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Location of the municipality of Valjevo within Serbia
|• Mayor||Stanko Terzić (SPS)|
|• Total||22.56 km2 (8.71 sq mi)|
|• Municipality||905 km2 (349 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code||+381 14|
Valjevo (Serbian Cyrillic: Ваљево, pronounced [v̞âːʎɛv̞ɔ]) is a city located in western Serbia. It is the center of the Kolubara District, which includes five other, smaller municipalities with a total population of almost 175,000. According to the 2011 census, the administrative area of Valjevo had 90,312 inhabitants, 59,073 of whom were urban dwellers.
Apart from the city, the municipality of Valjevo includes the following settlements:
|This section requires expansion. (July 2012)|
In the nearby village of Petnica scientists found the first complete neolithic habitat in Serbia and dated it at 6,000 years old. In Roman times this area was part of the province of Moesia. Valjevo was mentioned for the first time in 1393. It was an important staging post on the trade route that connected Bosnia to Belgrade. Valjevo became significant during the 16th and 17th centuries under stable Ottoman rule.
At the beginning of the 19th century most of the territory of Serbia rapidly transformed. The Serbian revolution began with armed rebellion. In 1804, the local Serb population had rebelled against the Turkish lords and liberated a large part of Serbia. One cause for the revolution was a killing by the Turks. Two well-known knights, Ilija Bircanin and Aleksa Nenadovic, died in Valjevoon on the bridge over the Kolubara.
The settlement's development accelerated further in the 20th century, when Valjevo became an important industrial and cultural center. During the First World War the battle of Kolubara was fought in the immediate vicinity. A large hospital for the wounded was in the town. The city suffered widespread destruction in World War II. At the end of the 20th century it was repeatedly bombed during the NATO attack on Yugoslavia.
Ethnic composition of the municipality:
The village of Brankovina is situated near Valjevo and is known as the home of the notable Nenadović family. The sights of Brankovina are encompassed in a cultural and historical complex which includes: the Church of Saint Archangel, Archpriest’s school, Desanka's school, Old Courtroom, the Sleeping Outbuilding of the Nenadović family, the graves of the Nenadović family and Desanka Maksimović, as well as old “sobrašica” summer houses in the exquisitely beautiful Brankovina church yard.
The Valjevo mountain range (Medvednik, Jablanik, Povlen, Maljen, Suvobor), with gently-rolling hills surrounds the town. Divčibare is a plateau in the mountain of Maljen. It has an average altitude of 1000 m. It is 28 km from Valjevo and 110 km from Belgrade. The canyon of the Gradac River (also the name of a Valjevo suburb) ends in the town centre. The Gradac is one of Europe's cleanest rivers, as evidenced by the presence of otters, which only inhabit unpolluted waters. It abounds in brook trout.
The Valjevo mountain range offers clean air, medicinal herbs, forest fruits and wild game. The vicinity is kept free of industrialisation and the soil is unpolluted, so the food grown there is healthy. Hunting and fishing in the mountain rivers is common. The air-spa of Divčibare offers rest and recreation.
Vrujci Spa has mud baths for rheumatic diseases, as well as a hotel and sports complex with swimming pools.
Old water mills are found in the thirteen square kilometre natural reserve.
In Petnica, 5 km away from Valjevo, the Petnica Science Center supports young researchers. It has outdoor swimming pools with minor sports facilities, as well as lake Pocibrava, a recreational area.
The Nenadović Tower (Кула Ненадовића), originally an armory built by Jakov Nenadović and his son Jevrem in spring 1813, is adjacent to the road to Šabac, at the edge of Kličevac hill. The construction material was stone from an older Vitković tower. Later, the Ottomans turned it into a prison.
The most important cultural institutions are the National Museum, under whose auspices are the Museum of the First and Second Serbian Uprisings and displays in Brankovina. Other institutions include the Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments, the Historical Archive, the Town Library. The Cultural Centre has a well-equipped stage and an auditorium with 630 seats. The Youth Centre has "Gallery 34" for exhibitions and forums. The Serbian Language and Culture Workshop offers classes in Serbian for foreigners.
Valjevo has two elite art galleries. The Modern Gallery has a permanent display of works of the Academician Ljuba Popović (1953-63 period), a collection of works presented by exhibitors and a concept of representing fantastic painting after the model of the famous "Mediala". The International Art Studio "Radovan Mića Trnavac" exhibits foreign painters of different styles.
The Cultural and Artistic Society "Abrašević" has a renowned choir, along with folk music and drama ensembles. Theatrical performances are given by the private theatre "Mala scena" and the Drama Studio of Valjevo Grammar School.
The Tešnjar Evenings are a cultural event. The Jazz Fest is accompanied by summer literary talks in the Library Yard. Desanka’s May Talks discuss literary topics, where the Desanka Maksimović Foundation grants an annual poetry award.
The main economiic activity in the second half of the 20th century was the arms manufacturing firm Krušik, which returned to production after the wars. In 1999 it was bombed by NATO planes during the Kosovo War. Krušik holds a large contract to arm the Iraqi army. The Valjevo economy is characterized by small, private companies working in metallurgy, food production and textiles. Austrian company Austrotherm GmbH, Italian company Golden Lady and Slovenian company Gorenje have built production facilities in Valjevo.
Seats in the municipal parliament won in the 2012 local elections:
|Socialist Party of Serbia||11|
|Serbian Progressive Party||11|
|Democratic Party of Serbia||3|
|Victory for Valjevo||8|
|Movement for Valjevo||3|
|United Regions of Serbia||3|
|Source: Local Elections in Serbia 2012|
The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, with adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate).
|Climate data for Valjevo (1981–2010, extremes 1961–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||23.3
|Average high °C (°F)||5.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−28.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||49.9
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||14||13||13||13||14||14||10||10||10||10||12||15||146|
|Avg. relative humidity (%)||82||76||70||68||68||70||67||69||74||78||80||82||74|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||72.9||93.2||143.3||172.8||231.9||250.6||290.2||267.9||200.9||149.6||97.6||61.4||2,032.2|
|Source: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia|
Serbia's best-known poetess, Desanka Maksimović, was born in nearby Rabrovica and spent her childhood and completed primary school in Brankovina.
Serbia's best-known CPA Accountant and current President of Instant Technology, Mirjana Schultz was born in this region.
This family produced leaders of the First Serbian Uprising, ministers of the first Serbian government, spiritual leaders and travel writers. Some members are: Duke Aleksa, Archpriest Mateja Nenadović, Duke Jakov Nenadović, Sima and Jevrem, writer Čika Ljuba Nenadović, and Queen Persida Karađorđević, the mother of King Peter I of Serbia.
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Valjevo has official sister cities:
|Slovakia||Prievidza, Trenčín Region|||
|Germany||Pfaffenhofen, Bavaria|||
|Netherlands||Sittard, Limburg|||
- "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
- "Kula Nenadovića" (in Serbian). Valjevozavas.net. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
Kula Nenadovića je svakako simbol grada Valjeva. Podignuta je u proleće 1813. godine ...
- Subotić, Vojislav (2006). Memorijali oslobodilačkih ratova Srbije, Book 1, Volume 1. Vlada Republike Srbije, Ministarstvo rada, zapošljavanja i socijalne politike. p. 97. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
Kula Nenadovica (Nenadovic's Tower) ... was built at Jakob Nenadovic's command in 1813. He was Minister for Private Affairs. It served for military purposes. Turks used it as a prison later
- 70 years of Krušik
- Climate Summary
- "Monthly and annual means, maximum and minimum values of meteorological elements for the period 1981–2010" (in Serbian). Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Valyevo.|