цепкало — моя частная проблема, не имеет никакой связи с политикой" [Sedat Igdegji: My Relationship to Tsepkalo Is a Private Issue and Has No Connection to Politics] (in Russian). TUT.by. 1 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  101. ^ "МВД Белоруссии начало проверку еще одного соперника Лукашенко" [Another Lukashenko’s Opponent Under MIF Investigation] (in Russian). RBC. 29 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  102. ^ Former Contender For Belarusian Presidency Tsepkalo Rejects Bribery Accusation As Nonsense
  103. ^ "Супруга Цепкало рассказала, почему экс-кандидат выехал именно в Россию" [Tsepkalo’s Wife Explains why Former Candidate Left to Russia] (in Russian). Russia Today. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  104. ^ "Цапкала: Расея вырашыла не падтрымліваць Лукашэнку, бо "ня хоча сварыцца з беларускім народам"" [Russia Will Not Support Lukashenko Because It Doesn’t Want Ruin Relations with Belarusians] (in Belarusian). Svoboda. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  105. ^ "Генпрокуратура заявила, что ее представители не ходили в школу, где учатся дети Цапкалова" [General Prosecutor Refuses Visits to School of Tsepkalo’s Children] (in Russian). Svoboda. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  106. ^ "Вероника Цепкало: Меня вызывают в МВД, сестру увезли люди в штатском" [Veronika Tsepkalo: I’m Called to MIF, My Sister Detained by Plain-Cloth Officers] (in Belarusian). TUT.by. 30 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  107. ^ "Валер Цапкала: Если в Беларуси жарко, приеду раньше 9 августа" [Valery Tsepkalo: I’m Ready to Return before 9 August if It Gets Worse]. Svoboda. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  108. ^ "Экс-претендент в президенты Цепкало уехал из Беларуси и увез детей" [Ex-Candidate Flees Belarus with Kids]. DW. 4 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  109. ^ ""Прошу поддержать свободные и честные выборы в Беларуси". Оппозиционер Цепкало написал открытое письмо лидерам более 30 стран" [‘I Ask for Help to Make Honest Elections in Belarus’: Oppositioner Open Letter to 30 World Leaders] (in Russian). TV Rain. 3 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  110. ^ "Вероника Цепкало покинула Беларусь" [Veronika Tsepkalo to Leave Belarus] (in Russian). Deutsche Welle. 9 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  111. ^ "Вероника Цепкало обратилась к Тихановской и мировому сообществу" [Veronika Tsepkalo Appeals to Tikhanovskaya and International Community] (in Russian). TUT.by. 11 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  112. ^ "Вероника Цепкало покинула территорию России" [Veronika Tsepkalo Leaves Russia] (in Russian). TUT.by. 16 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  113. ^ "На Цепкало завели уголовное дело, он объявлен в розыск" [Tsepkalo under Warrant and Criminal Investigation] (in Russian). TUT.by. 15 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  114. ^ "Россия объявила в розыск Валерия Цепкало и создателя NEXTA" [NEXTA Founder and Valery Tsepkalo under Warrant in Russia] (in Russian). Deutsche Welle. 15 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  115. ^ a b "Штаб Цепкало анонсировал встречу с "серьезными политиками" из США" [Tsepkalo Office Announces Meeting with USA Politicians] (in Russian). RBC. 16 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  116. ^ "Цепкало прибыл в Варшаву с женой и детьми" [Tsepkalo with Family in Warsaw] (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. 18 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  117. ^ Вероника Цепкало с семьей уже полгода живет в Риге. Узнали, чем она занимается сейчас и где учатся дети
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  119. ^ "Валерий Цепкало, экс-глава ПВТ, представил свой стартап Prabook — всемирную биографическую библиотеку" [Former HTP Director Valery Tsepkalo Intoroduces Global Biographical Library Prabook] (in Russian). Bel.biz. 23 November 2018.
  120. ^ a b "О цифровом бессмертии, перспективах ПВТ и криптовалютах. В Минске прошла лекция Валерия Цепкало" [On Digital immortality, Future of HTP and Crypto Currencies: Open Lecture by Valery Tsepkalo in Minsk] (in Russian). Computer News. 25 November 2018.
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  122. ^ a b c "Цепкало продал дом, чтобы баллотироваться. И запретил dev.by публиковать полную версию интервью" [Tsepkalo Sold House to Run for Presidency and Banned Complete Interview] (in Russian). Dev.by. 12 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  123. ^ "Цепкало: Любой народ готов что-то пережить, но он должен знать, зачем" [Tsepkalo: Any Nation Welcome Challenges but There Must Be Clear Reason] (in Russian). Belorusskiy Partisan. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  124. ^ ""Всё враньё". Что не так с ответом Цепкало на вопрос dev.by" [‘It’s All Lies’: What’s Wrong with Tsepkalo’s Answer] (in Russian). Dev.by. 21 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  125. ^ "Почему dev.by опубликовал текст про дом Валерия Цепкало" [Why Dev.by Published an Article on Tsepkalo’s House?] (in Russian). dev.by. 1 June 2020.
  126. ^ "Как со страницы Валерия Цепкало в "Википедии" пытаются удалить провокационную информацию" [Tsepkalo Page on Wiki Experiences Censorship Edits] (in Russian). Village Belarus. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
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  129. ^ "United States Patent Application: 0190102470". appft.uspto.gov. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  130. ^ "Фотофакт: жена Валерия Цепкало пришла на пресс-конференцию" [Valery Tsepkalo’s Wife at Press Conference] (in Russian). REFORM.by. 21 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  131. ^ ""Выходить с женой в свет — нормально. Люди хотят видеть, кто рядом с президентом". Интервью с Вероникой Цепкало" [Interview with Veronika Tsepkalo: Public Appearances with Wife are Natural. People Want to See President's Wife] (in Russian). TUT.by. 28 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.

External links[edit]

  • Tsepkalo — Valery Tsepkalo at Livejournal.