Vanino, Khabarovsk Krai
The port of Vanino
|Federal subject||Khabarovsk Krai|
|Administrative district||Vaninsky District|
|• Total||31.54 km2 (12.18 sq mi)|
|Elevation||20 m (70 ft)|
|• Density||540/km2 (1,400/sq mi)|
|• Capital of||Vaninsky District|
|Time zone||UTC+10 (MSK+7 )|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 42137|
|Twin towns||Yeosu, Ishikari|
Vanino (Russian: Ва́нино), an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative center of Vaninsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, operates as a port on the Strait of Tartary. Population: 17,001 (2010 Census); 19,180 (2002 Census); 21,510 (1989 Census).
Vanino is located 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) north (straight-line distance) from Sovetskaya Gavan, but the actual road distance is about twice as much, as the sea coast is highly indented.
The Vanino Harbor, then considered part of Sovetskaya Gavan, received an overland connection with the rest of the USSR with the construction of railway from Komsomolsk-on-Amur (the easternmost section of the future Baikal-Amur Mainline), which was started in 1943 and completed in 1945. Vanino railway station was opened in 1947. That caused quick growth of the port in Vanino Harbor.
During the 1940s, Vanino, along with Vladivostok, was a major port for shipping convicts from the "mainland" USSR to Magadan, the port for the Kolyma Gulag labor camps. In post-Stalin era, the importance of the port continued to increase, as it provided the shortest connection to the seaports of Russian north-east. The cargo volumes handled by the port peaked in 1989, at 11.5 million tons. In 2005, the volume was 6.2 million tons.
Vanino is an important port on the Strait of Tartary (northernmost part of Sea of Japan), served by the BAM railway line. The settlement's economic significance is based on its port, which is among the ten largest ports of Russia measured by its cargo-handling volume.
As of 2009, Vanino is a hub (and the main mainland railway connection) for the Sakhalin Shipping Company, which runs regular cargo boats from this port to Magadan, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, and Pusan. Since 1973, this company has also operated an icebreaker vehicular, passenger, and Vanino-Kholmsk train ferry, providing an important connection between Sakhalin and the Russian mainland.
Vanino is Russia's second largest coal port on the Pacific after Vostochny Port (near Nakhodka), with between 15 million tons and 20 million tons of coal being handled per year. One of Russia's largest coal producers, Mechel constructed its own terminal in Vanino to supply coal-hungry Asian markets. The new terminal was completed in 2012 and was initially predicted to have the capacity to handle 25 million tons per year. In 2018, the port of Vanino is expected to ship approximately 20 million tons of coal. Russia’s largest coal producer, SUEK, has plans to expand the port of Vanino and raise its exports more than 80%, to 40 million tons per year. This expansion is to meet the rising demand for coal in the Asian market. The Russian Energy Minister Alexander Novak has announced plans to double Russia’s coal exports to Asia by 2025, another catalyst for the SUEK expansion. 
- "История". Russian. Ванинский муниципальный район. Retrieved November 1, 2011. Check date values in:
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
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- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- "Vanino Commercial Sea Port". City Business Promotion Centre Ltd. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
- SASCO: Vanino-Kholmsk (in Russian)
- Vanino Oil Terminal (Transbunker Group)
- "Russia Seeks Expansion to Asian Coal Market Despite Strong Competition". Russia Business Today. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
- Край от севера до юга
- Central & Eastern European Directory On-Line. Information about Vanino Commercial Sea Port
- Official website of Vaninsky District (in Russian)
- Vanino travel guide from Wikivoyage