Vancouver Island wolf

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Vancouver Island Wolf
VIslandWolf.JPG
VancouverIslandWolf.JPG
White wolf at the Greater Vancouver Zoo (top); captive grey Vancouver Island wolf at Grouse Mountain
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. lupus
Subspecies: C. l. crassodon
Trinomial name
Canis lupus crassodon
Hall, 1932 [1]

The Vancouver Island wolf (Canis lupus crassodon) is a subspecies of grey wolf, endemic to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. It is very social with other wolves, and lives in packs of about five to thirty-five. It is an endangered subspecies, very shy, and is rarely seen by humans.[2] Wolves at the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve area have been known to attack and kill unguarded domestic dogs.[3] There are also two Vancouver Island Wolves at the Greater Vancouver Zoo.[4]

Taxonomy[edit]

Taxonomic classification[edit]

As of 2005, it is considered a valid subspecies by MSW3.[5][6] It is classed as a synonym of C. l. occidentalis by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.[7]

See further: Gray wolf taxonomy

Phylogenetic classification – coastal wolves[edit]

Studies using mitochondrial DNA have indicated that the wolves of coastal south-east Alaska are genetically distinct from inland gray wolves, reflecting a pattern also observed in other taxa.[8][9][10] They show a phylogenetic relationship with extirpated wolves from the south (Oklahoma), indicating that these wolves are the last remains of a once widespread group that has been largely extirpated during the last century, and that the wolves of northern North America had originally expanded from southern refuges below the Wisconsin glaciation after the ice had melted at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. These findings call into question the taxonomic classification of C.l. nulibus proposed by Nowak. [9] Another study found that the wolves of coastal British Columbia were genetically and ecologically distinct from the inland wolves, including other wolves from inland British Columbia.[11] A study of the three coastal wolves indicated a close phylogenetic relationship across regions that are geographically and ecologically contiguous, and the study proposed that Canis lupus ligoni (Alexander Archipelago wolf), Canis lupus columbianus (British Columbia wolf), and Canis lupus crassodon (Vancouver Island wolf) should be recognized as a single subspecies of Canis lupus.[10]

In 2016, two studies compared the DNA sequences of 42,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in North American gray wolves and found the coastal wolves to be genetically and phenotypically distinct from other wolves.[12] They share the same habitat and prey species, and form one of the study's 6 identified ecotypes - a genetically and ecologically distinct population separated from other populations by their different type of habitat.[12][13] The local adaptation of a wolf ecotype most likely reflects the wolf’s preference to remain in the type of habitat that it was born into. [12] Wolves that prey on fish and small deer in wet, coastal environments tend to be smaller than other wolves.[12]

See also: Wolf population differences

Appearance[edit]

The Vancouver Island wolf is of medium size, measuring roughly 26 to 32 inches high, 4 to 5 feet from nose to end of tail, and weighing roughly 60 kg. It is usually a mix of grey, brown, and black. Occasionally, they are seen pure white.

Diet[edit]

The wolf's main food sources are the Columbian black-tailed deer, and the Roosevelt elk.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fred H. Harrington (1982). Wolves of the World: Perspectives of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Noyes. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-8155-0905-9. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  2. ^ "Vancouver Island Wolf and British Columbia Wildlife – April Point Resort and Spa". 
  3. ^ "Pacific Rim National Park Reserve of Canada". 
  4. ^ "Vancouver Island Wolf". Greater Vancouver Zoo. 
  5. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  6. ^ Smithsonian: Canis lupus crassodon
  7. ^ Chambers SM, Fain SR, Fazio B, Amaral M (2012). "An account of the taxonomy of North American wolves from morphological and genetic analyses". North American Fauna 77: 1–67. doi:10.3996/nafa.77.0001. Retrieved 2013-07-02. 
  8. ^ Weckworth, Byron V.; Talbot, Sandra; Sage, George K.; Person, David K.; Cook, Joseph (2005). "A Signal for Independent Coastal and Continental histories among North American wolves". Molecular Ecology 14 (4): 917. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02461.x. PMID 15773925. 
  9. ^ a b Weckworth, Byron V.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A. (2010). "Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest". Journal of Mammalogy 91 (2): 363. doi:10.1644/09-MAMM-A-036.1. 
  10. ^ a b Weckworth, Byron V.; Dawson, Natalie G.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Flamme, Melanie J.; Cook, Joseph A. (2011). "Going Coastal: Shared Evolutionary History between Coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska Wolves (Canis lupus)". PLoS ONE 6 (5): e19582. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019582. PMID 21573241. 
  11. ^ Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Darimont, Chris T.; Wayne, Robert K.; Paquet, Paul C.; Leonard, Jennifer A. (2009). "Ecological factors drive differentiation in wolves from British Columbia". Journal of Biogeography 36 (8): 1516. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.02067.x. 
  12. ^ a b c d Schweizer, Rena M.; Vonholdt, Bridgett M.; Harrigan, Ryan; Knowles, James C.; Musiani, Marco; Coltman, David; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K. (2016). "Genetic subdivision and candidate genes under selection in North American grey wolves". Molecular Ecology 25 (1): 380–402. doi:10.1111/mec.13364. PMID 26333947. 
  13. ^ Schweizer, Rena M.; Robinson, Jacqueline; Harrigan, Ryan; Silva, Pedro; Galverni, Marco; Musiani, Marco; Green, Richard E.; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K. (2016). "Targeted capture and resequencing of 1040 genes reveal environmentally driven functional variation in grey wolves". Molecular Ecology 25 (1): 357–79. doi:10.1111/mec.13467. PMID 26562361.