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|Founded by||1593 (Don Gaspar de Valdes)|
|Elevation||1,710 m (5,610 ft)|
|Time zone||CST, (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-6)|
Valtierrilla is a town in the Mexican state of Guanajuato, near the city of Salamanca, and is considered the world capital of the fruit-bearing cactus known as nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica). Valtierrilla contributes 5% of the population of the municipality. It has a population of 13,200 (2007 figure).
Valtierrilla is a developing industrial area, with the population projected to increase to 20,000 by 2015. It is the largest populated place in the Salamanca municipality after Salamanca itself, and has a greater population than 15 of the municipal capitals of Guanajuato state; it ranks 35th among towns in the state. Due to a shortage of educational facilities, many students travel to Salamanca.
- 1 Toponymy
- 2 Location
- 3 Climate, topography and hydrography
- 4 Famous people
- 5 Population
- 6 History
- 7 Health and infrastructure
- 8 Educational infrastructure
- 9 Exponopal
- 10 Sports
- 11 Landmarks
- 12 Politics and government
- 13 References
After the conquest the settlement was known as Valtierra, Its name derives from the Latin Balde (a lot) and Earth, i.e. it means "place of much land." It was founded earlier than the nearby city of Salamanca.
In the seventeenth century the estate of "Valtierra la Grande" (Great Valtierra) was created to the south of Salamanca, so that the settlement now known as Valtierrilla started to be called "Valtierra la Chica" (Small Valtierra) to distinguish it.
In the early eighteenth century, the inhabitants named the place Santa Cruz Baltierrilla. The name Santa Cruz attests to the process of evangelization then developing. In 1918, the name was changed to Andres Delgado, but this name did not become popular because people associated it with a bandit of the independence period, and it was causing problems of location and recognition. The restoration of the previous name was promoted by the parish priest, Father Bernabe Mendez Jesus Montoya. Finally, on February 9, 1928, by Decree No. 13 of the Congress of Guanajuato state, C. Agustin Arroyo Chao being governor, the name became Valtierrilla again.
Valtierrilla is 8 km from the municipal headquarters in the city of Salamanca. It is in the area known as El Bajío ("the shoal") near the confluence of two rivers, the Lerma and the Laja. The land area of the town of Valtierrilla is approximately 150 km ². Valtierrilla is located at 101° 07' 40" longitude west of the meridian of Greenwich and 20° 31' 52" north latitude, measured from the tower of the parish of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Its height above sea level is 1,710 metres.
Climate, topography and hydrography
Within the village there is a rocky outcrop known as Cerro de Comaleros about 1.5 km from the community. The height of this elevation is 1,890 metres. South of town is the Laja River, which crosses the town from east to west and joins the Lerma River in a place known as Las Adjuntas, 4 km from the village.
The climate in the town is warm and semi-arid, with rainfall mainly in the summer and first part of the fall.
- Prof. Aurelio Méndez Sánchez, professor, leader in the development of the community in the second half of the twentieth century.
- St. Barnabas Jesus Mendez Montoya, who died in the Cristero War in Mexico. Shot on February 5, 1928 and canonized on May 22, 2000 by Pope John Paul II.
- Father Alberto Campos, priest. Participated in the development of the community in the middle of the twentieth century.
- Sebastian de la Cruz, Valtierrilla's first mayor in 1733. He participated in the construction of the Chapel of the Holy Cross in 1724, asked the Viceroy elect Valtierrilla authorities. He participated in the land dispute over dispossessions carried out by Santamaria Nativitas, and achieved restitution of the land.
In 1754 the population of Valtierrilla was 406 while Salamanca had 1508 inhabitants. According to the 2005 census, the county seat of Salamanca accounted for 61.57% of the total municipal population (143,838 inhabitants) and Valtierrilla accounted for 5.19% (12,118 inhabitants). In 2007 a further census reported a population of 13,200.
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The first human settlements in Valtierrilla, vestiges of which occurred in the Preclassic or Formative, and chronologically is located between 400 BC and 200, the great culture of Chupicuaro. Semi-nomadic groups who sought the riverbanks madonte (Lerma) and "La Laja" to settle, forming scattered villages with egalitarian social structure. Chupícuaro Man lived on fruit and seed gathering, hunting and fishing, in addition to maize, which ground on stone metate, used the shell and bone to make ornaments such as necklaces and earrings and implemented as needles, spears and punches, with obsidian knives were produced and projectile points. The vessels have a constant quality and take various forms that always have globular or hemispheric contours or compound elements with curved lines, an example of this would be the pots, glasses, bowls, plates, spoons, bowls hollow tripod supports, the leg guy named Bird, mammiform, conical or pyramidal. The decorative designs are painted on the piece, such as geometric combinations, repeat and vary slightly. No monumental architecture and sculpture in stone, remains have been found only alignments of rocks on the surface, west of Cerro Prieto hillock, at the top, but unfortunately at the end of 1985, being the municipal delegate of Valtierrilla Mr. Andres Robles, was given the task of building a bridge over the River Laja to facilitate its passage in times of increasing discharge, and communicate with surrounding towns. Needed material and located on the hill of a cluster of stone comaleros in disarray, which were collected for use in the masonry of the bridge, but to divest all located a stone ceremonial pyramid or stepped, round whose base average about 20 meters in diameter and a projected height of less than 10 meters. The stone was not stuck with some mixture, and just this perfectly well-off, just as he kept a perfect symmetry. Unfortunately those who brought this relic value it failed and ended with her and our historical past.
This culture disappeared or migrated to another place without a trace of the causes, as with many other Hispanic cultures. Do not exclude that there remained semi-nomadic groups in the region which probably remained transparent over time, living mainly by the kindness of the climate, flora, fauna and land offered by the shoal and an important factor is the confluence close two rivers: the Lerma and the Laja, called the "attached", and inserted between the two rivers comaleros the hill. Probably in the twelfth and thirteenth century, passed through this region of the Aztecs shoal, but without dwelling on their pilgrimage, to be completed in the Valley of Mexico.
Before the Spanish arrived there were large groups of Indians in the region that today includes Valtierrilla, Chichimecas groups, including the Fames and guamares on the banks of the River Lerma River "Laja".
Colonial era and independence
After the conquest, the Spanish began to make expeditions into the vast region chichimeca. On May 4, 1593, there was a card for all titles and stays realegadas make themselves the sons of the conquerors. This took advantage of Don Gaspar de Valdez for recognition stays Mancera and Valtierra currently occupying the region in Salamanca, according to minutes of council written.
In 1602, a group of Spanish Viceroy sent the request to be allowed to found a villa near the river, next to the Estancia de Barahona, away from the existing villas Celaya and Leon. The Viceroy Don Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, Conde de Monterrey, granted permission for the founding of the town of Salamanca on August 6, 1602 in which stipulates that applicants must meet to form a council made up of four council members and two for mayors, from New Year's Day of 1603 would be founded the town of Salamanca.
In the eighteenth century sought the intervention of the Royal Audiencia of New Spain to be restored lands of the natives of the town of Santa Cruz Valtierrilla. Finally, October 12, 1716 in Mexico City peno the people of Santa Maria Nativitas and October 27, 1716 requested that the land be restored and also to pay the rent down. Of course this led to discontent among the inhabitants of the population so that year 1716, the natives of the town of Santa Cruz Baltierrilla the jurisdiction of Salamanca, and the governor and other officers of the district Nativitas republic, to separate of the jurisdiction of Salamanca.
The life of the people went quietly, and the Catholic religion was an important part, so in 1724 opened the first religious shrine named "Santa Cruz", which was built by natural Valtierrilla themselves, so that she celebrate the sacrament of Holy Mass, all with the approval and confirmation by the Viceroy Juan de Acuña, Marqués de Casa strong.
Because the record derivatives on the land dispute, and the request to separate the header, did the unrest among the population to elect their authorities, so that in the year 1732 was made a formal request to the instance of the Royal Audiencia of New Spain, on the advice of Indians to the natives of Santa Cruz Valtierrilla to choose mayor and councilman for his government. The response of Viceroy Juan de Acuña Marquez fortified house was positive by a document dated 1733 that says in the words "The viceroy under the Act grants the natives of Valtierrilla, jurisdiction of Salamanca, license to choose mayor alderman without impediment to justice the party. Santa Cruz Valtierrilla, Salamanca. " As in 1734 held its first mayoral election in Valtierrilla being in the person of Sebastian de la Cruz.
The land issue continued throughout the years among the natives of their rights Valtierrilla demanding and greed of some villagers Nativitas and Salamanca, and with the constant analysis, the Real Audiencia of New Spain on the board of land happened again in 1797 a land dispute, due to a deprivation suffered by the natural, this problem was lengthened and the following year, they restored the land to native Valtierrilla.
In the year 1807 being Don Nicholas Angel Lopez and Don Pedro Nolazco, mayor and alderman, respectively, of the people of Santa Cruz Baltierrilla, filed a complaint that is excess demand what belongs to the duty of the register of that village. As annex a list of tributary Indians, list of all the ambiguities that exist in the testimony of tuition. Including the case of Jose de los Santos, a tributary of Indian people. This disagreement led the Indians to support the independence movement.
But there is a significant fact: between 1808 and 1814, documenting the constant watchword available grants and loans from a wide range of indigenous communities in virtually all of the viceroyalty. To support the war between Spain and France. The records reveal names and names of communities that offer their contributions including the "Baltierrilla" Landavazo 1996, p. 167.
The villagers of Valtierrilla supported the independence movement started by Father Miguel Hidalgo, and led by Andres Delgado "Rotation" and a group of over 200 men on horseback, carried out attacks in the region, establishing a headquarters in the community of Valtierrilla, where in June 1818 captured Don Joaquin Cortes, captain of the infantry regiment and was taken prisioneron with others, being around 15 days in the community and was no oversight that he escaped from the rebeldes.En that same year, 1818 is apprehended and shot the guerrilla from the community of Valtierrilla Andrés Delgado "spin."
An epidemic caused many deaths in Valtierrilla was typhus in 1838, so disastrous that many people were buried in the temple courtyard.
In 1871 the telegraph was installed in Valle de Santiago Salamanca and thence south of the state.
In 1858, following the coup Comonfort in late 1857, the president of the Supreme Court, Mr. Benito Juárez, assumed executive authority and went to get security to the state. In Guanajuato, whose governor supported him, and the Liberal army, called the coalition, which had as its chief Gen. Anastasio Parrodi. The Conservative army, commanded by General Luis G. Osollo and General Miguel Miramon and Tomas Mejia, went on the attack and the meeting was Valtierrilla land in a very broad front, but the center and most bitter fighting was the road where the bridge brook was ugly. He died there, Colonel Don José María Calderón, a brilliant military at that time fighting against his former college classmates military generals and Miramon Osollo. It was the first and one of the three great battles of the War of Reform, March 10, 1858.
In the early twentieth century, the state promoted the primary, which he called "model schools", which were inaugurated in 1903 in Valtierrilla. Originally stood at the corner of Benito Juarez Street and today the Basque Quiroga and later moved to the street Manuel Doblado. They were schools for boys and girls separately.
In 1918 the name was changed to Santa Cruz Valtierrilla by Andres Delgado, after the guerrilla Valtierrilla native and celebrated 100 years after his death. Unfortunately not prosper and in 1928 restored the name to Valtierrilla.
A mid-year 1918 reached epidemic Valtierrilla "cholera morbus", which was hit much of the country.
In 1922 the Valtierrilla delegate, supported by Father Bernabe Mendez Jesus Montoya, Congress asked the state to secede from the township of Salamanca, and in an act of racism is typical for the mayor argued the request was not feasible, it was a village of Indians, ignorant and unrelated to any office. This request fails.
1926: making Pénjamo boom, Leon and other populations of the entity the Cristero movement. On February 5, 1928 federal forces entered the southern side Valtierrilla. It was about seven in the morning of February 5, 1928, killed the Lord Jesus Mendez Montoya.
By presidential order dated September 19, 1951, published in the Official Journal of the Federation on April 18, 1952 and executed on June 15, 1952, was granted by way of provision of the ejido lands to be "Valtierrilla" an area of 250.40 ha, including the school parcel, in fact the recipients were 47 farmers.
On April 27, 1977, requested the expropriation of an area of 7.1530 ha intended to expand the refinery Antonio M. Love, the ejido Valtierrilla.
On March 3, 1980, was expropriated an area of 5,10,95 has, for the CFE to be used for the construction of a portion of the thermoelectric plant in Salamanca.
Health and infrastructure
For decades, the Commonwealth of Valtierrilla has had a health center, located in Revolution Square. The center reports directly to the Ministry of Health, and is now known as Medical Unit Primary Health Care (UMAPS). It currently has 4 doctors, one medical social service intern and 10 nurses. The service is open daily from 8am to 8pm, and attends to everyone, whether or not in receipt of social security (e.g., Seguro Popular, IMSS, etc.). This hospital was built thanks to the support of the city of Salamanca, and was built to cover services in the health sector in all the villages located outside the urban area, and not only of Valtierrilla.
In the Community of Valtierrilla there are the following educational institutions:
- Three preschool campuses: Tomasa Esteves, Jaime Torres Bodet, Octavio Gómez Leal and a new creation.
- Five schools of primary education; Mariano Matamoros, Guadalupe Victoria, November 20, Joan of Asbaje, Agustín Melgar.
- Two basic high schools: Secondary School No. 23 Tele and High School "Aurelio Sanchez Mendez."
- A senior high school education: bachelor's and Video Training Center UNICATT State Government.
Since 2005 an exhibition, "Exponopal", featuring the nopal cactus, has been held each year at the beginning of February, with support from the town of Salamanca. The Expo brings together producers of nopal products. These come from different parts of the state and other parts of Mexico. The Expo displays Nopal products such as tasty stew, cactus tortillas, shampoo, jelly, jam, skin creams, juices, candy, and cactus fruit covered with almonds and chocolate.
Football has been played in Valtierrilla for 70 years.
Weightlifting is a discipline practiced today within the community at state level. Edith Montserrat Silva Vazquez has been pan-American champion and has won gold medals in three successive national competitions. Also Jorge "Conejo" Godoy, gold medalist in the national Olympics in his class.
- The Main Square of the Revolution.
- Chapel of Santa Cruz, built by the townspeople to celebrate Mass, and approved by the Viceroy in 1724.
- Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus.
- Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
- Pyramid of stone or ceremonial center on Comaleros hill.
Politics and government
The community belongs to the thirteenth local electoral district, and the eighth federal electoral district. In the 2006 federal election, there were 8,078 registered voters.
Salamanca City Council is composed of a mayor, two aldermen and 12 councillors. In 1992, Juan Lopez Guerra became the first councillor representing Valtierrilla within the city of Salamanca, in more than four centuries of jurisdiction from Salamanca.
Valtierrilla community is represented today by a municipal delegate. There are four committees of citizen participation, north, south, east and west sectors. On July 26, 2007, the official newspaper of the state government of Guanajuato published the agreement creating the potable water and wastewater system of Valtierrilla ("SAPASVA"), with Guillermo Pérez Hernández as its first Chairman of the Board: this was the first such body to be established in the state of Guanajuato.