Portrait of Vanessa Bell, 1916
by Roger Fry (1866–1934)
30 May 1879
|Died||7 April 1961
Charleston Farmhouse, Sussex
|Spouse(s)||Clive Bell (m. 1907–61)|
|Children||Julian Bell (1908–1937)
Quentin Bell (1910–1996)
Angelica Garnett (1918–2012)
Early life and education
Vanessa Stephen was the eldest daughter of Sir Leslie Stephen and Julia Prinsep Duckworth. The family, including her sister Virginia; brothers Thoby (1880–1906) and Adrian (1883–1948), and half-brothers, George and Gerald Duckworth, lived at 22 Hyde Park Gate, Westminster, London. She was educated at home in languages, mathematics and history, and took drawing lessons from Ebenezer Cook before she attended Sir Arthur Cope's art school in 1896, and then studied painting at the Royal Academy in 1901.
After the deaths of her mother in 1895 and her father in 1904, Vanessa sold 22 Hyde Park Gate and moved to Bloomsbury with Virginia and brothers Thoby and Adrian, where they met and began socialising with the artists, writers and intellectuals who would come to form the Bloomsbury Group. The Bloomsbury Group's first Thursday evening meetings began at Bell's house in Gordon Square. Attendees included: Lytton Strachey, Desmond McCarthy, and later on, Maynard Keynes, Leonard Woolf, Roger Fry, and Duncan Grant.
She married Clive Bell in 1907 and they had two sons, Julian (who died in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War at the age of 29) and Quentin. The couple had an open marriage, both taking lovers throughout their lives. Bell had affairs with art critic Roger Fry and with the painter Duncan Grant, with whom she had a daughter, Angelica in 1918, whom Clive Bell raised as his own child.
Vanessa, Clive, Duncan Grant and Duncan's lover David Garnett moved to the Sussex countryside shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, and settled at Charleston Farmhouse near Firle, East Sussex, where she and Grant painted and worked on commissions for the Omega Workshops established by Roger Fry. Her first solo exhibition was at the Omega Workshops in 1916. On April 7, 1961, Bell died from a brief illness at Charleston, Firle and was buried in the Firle Parish Churchyard.
In 1906, when Bell started to think of herself as an artist, she formed the Friday Club to create a place in London that was more favourable to painting. Vanessa was encouraged by the Post-Impressionist exhibitions organised by Roger Fry, and she copied their bright colours and bold forms in her artworks. In 1914, she turned to Abstraction.
Bell rejected the examples of Victorian narrative painting and rejected a discourse on the ideal and aberrant qualities of femininity. Some of Vanessa Bell’s works were related to her personal life. She used her artistry to design and illustrate book jackets. For example, her illustration for To the Lighthouse, the book by her sister Virginia Woolf, which was not published until 1927, is about a beach with lighthouse that was a part of Bell’s and Woolf's childhood in St Ives, Cornwall.
Bell is one of the most celebrated painters of the Bloomsbury group. She exhibited in London and Paris during her lifetime, and has been praised for innovative works during her early maturity and for her contributions to design.
Bell's paintings include Studland Beach (1912), The Tub (1918), Interior with Two Women (1932), and portraits of her sister Virginia Woolf (three in 1912), Aldous Huxley (1929–1930), and David Garnett (1916). Bell worked with Duncan Grant to create murals for Berwick Church in Sussex (1940-42).
Bell’s first solo exhibition in 1916 was held in the Omega Workshop in London, a prominent place for exhibitions which supported young artists and introduced design work to the public. Bell became the director of the Omega Workshop around 1912
Design for Overmantel Mural (1913), oil on paper. It depicts herself and Molly MacCarthy naked in Bell’s studio at 46 Gordon Square.
Street Corner Conversation (also created in 1913), features massive nudes with their schematic form being related to it.
Summer Camp (1913), oil on board, was an extended illustration of the interchange of imagery between the artists working for the Omega Workshop. The origin of this painting is when Bell went on a summer camp organized at Brandon on the Norfolk-Suffolk border near Thetford. Summer Camp became part of the Bryan Ferry Collection.
By the Estuary (1915), oil on canvas, shows how the geometrical abstraction that distinguished Bell’s design for the Omega Workshop was also applied in her easel painting. In her wartime paintings, landscape is rarely seen. However, this modestly scaled landscape shows her fondness for clarity of design in which segments of contrasting but harmonious colour are not distracted by detail.
Nude with Poppies (1916), oil on canvas, is a preliminary design for a headboard which Bell had painted for Mary Hutchinson. This painting is one of the few of the surviving number of projected designs that are still in existence of the decorated beds from the Omega Workshop period
Designs for a Screen: Figures by a Lake (1912), gouache on board, was influenced by Nabis paintings by Édouard Vuillard and Maurice Denis. This design for a three-part screen can be dated back to 1912 and might have been a part of Bell’s exhibit Design for Screen which was shown at the Friday Club Exhibition in February 1912.
Bell is the subject of Susan Sellers' novel Vanessa and Virginia and of Priya Parmar's novel "Vanessa and Her Sister". In 2015 she was portrayed by Phoebe Fox and Eve Best in the BBC mini-series Life in Squares.
- Jones, Marnie (Winter 1985). "Review: Her Own Story". The American Scholar. 54 (1): 130. JSTOR 41211148.
- Dunn, Jane. (1990) A Very Close Conspiracy: Vanessa Bell and Virginia Woolf. London: Jonathan Cape, pp. 20-21. ISBN 9780224022347
- Jones, Marnie (Winter 1985). "Review: Her Own Story". The American Scholar. 54 (1): 131. JSTOR 41211148.
- Archive Journeys: Bloomsbury
- Shone, Richard. (1999) The Art of Bloomsbury Roger Fry, Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 137-138. ISBN 0691049939.
- Frances Spalding. "Bell, Vanessa". Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Chilvers, Ian. "Bell, Vanessa". The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Ed. Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Marion Dell and Marion Whybrow; Helen Dunmore (Introduction), Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell: Remembering St Ives.
- Catlin, Roger. "A sister's bookish art for her sister, Virginia's, publishing company, the Hogarth Press.". Washington Post.
- Vanessa Bell: Studland Beach, Domesticity, and "Significant Form". Lisa Tickner. Representations. No. 65, Special Issue: New Perspectives in British Studies (Winter 1999), pp. 63-92. University of California Press. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2902962.
- Vanessa Bell and Dora Carrington: Bloomsbury Painters. Gillian Elinor. Woman's Art Journal. Vol. 5, No. 1 (Spring – Summer 1984), pp. 28-34. Woman's Art Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1357882.
- Tickner, Lisa (Winter 1999). "Vanessa Bell: Studland Beach, Domesticity, and "Significant Form"". Representations. No. 65 (New Perspectives in British Studies): 63. JSTOR 2902962.
- "Introduction to the Berwick Murals". Berwick Church.
- Shone, Richard. The Art of Bloomsbury. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1999.
- "BBC2: Life in Squares: Credits – Episode 1". BBC Online. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Sketches in Pen and Ink, Vanessa Bell
- A Passionate Apprentince: the early journals, Virginia Woolf
- A Moment's Liberty, Virginia Woolf
- A Very Close Conspiracy: Vanessa Bell and Virginia Woolf, Jane Dunn
- Vanessa Bell, Frances Spalding
- Duncan Grant, Frances Spalding
- Deceived with Kindness: a Bloomsbury Childhood, Angelica Garnett
- Elders and Betters, Quentin Bell
- Vanessa and Virginia, Susan Sellers (fictional biography)
- Charleston, Quentin Bell and Virginia Nicholson
- Virginia Woolf, Hermione Lee
- Vanessa and Her Sister, Priya Parmar (novel)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vanessa Bell.|
- Official site of the Charleston Farmhouse in Sussex
- A presentation by the Tate Gallery, including biographies, timeline, pictures etc
- Links to Vanessa Bell's works online
- "Archival material relating to Vanessa Bell". UK National Archives.
- Works by or about Vanessa Bell in libraries (WorldCat catalog)