Page protected with pending changes

Vape shop

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A vape shop in Lincoln, Nebraska, Unites States.
A vape shop in Lincoln, Nebraska, Unites States.[1]

A vape shop[notes 1] is a retail outlet specializing in the selling of electronic cigarette products.[26] There are also online vape shops.[27] A vape shop offers a range of e-cigarette products.[28] The majority of vape shops do not sell e-cigarette products that are from "Big Tobacco" companies.[29] In 2013, online search engine searches on vape shops surpassed searches on e-cigarettes.[30] Around a third of all sales of e-cigarette products take place in vape shops.[31] Big Tobacco believes the independent e-cigarette market is a threat to their interests.[31]

Effective August 8, 2016, under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules, a vape shop that mixes or prepares e-liquids, or makes or modifies any kind of e-cigarettes, is regulated as a tobacco product manufacturer.[32] The FDA acknowledged that many vape shops will go out of business, but they also state many will stay open, despite hefty costs.[33] Vape shop owner Joe Baba in the US believes a ban on public vaping might put several vape shops out of business because taste-testing would be prohibited.[34] The revised EU Tobacco Products Directive came into effect May 2016 which regulates the sale and marketing of e-cigarettes.[35] Small business owners are concerned that the regulations will make e-cigarettes less interesting to consumers and that this means a downturn of their business.[36]

Vape trade shows have an array of product vendors, seminars, social interactions with other vapers, parties, gifts, vaping contests, and other activities.[37] Vape shows are free to attend or have an entrance fee that cost from $10 to $25.[37] In 2014, vaping contests at vape trade shows such as "cloud-chasing" were rare.[37] By 2015, close to 50% of vaping trade show organizations promoted contests such as cloud-chasing.[37] Vape trade shows are increasing in popularity and regularity.[37] Vape shop owners, agents, distributors, and vapers attend trade shows.[38]

Store[edit]

Selection[edit]

Interior view of a vape shop in Orange, California, Unites States.
Interior view of a vape shop in Orange, California, Unites States.

As the tobacco epidemic has increased to include wider use of e-cigarettes, a different kind of retailer has come forth, known as vape shops.[39] A vape shop is a retail outlet focusing in the selling of electronic cigarette products.[26] There are also online vape shops.[27] E-cigarettes products are mainly available online or in dedicated "vape" storefronts.[40] They are also available at grocery stores,[41] coffee shops,[42] conventional retailers,[20] mass merchandisers,[43] mass retailers,[44] tobacco retailers,[20] convenience stores,[44] gas stations,[45] dollar stores,[46] drug stores,[47] liquor stores,[48] shopping malls,[49] and at small kiosks in shopping malls.[50] The major sellers for e-cigarette products are vape shops, supermarkets, online vendors, and tobacco shops.[51]

A vape shop offers a range of e-cigarette products.[28] They do not customarily sell tobacco products.[52] Vape shops generally have an antagonistic relationship with the tobacco industry.[29] The majority of vape shops do not sell e-cigarette products that are from "Big Tobacco" companies.[29] Big Tobacco believes the independent e-cigarette market is a threat to their interests.[31] The existence of some "vape and smoke" shops are opposed by most of the vape shop industry, based on anecdotal evidence.[53] Retailers specializing in tobacco such as smoke shops and head shops have started selling an assortment of vaping products along with their regular products.[52] These vendors such as smoke shops and head shops are generally opposed by vaping purists and advocacy groups.[52] Brands owned by tobacco companies offered a limited range of e-cigarette products, whereas brands owned by vape shops emphasized a panoply of flavor and nicotine options.[54]

By 2014 all the major multinational tobacco companies had entered the e-cigarette market.[55] They did so either by buying existing e-cigarette companies (including Ruyan, the original Chinese e-cigarette company, which was bought by Imperial Tobacco) or by developing their own products.[55] Although there continue to be independently owned vape shops, from economic and political perspectives the e-cigarette business is now part of the traditional tobacco industry.[55] The smaller operators, who are independent sellers of e-cigarettes (so-called vape shops), are losing market share to the large tobacco companies.[55]

E-cigarettes at a gas station.
E-cigarettes at a gas station.

Vape shops can offer a greater selection of e-cigarettes than conventional retailers.[7] While vape shops offer mostly reusable e-cigarettes, cig-a-likes are mostly available at convenience stores.[56] Vape shops often sell later-generation devices different from the cig-a-likes usually sold by tobacco stores.[57] Vape shops offer a diverse assortment of refillable e-cigarettes and more complex tank devices for experienced users.[53]

Vape shops typically offer a diverse selection of e-liquids,[58] while convenience stores offer some e-liquids.[59] Vape shops can buy e-liquids containing 100 mg/mL and dilute them according to the patron's preference.[60] Vape shops offer several kinds of solution strengths.[53] Some retail stores are also manufacturers that create custom flavors, which increases the variety of flavors available.[61] Flavors such as chocolate, caramel, mint, menthol, coffee, cherry, and apple can be added to the liquid nicotine.[60] Oils and wax for use in reusable vaporizers have been available.[62] Herbs for vaping are also sold.[63] Local vape shops in Wilson County, North Carolina sold e-cigarettes known as Black Magic.[64] After several complaints from concerned parents received by the sheriff's office an investigation uncovered high-school students were buying Black Magic.[64] The North Carolina State Bureau of Investigation tests indicated they contained cannabidiol, or CBD oil, and also synthetic cannabinoids, which are against the law in the state.[64] The Black Magic that were sold at these shops stated on the packaging, "legal in all 50 states."[64] Officials stated they seized numerous Black Magic packages.[64] Inexpensive lithium-ion batteries may be sold at local vape shops.[65] Vape shops may carry vaping magazines and may offer accessories such as clothing, bags, wooden cases for the e-liquid,[28] and vape carrying cases.[66] A handful of vape shops sell antique signs and trinkets to decorate where you live or crafts from regional artists.[67] Many small vape shops are selling e-cigarette products made from China.[68]

Design and layout[edit]

They vary in design and product selection.[28] There are shops that look a bit similar to bars.[28] There are shops that have a lounge where people can drink a beverage as they vape.[28] Vape shops sometimes include a café or other elements that promote socializing, essentially making such places like a lounge.[69] A vape shop in Anderson, CA also sells vaping products via drive-through.[70] A vape shop in Elkton, Maryland also sells beer and food.[71] A vape shop in Ottawa, Illinois provides a socializing area with a sofa and television.[72] There are shops that have a vape bar where patrons can test out different e-liquids and socialize.[1] Vape shops having lounge areas, food and beverage amenities, and entertainment may furnish a social setting for vaping that may entice newbie e-cigarette users and non-smokers alike.[41] Hardly any vape shops have a photo booth.[67] A small number of vape shops offer patrons the opportunity to vape via a hookah.[67] A few vape shops double as art galleries.[73] Vape shop tenants are usually interested in a location between 1,200 and 1,500 square feet.[49]

Marketing and events[edit]

E-cigarette retailer marketing sign in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York, Unites States. The sign states, "F#@K Big Tobacco, vape on, and free tastings".
E-cigarette retailer marketing sign in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York, Unites States.

Many e-cigarette companies have proposed to retailers the idea to convert part of their current location into a mini vape shop.[30] The markup for traditional cigarettes is 10–20%, but e-cigarette dispensers, nicotine cartridges, and accessories are as high 200–400% markup.[74] US vape shops generate around $26,000 in monthly sales.[75] In San Francisco, e-liquids, not the devices, were the main source of income for vape shops.[39] US vape shop owners intend to capitalize on medical marijuana-related sales.[76] In the UK in 2018, there is increased competition among vape shops because more shops have opened.[77]

"Vape shops intend to make potential customers aware of their existence and curious about visiting a shop and engaging in vaping. They also intend to make the shop accessible to encourage sales of e-cigarette-related products (vaping equipment, e-liquids, and hobby-related items such as t-shirts and magazines). Barker and colleagues interviewed vape shop owners/managers in 37 vape shops and observed availability, price, promotion and placement of vaping products and e-liquids across nine USA cities: Atlanta, Chicago, Henderson, Phoenix, Oklahoma City, San Jose, Seattle, Thousand Oaks, and Ventura. A majority of vape shops primarily use social media outlets (e.g. 100% Facebook, 86% Instagram and Yelp, 65% Twitter, 38% YouTube) and special events open to the community (57%) for marketing. Few stores reported using print or broadcast media, with radio being the most popular venue (19%). About half (51%) of stores had external advertisements, and almost one-third had no signage related to sales to minors," according to a 2017 report.[53]

Vape shops have used the game Pokémon Go to market their products.[78] "From July to October 2016, several vape shops and online retailers have incorporated Pokémon Go as part of promotions on Twitter, linking game performance with discounts on their products," a 2017 report stated.[78] Vape shops have also set up local events to join Pokémon Go activities with vaping promotional contests.[78]

In 2015, "Cloud-chasing", the activity of blowing the largest clouds of vapor, were becoming a routine event at local vape shops.[79] Many vape shops organize cloud-chasing events.[80] Cloud-chasing contests appear to be intended to bring in new shoppers and increase e-cigarette business.[81] Vape shops have held music concerts at night.[82]

Marketing of e-cigarettes by tobacco shops was limited, with most responding that they do not market e-cigarettes, according to a 2018 report.[83] Almost half have used social media, with others relying on word of mouth and price promotions.[83] Vape shops utilized more diverse marketing channels, including radio, print media, and word of mouth.[83] In-store marketing has been increasing, as of 2016.[83] The most common form of marketing by vape shops is social media, which all vape shops cited using for marketing, the 2018 report concluded.[83]

Customer experience[edit]

A photo of a juice bar mixing station at a vape shop in January 2016.
A photo of a juice bar mixing station at a vape shop in January 2016.[84]

Most vape shop customers are people who are interested in reducing or quitting smoking.[85] Some are long-term e-cigarette users.[86] The average customer age is from 40-45.[87] Vape shop customers visit their local vape shop for personalized e-cigarette advice.[88] Vape shop retail workers may show potential customers how to use different e-cigarettes and how to fill the devices with e-liquid.[1] A "vapologist" may give advise to potential customers to choosing an e-liquid.[89] Patrons are permitted to vape in most vape shops.[80] Almost all vape shops do not allow smoking.[90]

Some US vape shop owners choose not to sell vaping products to minors.[91] The City Council of Malden, Massachusetts received quite a few complaints following a vape shop opening near the Mystic Valley Regional Charter School.[92] The school board of Howe Sound Secondary School in Squamish, British Columbia is concerned a vape shop could open close to the high school.[93] In June 2017 Christina Moore on behalf of the District of Squamish wrote in an email, "the District has no means to withhold such a business licence if all of our regulatory requirements are met."[93] The vape shop marketed flavored e-cigarettes that appeared to target a younger audience.[92] Pleasantville, New York Board of Education officials in 2017 were concerned over a vape shop opening near schools, learning centers and other locations attended by young people.[94] New Rochelle, New York officials in 2017 proposed regulation to stop smoke and vape shops from selling nicotine-based products within 500 feet of youth-based institutions.[95] "Vape shops in general have received a bad rep for their social element and for allegedly marketing toward children," Chris Bouton, a vape shop owner in Ypsilanti, Michigan, said in 2016.[96] Vape shop owners support prohibiting the sales of e-cigarettes to children.[97] In 2016-2017 in the UK, vape shops were the top destination for buying e-cigarettes among previous-year smokers.[98] A 2016 Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use UK survey found 37% of e-cigarette users of those 11-15 years of age stated they purchased an e-cigarette at a vape shop.[99] About 25% of 11-15 year olds of respondents in a UK survey stated buying e-cigarettes from vape shops, among those who vape and smoke.[100] The top destination to buy e-cigarettes in regular users of those 11-15 years of age was a vape shop, with 24% stating buying them from these shops.[101]

Studies focused on vape shops are limited.[83] A 2018 study of e-cigarette users in the East Anglia region of England found e-cigarette users reported that vape shops were very attentive to their needs related to e-cigarette use.[102] In order to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace, vape shop owners and managers commonly stated that they distinguish their stores from others through customer service and new products, according to a 2018 report.[83] These findings support previous studies which found vape shops build rapport with customers and create an atmosphere around vaping which allows for interaction, builds a sense of community, and attracts customers.[83] The relational dimension of vape shops may contribute to the spread of information about e-cigarettes including new products, forms of use, and health-related issues.[83] Thus, while the US FDA has required warning labels on products and advertisements, it cannot control what vape shop owners and staff communicate to their customers or where they get information.[83] Vape shops are not only retail outlets where products are made available; they also act as a center of activity for the vape community for information about e-cigarettes.[83]

In-store observations[edit]

Vape shop employees were commonly former smokers who generally were presently e-cigarettes users, and employees shared their thoughts using e-cigarettes and moving away from cigarettes.[39] Michelle LaBarbera, representing the Vapor Group Inc. located in Davie, Florida, said in 2014, "A very big part of employment at a vape shop is not just understanding how the product works and being able to explain it, but also being able to figure out what may be wrong with it."[59] Vape shops occasionally provide inaccurate information.[39] Of the 77 vape shops in the Los Angeles Basin, 50% of the vape shops had let people test e-liquids consisting of nicotine.[103] 83% of the vape shops had self-service testing areas for patrons.[103] The majority of vape shops let patrons to test several kinds of e-liquids.[53] Other retailers do not provide sampling of e-liquids.[53] 72% of vape shop workers stated that spills of e-liquids consisting of nicotine had happened.[103] 64% of the vape shops had safety gear, whereas 34% had gear for appropriate nicotine handling.[103] In addition, 62% of vape shop workers stated they picked up nicotine absent of gloves or other safety protection.[103]

A 2016 study analyzed 23 vape shops in the San Francisco Bay Area offering e-cigarettes and e-liquid.[53] Every retailer sold e-liquid containing no nicotine.[53] 91% had free e-liquid samples.[53] 57% of those having free samples available merely had e-liquid without nicotine available.[53] Many vape shops began charging for samples, such as a $1 fee, that get around the FDA rules of giving away free samples, based on anecdotal evidence.[53] Every vape shop retailer sold second-generation and third-generation e-cigarettes, and just 17% of vape shops sold first-generation e-cigarettes.[53] Employees said about 72% of their shoppers purchased e-cigarettes for quitting smoking or as an alternative to tobacco use, and 10% for using recreationally for the first-time.[53] Six shops stated there were shoppers that were young adult enthusiasts such cloud-chasers.[53] A 2014 study evaluated the amounts of nicotine in 70 e-liquid bottles from 16 unlicensed vape shops.[104] 17% of the samples tested had greater concentrations of nicotine than stated on the labels.[104] One sample had a 172% greater amount of nicotine than indicated on the label.[104]

In January 2017 an e-cigarette blew up in a man's hands while trying it out in a vape shop.[105] In April 2016 a minor lost the ability to see in one eye and was burned when a vape shop employee in a Brooklyn, New York mall inserted the incorrect battery into an e-cigarette and it blew up.[106] Vape shop owners said e-cigarette battery blasts are avoidable if users are cautious and adhere to battery safety directions.[107] Local vape shop owners stated the risk from an e-cigarette blast is small.[108] It is recommended that if the batteries wrapper is tarnished do not use it or go to a vape shop to check if it can be fixed.[109]

A 2017 United States Department of Health and Human Services report stated, "We detected the presence of metals, such as chromium, lead, copper, and nickel on surfaces in the shop. This finding was not surprising given that these metals have also been measured by other researchers in e-liquids (chromium, lead, and nickel) and in vapor from e-cigarettes (chromium, nickel, and copper) Some of the other elements that we detected on surfaces are found in human sweat (calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorous [sic]). It is unknown if their presence on surfaces was from e-cigarettes, people touching surfaces, or both."[84]

In-store air quality[edit]

Highlights of concerns from a 2017 United States Department of Health and Human Services report regarding exposure to vaping-related chemicals in a vape shop.
Highlights of concerns from a 2017 United States Department of Health and Human Services report regarding exposure to vaping-related chemicals in a vape shop.[84]

A 2017 United States Department of Health and Human Services report evaluated concerns about exposure to vaping-related chemicals in a vape shop.[84] Exposure to flavoring chemicals (diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, acetaldehyde), formaldehyde, nicotine, and propylene glycol were all below occupational exposure limits (OELs).[84] They found that not all employees wore chemical protective gloves when handling liquids containing nicotine.[84] They saw chemicals being stored in a refrigerator used for food.[84] The 2017 United States Department of Health and Human Services report concluded, "Employees were exposed to detectable levels of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in the air while working in the vape shop. Although the measured concentrations were below all applicable OELs, to better protect the health of employees we recommend that the employer implement a policy prohibiting vaping in the work place with e-liquids that contain diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. The concentration of other vaping-related chemicals that we measured were also below their relevant OELs. Employees should be trained on proper chemical handling procedures and the need for consistent use of chemical protective nitrile gloves when handling liquids containing nicotine."[84] "EC aerosols generated in a vape shop can travel into a nearby business where they deposit on surfaces forming [EC exhaled aerosol residue] ECEAR," according to a 2018 report.[110]

Store owners[edit]

Vape shops are mainly small, independent businesses.[111] They are started by owners of tobacco retailers and small bands of investors.[74] There are also regional chains.[112] The majority of vape shops are owned by individuals who vape.[59] Vape shop owners mainly use the internet to get information on e-cigarettes, rather than rely on science-based evidence.[39] The main source of information on e-cigarette products for vape shops is social media channels.[113] Information is also obtained from e-cigarette company sales representatives and vape product warehouses, which could play a key role in informing vape shops of new e-cigarette products and in guiding shops on which items to offer and sell.[113] Vape shops owners believe e-cigarettes is a lot safer than traditional cigarettes.[53] Vape shop owners generally believe vaping is a habit.[114] Vape shop owners described e-cigarette use as a hobby.[115] Several vape shop owners stated that vaping provided an option to use nicotine in places where smoking was banned.[115] Vape shop owners did not consider e-liquid nicotine addictive.[114] Many vape shop owners thought that smokers have an addiction to the other chemicals in cigarettes, but not nicotine.[114] Vape shop retailers demonstrated little interest in dealing with nicotine addiction.[39] It has been reported that many vape shop owners do not know all of the substances contained in e-liquids.[116] Some vape shop owners recognized that some e-liquids were made in unsanitary conditions.[115] Retailers said that e-cigarette vapors is made up of merely water vapors, however, the evidence does not support this assertion.[117] According to the view of among vape shop owners, Big Tobacco's entrance in the vaping industry will remain unsettling, as they pay for influence in the marketability of these devices, particularly to a younger audience.[118] Some vape shop owners believed that it would be better if e-cigarettes were not regulated as tobacco products and thought that Big Tobacco was responsible for the proposed FDA rules.[115] A 2018 study found that local vape shops were often unaware of pending regulation in the US.[102] This may be because vape shops struggled just to stay open: 20% of the sample closed over the course of a year, a 2018 report stated.[102]

Prevalence[edit]

Vape shops are becoming increasingly popular.[119] Over the few years leading up to 2018, vape shops have proliferated in a number of countries such as the US, at retail locations, as well as online.[120] Over the few years leading up to 2015, vape shops have increased in a number of countries.[29] As of 2015, vape shops are commonly found in Nova Scotia.[121] In 2013, online search engine searches on vape shops surpassed searches on e-cigarettes.[30] The markup of e-cigarettes as high as 200–400% may play a role in the prevalence of vape shops.[29] Worldwide, retailers have sold millions of devices.[122] Around a third of all sales of e-cigarette products take place in vape shops.[31] In 2017, vape shops were believed to produce the highest sales for the e-cigarette market.[51] For the UK in 2018, retailer vape shops were the most prevalence point of purchase, with above 40% of sales.[100]

Vape shops in the US have emerged in large cities, and additionally in smaller metropolitan places.[41] In 2014, the Smoke-Free Alternatives Trade Association estimated that there were 35,000 vape shops in the US, more than triple the number a year earlier.[123] In 2016 data provided from Yelp showed that the western states are the hub of the e-cigarette business.[124] The availability of vaping products in US stores is increasing, especially in places with low taxes and smoking bans.[125] As of 2017, new vape shops are opening, in some cases close to schools.[126] Vape shops in the US are more frequently to be located close to private universities and colleges in cities rather than rural places.[127] In the US, e-cigarettes sold at retailers are more likely available in places with a higher median family income.[128] Vape shops in southern California are found in places with a higher percentage of the Hispanic population, a 2018 report suggests.[129] E-cigarettes sold at retailers is greater in US states with minimal clean indoor air policies and in areas with low cigarette taxes.[128] Vape shops in the US are frequently located in census tracts where retailing of tobacco is strong, and where less racial minorities reside.[31] Vape shops were more frequent in places where more White people reside.[39] Vape shops in the US are more frequently located in places where people with a greater possibility for vaping and smoking reside.[57]

There are numerous vape shops in Canada.[130] In 2015, there were about 8,000 vape shops in the UK.[36] Poorer areas in the UK have had an increase in the number of vape shops.[131] In December 2015, there were 2,400 vape shops in France, 400 fewer than in March of the same year.[132] Industry organization Fivape said the reduction was due to consolidation, not to reduced demand.[132]

Regulations[edit]

United States[edit]

The FDA explains what a vape shop is, among other information.
The FDA explains what a vape shop is, among other information.[133]

Effective August 8, 2016, under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules, a vape shop that mixes or prepares e-liquids, or makes or modifies any kind of e-cigarettes, is regulated as a tobacco product manufacturer.[32] The categorization of vape shops that make or modify e-cigarettes including e-liquids as manufacturers mandating abiding with the FDA manufacturing standards, have been extended to August 8, 2022.[53] Vape shops cannot hand out free samples to patrons or sell to individuals under 18 years of age.[134] Individuals under the age of 18 are not allowed to handle e-cigarette devices.[106] Retailers are required to ask for photo ID from patrons who look to be under 27 years of age.[135] "One of the most important provisions to help reduce youth access to tobacco products is the prohibition on free samples of tobacco products," FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb stated in October 2017.[136] "With more youth using e-cigarettes than any other tobacco product, it’s critical that manufacturers and retailers understand how we intend to enforce this provision," he added.[136] The FDA sends undercover minors into vape shops to attempt to buy e-cigarette products.[137] The purpose of this operation is to ensure retailers do not violate federal regulations.[137] Five individuals were arrested for selling e-cigarette products to patrons under 21 years of age at vape shops in Suffolk County, New York in December 2017, local police stated.[138] There are no strict FDA rules in regard to the age of people who enter vape shops.[139]

The significant increase in employees directly telling customers of free e-cigarette puff trial offers rather than posting displays of the offers in the shop suggest retailers are finding ways around the impending FDA regulations by not having displays but still engaging in the (soon-to-be illegal) behavior.[113] This may signify that awareness of, but not necessarily compliance with, the impending rules is occurring in the vape marketplace.[113] Effective May 10 2018, vape shop retailers were prohibited from selling or distributing e-cigarettes or other vape products without including a health warning statement on the product packaging and from displaying e-cigarette or other vape product advertisements without including a health warning statement on the ads.[113]

In 2018 the FDA investigated JUUL to determine if they are marketing its e-cigarette that looks like a USB flash drive to youth.[140] Two vape shops in New Jersey were notified by the FDA in April 2018 to stop selling JUUL e-cigarettes to minors.[141] "The illegal sale of these JUUL products to minors is concerning. In fact, just since the beginning of March, FDA compliance checks have uncovered 40 violations for illegal sales of JUUL products to youth. The FDA has issued 40 warning letters for those violations, which we are also announcing today. This includes warning letters that are the result of the blitz. Others are a result of our sustained enforcement efforts to reduce tobacco product sales to minors. And we anticipate taking many more similar actions as a result of the ongoing blitz and our focus on enforcement related to youth access," FDA Commissioner Dr. Scott Gottlieb stated on April 24, 2018.[142] The FDA announced several new actions and efforts aimed at doing just that as the first steps in a new Youth Tobacco Prevention Plan focused on stopping youth use of tobacco products, and in particular, e-cigarettes.[142] The FDA also sent an official request for information directly to JUUL Labs, requiring the company to submit important documents to better understand the reportedly high rates of youth use and the particular youth appeal of these products.[142] In response, JUUL Labs announced in April 2018 the programs they are initiating to prevent young people from using their products.[143]

The revised FDA rules banned sales to minors, among other things.
The revised FDA rules banned sales to minors, among other things.[133]

Effective June 9, 2016, under California's tobacco laws, the minimum age to purchase tobacco products was raised from 18 to 21 and e-cigarettes were added to the current definition of tobacco products.[144] As part of the rules, e-cigarettes, e-liquids, in addition to vaping devices and accessories, are not permitted to be sold in self-service displays.[145] "Today marks a significant moment in California history as new tobacco control laws go into effect statewide. This is the first time the Golden State has raised the age of sale for tobacco since the law first took effect 144 years ago," said Dr. Karen Smith, California Department of Public Health director and state health officer, on June 9, 2016.[145] "Our focus is on reaching more than 34,000 retailers with tobacco licenses and vape shops to provide them the information and resources needed to comply with the new tobacco 21 law."[145] The California Department of Public Health, Food and Drug Branch is charged with enforcing the Stop Tobacco Access to Kids Enforcement Act, and conducts ongoing illegal sales enforcement operations.[145] California retailers caught selling tobacco products to minors during these enforcement operations are subject to fines up to $6,000.[145]

In May 2016 the FDA used its authority under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act to deem e-cigarette devices and e-liquids to be tobacco products, which meant it intended to regulate the marketing, labelling, and manufacture of devices and liquids; vape shops that mix e-liquids or make or modify devices were considered manufacturing sites that needed to register with FDA and comply with good manufacturing practice regulation.[146] Small vape shop businesses are concerned about the FDA regulations.[147] Vape shop owners in the US are concerned about the costs of adhering to the proposed FDA regulations.[148] According to the FDA filing applications will take approximately 1,500 hours to complete with a price between $117,000 to $466,000.[149] E-cigarette advocates stated filing FDA applications is too expensive for small companies, which will give consumers less options because it is expected only large tobacco companies can afford the steep costs.[150] The concern in the vaping community is the FDA rules will favor large tobacco companies' one-time use e-cigarettes.[151] Vape shop owner Brent Ellis believes the FDA rules might shut down his business.[152]

On May 5, 2016, the FDA announced that all tobacco products will be regulated, including e-cigarettes, which require vape shops to register as tobacco companies.[153] The FDA acknowledged that many vape shops will go out of business, but they also state many will stay open, despite hefty costs.[33] Part of the new law requires products to state nicotine is addictive.[154] As of 2017 sellers of vaping products and other affiliated products in California are obligated to obtain a retailer's license from the California State Board of Equalization.[155] Vape shop owner Joe Baba in the US believes a ban on public vaping might put several vape shops out of business because taste-testing would be prohibited.[34] Cheryl Jones, a vape shop co-owner in DuBois, Pennsylvania said in June 2016 that she believes that the FDA rules will eliminate 90% of the items sold at vape shops.[156] The American Vaping Association said it could cost upwards of a $1 million to get a new product approved by the FDA.[157] Most vaping products must adhere to the FDA rules in order to be legally sold.[158] E-cigarette and tobacco companies have recruited lobbyists in an effort to prevent the FDA from evaluating e-cigarette products or banning existing products already on the market.[159] In 2016, some big companies have taken legal action disputing the FDA regulations.[160] In January 2018, vape shops in 5 US states have taken legal action disputing a rule established by the FDA that declares e-cigarettes and similar devices to be regulated as tobacco products.[161] The FDA is planning on banning the sale of e-liquid flavors at convenience stores and gas stations.[162] Tobacco, mint, and menthol flavors will still be allowed at convenience stores, gas stations, and other places where they are sold.[162] Fruity-type flavors can only be sold at places where adults shop, such as vape shops.[162]

Europe[edit]

The revised EU Tobacco Products Directive came into effect May 2016 which regulates the sale and marketing of e-cigarettes.[35] Small business owners are concerned that the regulations will make e-cigarettes less interesting to consumers and that this means a downturn of their business.[36] Tank devices can be up to 2 ml in capacity.[163] E-liquid packages can be sold for up to 10 ml.[163] Vape shops in the UK are not permitted to sell vaping products to minors.[164] The law is intended to prevent children from having access to all types of tobacco and nicotine.[165] The Independent British Vape Trade Association has a 15-point voluntary code of conduct.[166] Along with asking shops to not deliberately sell their products to minors, to refrain from asserting health benefits from using e-cigarettes and comply with the law, it states the following: "Vape products are for current or former smokers and existing users of vaping devices, therefore [you should] never knowingly sell to anyone who is not a current or former smoker, or a current vaper."[166] Close to 9 out of 10 vape shops in the UK are breaching the Independent British Vape Trade Association's code of conduct by offering e-cigarettes to never-smokers,[167] according to an undercover investigation by the Royal Society for Public Health.[168] The Royal Society for Public Health is insisting vape shops to abide by the industry's code of conduct.[169]

Canada[edit]

In late November 2015, Bill 44 was passed by the National Assembly, which regulates e-cigarettes as tobacco products in Quebec, Canada.[170] It bans using e-cigarettes in vape shops, bans indoor displays and advertising, and bans sales on their websites.[171] Vaping is prohibited in the same places as smoking.[172] E-cigarettes are banned in restaurants and bar patios.[173] E-cigarette use in enclosed public spaces is no longer legal.[174] Patrons are no longer permitted to try out products inside a vape shop.[174] Vape shops owners in Quebec state the revised law is harming their business.[174] In November 2015 the Council of Saskatchewan voted to ban vaping wherever smoking is banned, except for vape shops.[175] Jennifer Miller, representing the Lung Association of Saskatchewan, said they are primarily concerned for employees of vape shops who will inhale exhaled e-cigarette vapor.[175] She said, "It’s a lot of exposure for the lungs in a 40-hour work-week."[175]

Trade show[edit]

A bird's-eye view of the Electronic Cigarette Convention in Anaheim, California, United States in 2013.
A bird's-eye view of the Electronic Cigarette Convention in Anaheim, California, United States in 2013.

Vape trade shows have an array of product vendors, seminars, social interactions with other vapers, parties, gifts, vaping contests, and other activities.[37] By 2015, the number of vaping trade show organizations arranging vape trade shows had grown to 41.[37] This includes 90 trade shows, with 6 set for 2016 in 8 countries.[37] Vape shows were organized in 26 US states.[37] They ranged from smaller local shows to large shows jumping around among cities.[37] Most vape show organizations are in the US.[37] Others are in Belgium, Canada, China, France, Germany, South Africa, and the United Kingdom.[37] Vape shows are free to attend or have an entrance fee that cost from $10 to $25.[37] In 2014, vaping contests at vape trade shows such as cloud-chasing were rare.[37] By 2015, close to 50% of vaping trade show organizations promoted contests such as cloud-chasing.[37] Vaping at the shows is permitted and encouraged, which lead to photo and video footage displayed on show Websites.[37] Every show provided sponsors or vendors that offered for sale their products at the shows, which support people to observe and use vaping products.[37] Vaping is permitted in places for vaping shows while vaping is prohibited in those places for other events.[176] In July 2015, a New Jersey vape trade show was fined for breaching the state’s 2010 indoor smoke-free law, which bans vaping indoors.[37] Vape trade shows are increasing in popularity and regularity.[37]

Vape shows include VapeBash, VapeCon, VapeXpo[177] Vapestock, Vape-a-Palooza, Vapetoberfest, Vapor Gras,[178] and Canada Vape Expo.[179] Vape Fest, which started in 2010, is an annual vape show hosted by different cities across the US.[180] The first annual Electronic Cigarette Convention began in September 2013 at the Anaheim Convention Center, in Anaheim, California.[181] Vape Summit started in 2013.[182] World Vapor Expo began in 2014 at Rosemont, Illinois, US.[183] World Vapor Expo was held in Miami, Florida, US in 2017.[184] E-cigarette marketing approaches at the 2017 World Vapor Expo included providing samples of candy flavored e-liquids along with actual matching candy samples.[184] A 2018 report stated, "E-cigarette marketing strategies such as those observed at the 2017 World Vapor Expo echo earlier cigarette promotions infamously used by the tobacco industry to attract consumers, most notably teenagers."[184] Oregon Vape Festival began in January 2015.[185] In May 2015 at Vape Summit 3 in Las Vegas, there was a cloud-chasing competition.[186] Vaper Expo UK began in 2016 at Birmingham, UK.[187] In May 2016 Vape Summit was held in Paris, France.[188] VapeShow Prague in the Czech Republic began in 2016.[189] The Hall of Vape in Messe Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany is an annual event held in May.[190] Vape Expo China, which started in 2015, is an annual vape show held in different cities in China.[191] Vape shop owners, agents, distributors, and vapers attended the trade show.[191] Vape Expo Japan was held from March 29 to March, 31 2018 in Osaka, Japan.[38] Approximately 180 exhibitors from at least 25 countries attended the show.[38] The VapEvent 2018 is mainly a trade show for businesses.[192]

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Vape shop is also variously known as a vape bar,[2] vaping bar,[3] vape lounge,[4] vaping lounge,[5] vape outlet,[6] e-cigarette vape store,[7] ENDS retailer,[8] ENDS vape store,[7] vape store,[9] vapor store,[10] vapor shop,[11] vaping shop,[12] vaping store,[13] electronic cigarette shop,[14] e-cigarette shop,[15] e-cig shop,[16] EC shop,[17] EC lounge,[17] e-cigarette specialty shop,[18] e-cigarette specialty store,[19] electronic cigarette retail outlet,[20] e-cigarette retail outlet,[21] electronic cigarette store,[22] electronic cig store,[23] e-cigarette store,[24] or e-cig store.[25]

Bibliography[edit]

  • McNeill, A; Brose, LS; Calder, R; Bauld, L; Robson, D (February 2018). "Evidence review of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products 2018" (PDF). UK: Public Health England. pp. 1–243.
  • Stratton, Kathleen; Kwan, Leslie Y.; Eaton, David L. (January 2018). "Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes" (PDF). National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. National Academies Press: 1–774. doi:10.17226/24952. PMID 29894118.
  • "E-Cigarette Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General" (PDF). United States Department of Health and Human Services. Surgeon General of the United States. 2016. pp. 1–298. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Staff (13 February 2014). "Generation V E-Cigarettes and Vape Bar aims to convert smokers to e-cigarettes". Daily Nebraskan.
  2. ^ James F. Peltz; Ronald D. White (5 May 2016). "FDA to begin regulating electronic cigarettes". Los Angeles Times.
  3. ^ Steven Maginnis (17 November 2015). "Montclair Township Council Discusses Invasive Lighting & Head Shops". Baristanet.
  4. ^ Patti Danner (12 February 2016). "Local vape shop set to expand". Greene County Daily World.
  5. ^ "New vaping lounge smoking up in Iowa City". KWWL (TV). 31 March 2014.
  6. ^ Syed Azhar And (18 December 2015). "Trader: Ban vaping and we will go underground". The Star (Malaysia). Star Media Group Berhad.
  7. ^ a b c Kim, Annice E; Loomis, Brett; Rhodes, Bryan; Eggers, Matthew E; Liedtke, Christopher; Porter, Lauren (2016). "Identifying e-cigarette vape stores: description of an online search methodology". Tobacco Control. 25 (e1): e19–e23. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052270. ISSN 0964-4563. PMID 26205913.
  8. ^ Klein, Elizabeth G.; Berman, Micah; Hemmerich, Natalie; Carlson, Cristen; Htut, Susandi; Slater, Michael (2016). "Online E-cigarette Marketing Claims: A Systematic Content and Legal Analysis". Tobacco Regulatory Science. 2 (3): 252–262. doi:10.18001/TRS.2.3.5. ISSN 2333-9748. PMC 4950517. PMID 27446984.
  9. ^ Larry Altman (11 September 2015). "Burglar caught on video in San Pedro vape store break-in". Daily Breeze.
  10. ^ Tackett, Alayna P.; Lechner, William V.; Meier, Ellen; Grant, DeMond M.; Driskill, Leslie M.; Tahirkheli, Noor N.; Wagener, Theodore L. (2015). "Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customers". Addiction. 110 (5): 868–874. doi:10.1111/add.12878. ISSN 0965-2140. PMID 25675943.
  11. ^ Kara Driscoll (1 August 2016). "Company opens fourth vapor shop in Vandalia". Dayton Daily News. Cox Media Group.
  12. ^ David Millward (12 September 2013). "Vaping shop all set to sell e-cigarettes in Caversham". Reading Post.
  13. ^ Danielle Church (12 September 2017). "Detroit Lakes City Council Votes on Raising Purchasing Age on Tobacco". KVRR.
  14. ^ Carrie Rengers (28 July 2014). "Nectar of the Gods Vape Shop to open in Sweetbriar at 21st and Amidon". The Wichita Eagle.
  15. ^ "Tobacconist sues e-cigarette shop". The Connexion. 29 October 2013.
  16. ^ Leah Sottile (8 October 2014). "The Right to Vape". The Atlantic.
  17. ^ a b Pisinger, Charlotta; Døssing, Martin (December 2014). "A systematic review of health effects of electronic cigarettes". Preventive Medicine. 69: 248–260. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.10.009. PMID 25456810.
  18. ^ Rebecca Kurie (22 August 2013). "E-cigarette shop opens in Faribault". Faribault Daily News.
  19. ^ Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M.; Vorapharuek, Patsornkarn; McCarthy, William J. (2016). "E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools". Health & Place. 42: 129–136. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.09.012. ISSN 1353-8292. PMC 5126978. PMID 27770669.
  20. ^ a b c Hahn, Ellen J.; Begley, Kathy; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Johnson, Andrew O.; Mundy, Monica E.; Rayens, Mary Kay (2015). "Electronic Cigarette Retail Outlets and Proximity to Schools". American Journal of Health Promotion. 29 (6): 380–383. doi:10.4278/ajhp.130627-ARB-335. ISSN 0890-1171. PMID 24968182.
  21. ^ Megan Cassella (29 June 2014). "E-cigarette chain hitches a ride on industry's success". The Bulletin (Bend).
  22. ^ Beach Vapor (Open Post) (14 March 2014). "Island Vape Shop - Clearwater Beach Electronic Cigarette Store". Clearwater patch. Patch Media.
  23. ^ Mike Smith (21 August 2014). "E-cig flap: Health worker oversteps law with electronic cig stores". The Montana Standard.
  24. ^ Ben Boettger (28 April 2015). "Kenai vape shop may face problems from smoking bill". Peninsula Clarion.
  25. ^ "Safe E-Cigarette Battery Use Encouraged". TriStateHomepage.com. Nexstar Broadcasting Group. 25 February 2016.
  26. ^ a b Sussman, Steve; Garcia, Robert; Cruz, Tess; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Pentz, Mary; Unger, Jennifer B (2014). "Consumers' perceptions of vape shops in Southern California: an analysis of online Yelp reviews". Tobacco Induced Diseases. 12 (1): 22. doi:10.1186/s12971-014-0022-7. ISSN 1617-9625. PMC 4258055. PMID 25484852.
  27. ^ a b Imogen Groome (14 August 2017). "Vaping 101: Why do I get a burnt taste from my e cig? When and how to change your coil". Metro.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Owen Bennett Jones (6 April 2015). "California vaping: The new subculture". BBC News.
  29. ^ a b c d e Sussman, S.; Baezconde-Garbanati, L.; Garcia, R.; Barker, D. C.; Samet, J. M.; Leventhal, A.; Unger, J. B. (2015). "Commentary: Forces That Drive the Vape Shop Industry and Implications for the Health Professions". Evaluation & the Health Professions. 39: 379–88. doi:10.1177/0163278715586295. ISSN 0163-2787. PMC 5021181. PMID 25967071.
  30. ^ a b c Melissa Vonder Haar (2014). "A Case of the Vapors" (PDF). CSP magazine.
  31. ^ a b c d e Giovenco, Daniel P.; Duncan, Dustin T.; Coups, Elliot J.; Lewis, M. Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D. (2016). "Census tract correlates of vape shop locations in New Jersey". Health & Place. 40: 123–128. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.05.008. ISSN 1353-8292. PMID 27261635.
  32. ^ a b "Vaporizers, E-Cigarettes, and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS)". United States Department of Health and Human Services. United States Food and Drug Administration. 7 August 2016.
  33. ^ a b KFOR-TV & K. Querry, CNN Wire (16 May 2016). "FDA unveils new regulations on tobacco, vaping industry". News Channel 4.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  34. ^ a b "Snohomish County considers ban on e-cigarettes in public". The Seattle Times Company. Associated Press. 11 July 2015.
  35. ^ a b Francesca Washtell (5 May 2016). "EU Tobacco Products Directive chokes off the UK's e-cigarette and vaping market". City A.M.
  36. ^ a b c "Will 2016 be the year that the high street vape shop runs out of puff?". The Economic Voice Ltd. 15 December 2015.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Williams, Rebecca S (2015). "VapeCons: E-cigarette user conventions". Journal of Public Health Policy. 36 (4): 440–451. doi:10.1057/jphp.2015.31. ISSN 0197-5897. PMC 4641520. PMID 26424201.
  38. ^ a b c "Brings A Boom To Vaping Industry In Eastern-Asia Next Spring". Yahoo! News. PR Newswire. 27 November 2017.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g Lee, Joseph G L; Orlan, Elizabeth N; Sewell, Kerry B; Ribisl, Kurt M (2017). "A new form of nicotine retailers: a systematic review of the sales and marketing practices of vape shops". Tobacco Control: tobaccocontrol-2017–054015. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-054015. ISSN 0964-4563. PMID 29208738.
  40. ^ Mike Esterl (29 May 2014). "'Vaporizers' Are the New Draw in E-Cigarettes". The Wall Street Journal.
  41. ^ a b c Lee, Youn Ok; Kim, Annice E (2015). "'Vape shops' and 'E-Cigarette lounges' open across the USA to promote ENDS". Tobacco Control. 24 (4): 410–412. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051437. ISSN 0964-4563. PMID 24727649.
  42. ^ Sæbø, Gunnar; Scheffels, Janne (2017). "Assessing notions of denormalization and renormalization of smoking in light of e-cigarette regulation". International Journal of Drug Policy. 49: 58–64. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.026. ISSN 0955-3959. PMID 28987929.
  43. ^ Giovenco, Daniel P.; Hammond, David; Corey, Catherine G.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Delnevo, Cristine D. (2015). "E-Cigarette Market Trends in Traditional U.S. Retail Channels, 2012–2013". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 17 (10): 1279–1283. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntu282. ISSN 1462-2203. PMC 4683368. PMID 25542918.
  44. ^ a b Huang, Jidong; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J (2014). "The impact of price and tobacco control policies on the demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems". Tobacco Control. 23 (suppl 3): iii41–iii47. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051515. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 4145658. PMID 24935898.
  45. ^ Jennifer Rooney (19 February 2014). "ROONEY: E-cigs carry harmful side effects for smokers, nonsmokers". Daily Nebraskan.
  46. ^ Hosler, Akiko S.; Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R. (2016). "Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003–2015". Preventing Chronic Disease. 13. doi:10.5888/pcd13.160002. ISSN 1545-1151. PMC 4867654. PMID 27172257.
  47. ^ Lee, Andrew H. Y.; Stater, Brian J.; Close, Lanny; Rahmati, Rahmatullah (2015). "Are e-cigarettes effective in smoking cessation?". The Laryngoscope. 125 (4): 785–787. doi:10.1002/lary.24954. ISSN 0023-852X. PMID 25387447.
  48. ^ Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M.; Vorapharuek, Patsornkarn; McCarthy, William J. (2017). "E-cigarette specialty retailers: Data to assess the association between retail environment and student e-cigarette use". Data in Brief. 11: 32–38. doi:10.1016/j.dib.2016.12.022. ISSN 2352-3409. PMID 28127580.
  49. ^ a b Mike Sunnucks (27 January 2014). "Some Phoenix landlords hesitant to lease space to electronic cigarette shops". Phoenix Business Journal.
  50. ^ Goniewicz, M. L.; Kuma, T.; Gawron, M.; Knysak, J.; Kosmider, L. (2012). "Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarettes". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 15 (1): 158–166. doi:10.1093/ntr/nts103. ISSN 1462-2203. PMID 22529223.
  51. ^ a b "E-Cigarette Market to Reach $48 Billion by 2023: P&S Market Research". Yahoo! Finance. GlobeNewswire. 2 January 2018.
  52. ^ a b c Giovenco, Daniel P. (2017). "Smoke Shop Misclassification May Cloud Studies on Vape Shop Density". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntx136. ISSN 1462-2203. PMID 28605478.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Sussman, Steve; Barker, Diana (2017). "Vape Shops: The E-cigarette marketplace". Tobacco Prevention & Cessation. 2 (Supplement). doi:10.18332/tpc/76484. ISSN 2459-3087.
  54. ^ Hsu, Greta; Sun, Jessica Y; Zhu, Shu-Hong (2018). "Evolution of Electronic Cigarette Brands From 2013-2014 to 2016-2017: Analysis of Brand Websites". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 20 (3): e80. doi:10.2196/jmir.8550. ISSN 1438-8871. This article incorporates text by Greta Hsu, Jessica Y Sun, and Shu-Hong Zhu available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  55. ^ a b c d Glantz, Stanton A.; Bareham, David W. (January 2018). "E-Cigarettes: Use, Effects on Smoking, Risks, and Policy Implications". Annual Review of Public Health. 39 (1). doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013757. ISSN 0163-7525. PMID 29323609. This article incorporates text by Stanton A. Glantz and David W. Bareham available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  56. ^ "Foggy frontiers: The rise of the vapor industry in WNC". Mountain Xpress. 16 July 2015.
  57. ^ a b Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang; Catley, Delwyn (2017). "Vape Shop Density and Socio-demographic Disparities: A U.S. Census Tract Analysis". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntx063. ISSN 1462-2203. PMID 28371830.
  58. ^ "E-cigarette industry booming in Saskatchewan". CBC News. 14 August 2014.
  59. ^ a b c Melissa Kress (29 September 2014). "What Vape Shops Have That C-stores Don't". Convenience Store News.
  60. ^ a b Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Prasad, Shikha; Liles, Tylor; Cucullo, Luca (2016). "A Decade of e-Cigarettes: Limited Research & Unresolved Safety Concerns". Toxicology. 365: 67–75. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2016.07.020. ISSN 0300-483X. PMID 27477296.
  61. ^ SGUS 2016, p. 11; Chapter 1.
  62. ^ Juliette Fairley (4 November 2014). "Sales of Vaporizers and E-Liquids Eclipse E-Cigarettes". High Times.
  63. ^ Claire Voon (13 November 2013). "Come Vape At The East Village's Vape Lounge". NYU Local.
  64. ^ a b c d e Olivia Neeley (15 February 2018). "Wilson deputies seize vape liquid made with synthetic pot". The Daily Reflector.
  65. ^ Mike Wehner (16 May 2018). "Florida man killed by exploding vape is the first e-cigarette fatality in the United States". Boy Genius Report.
  66. ^ Becca Clark (20 October 2017). "Top 10 Best Accessories to Purchase at Your Vape Shop". heavy.
  67. ^ a b c Rudy Miller (27 December 2015). "Vape, shop, relax at eclectic College Hill shop". The Express-Times.
  68. ^ Dale Boyd (7 June 2016). "E-cigarette a burning topic with Okanagan shops". Penticton Western News. Black Press.
  69. ^ SGUS 2016, p. 14; Chapter 1.
  70. ^ Jeremy Linder (1 March 2017). "Small businesses see improvement as local vape shop expands". KRCR-TV. Bonten Media Group.
  71. ^ Cheryl Mattix (8 June 2016). "Mattix on Matters: Wesley's to open second vape shop". Cecil Daily.
  72. ^ Stephanie Jaquins (5 March 2015). "Ottawa native opens vape shop". mywebtimes.com.
  73. ^ Nicole Disser (8 May 2015). "'Avant Garde' Vape Shops Double as Art Galleries, But Will They Ever Be Cool?". Bedford + Bowery.
  74. ^ a b Karen E. Klein (October 3, 2013). "E-cigarettes light up outlook for small business". San Francisco Chronicle. Bloomberg News.
  75. ^ "U.S. Vape Shops Average $26K In Monthly Sales, According To Industry Index". TheStreet.com. PR Newswire. 15 December 2015.
  76. ^ Jilian Mince (29 July 2015). "In rise of U.S. vape shops, owners eye new marijuana market". Reuters.
  77. ^ Ben Morris (20 June 2018). "Up in smoke: Is the vape shop boom about to end?". BBC News.
  78. ^ a b c Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Cruz, Tess Boley; Goldenson, Nicholas I; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Chu, Kar-Hai; Pentz, Mary Ann; Unger, Jennifer B (2017). "Electronic cigarette retailers use Pokémon Go to market products". Tobacco Control: tobaccocontrol-2016–053369. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053369. ISSN 0964-4563. PMID 28044010.
  79. ^ Jilian Mincer (1 May 2015). "As youth vaping rises, teens cite the allure of tricks". Reuters.
  80. ^ a b Sussman, Steve; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Garcia, Jocelyn; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Garcia, Robert; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes (2016). "Who walks into vape shops in Southern California?: a naturalistic observation of customers". Tobacco Induced Diseases. 14 (1). doi:10.1186/s12971-016-0082-y. ISSN 1617-9625. PMC 4880826. PMID 27231480.
  81. ^ Eliza Harrison (11 June 2015). "Though unregulated, e-cigarette culture grows". The Santa Fe New Mexican.
  82. ^ Alexis Neely (25 August 2015). "Vape, music and The Wall: Oxford's newest music venue". The Daily Mississippian.
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Yang, Joshua S.; Lee, Esther (2018). "A qualitative assessment of business perspectives and tactics of tobacco and vape shop retailers in three communities in Orange County, CA, 2015–2016". Archives of Public Health. 76 (1). doi:10.1186/s13690-018-0307-z. ISSN 2049-3258. PMC 6193290. PMID 30349691. This article incorporates text by Joshua S. Yang and Esther Lee available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  84. ^ a b c d e f g h M. Zwack, Leonard; B. Stefaniak, Aleksandr; F. LeBouf, Ryan (July 2017). "Evaluation of Chemical Exposures at a Vape Shop" (PDF). United States Department of Health and Human Services; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. pp. 1–24. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  85. ^ Mark Tyndall (30 August 2016). "Opinion: Getting regulations right on vapour products". Postmedia Network. Postmedia News.
  86. ^ Sara Royle (4 September 2016). "Kendal vape shop owner dismisses new research". The Westmorland Gazette.
  87. ^ Valerie Miller (28 August 2016). "New FDA regulations could damage Nevada's vapor industry". Las Vegas Sun. Greenspun Media Group.
  88. ^ Polosa, Riccardo; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Cibella, Fabio; Le-Houezec, Jacques (2015). "Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 12 (4): 3428–3438. doi:10.3390/ijerph120403428. ISSN 1660-4601. PMC 4410194. PMID 25811767.
  89. ^ Daniel Krieger (9 January 2014). "E-Cigarette Shops Open Even as City Cracks Down". The New York Times.
  90. ^ David Falchek (7 June 2015). "Vaping takes hold in NEPA, health benefits hazy". The Scranton Times-Tribune.
  91. ^ Brendaliss Gonzalez (3 July 2015). "Number of teens using e-cigarettes triples; few in metro monitoring to see how they're getting them". E. W. Scripps Company.
  92. ^ a b Aaron Leibowitz (28 April 2017). "Council to discuss zoning for pot, tobacco, alcohol shops". GateHouse Media.
  93. ^ a b Steven Chua (30 June 2017). "Schools ask the District to reconsider proposed vape shop". The Squamish Chief.
  94. ^ Michael P. McKinney (1 August 2017). "Pleasantville officials concerned over vape shop". The Journal News.
  95. ^ Dan Reiner (19 June 2017). "New Rochelle mulls banning smoke and vape shops near schools". The Journal News.
  96. ^ Tom Perkins (29 April 2016). "New vape shop planned for downtown Ypsilanti". Advance Digital. Booth Newspapers.
  97. ^ Eli Lehrer (27 October 2015). "Study: E-Cig Bans on Minors Lead to Higher Smoking Rates". The Weekly Standard.
  98. ^ McNeill 2018, p. 95.
  99. ^ McNeill 2018, p. 71.
  100. ^ a b McNeill 2018, p. 39.
  101. ^ McNeill 2018, p. 72.
  102. ^ a b c Sumner, Walton; Farsalinos, Konstantinos (2018). "Lessons and Guidance from the Special Issue on Electronic Cigarette Use and Public Health". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (7): 1338. doi:10.3390/ijerph15071338. ISSN 1660-4601. This article incorporates text by Walton Sumner and Konstantinos Farsalinos available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  103. ^ a b c d e Garcia, Robert; Allem, Jon; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer; Sussman, Steve (2017). "Employee and customer handling of nicotine-containing e-liquids in vape shops". Tobacco Prevention & Cessation. 2 (Supplement). doi:10.18332/tpc/67295. ISSN 2459-3087. PMC 5484151. PMID 28660255.
  104. ^ a b c Kaur, Gagandeep; Pinkston, Rakeysha; Mclemore, Benathel; Dorsey, Waneene C.; Batra, Sanjay (2018). "Immunological and toxicological risk assessment of e-cigarettes". European Respiratory Review. 27 (147): 170119. doi:10.1183/16000617.0119-2017. ISSN 0905-9180. PMID 29491036.
  105. ^ Jay Nelz (16 January 2017). "Viral: Vape Explodes While Filipino Testing Out The Product At Shop". PhilNews.
  106. ^ a b Stepansky, Joseph; Rayman, Graham (15 April 2016). "Boy, 14, partially blinded by exploding e-cigarette battery; furious family assails airhead Brooklyn vape shop clerk". New York Daily News.
  107. ^ Jim K (26 December 2016). "Explosions Preventable". Spinfuel eMagazine.
  108. ^ Avery Powell (21 December 2016). "Local vape shop responds to demand for e-cigarette recall, review". WHSV-TV.
  109. ^ VapeCentral (30 June 2015). Vaping 101: Everything You Need To Know. VaporHouse. pp. 16–.
  110. ^ Khachatoorian, Careen; Jacob III, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L; Talbot, Prue (2018). "Electronic cigarette chemicals transfer from a vape shop to a nearby business in a multiple-tenant retail building". Tobacco Control: tobaccocontrol-2018–054316. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054316. ISSN 0964-4563. PMID 30158206.
  111. ^ Jilian Mincer (29 July 2015). "In rise of U.S. vape shops, owners eye new marijuana market". Yahoo! News. Reuters.
  112. ^ Lee, Joseph; D’Angelo, Heather; Kuteh, Jaleel; Martin, Ryan (2016). "Identification of Vape Shops in Two North Carolina Counties: An Approach for States without Retailer Licensing". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13 (12): 1050. doi:10.3390/ijerph13111050. ISSN 1660-4601. PMID 27801793.
  113. ^ a b c d e Yu, Sheila; Escobedo, Patricia; Garcia, Robert; Cruz, Tess; Unger, Jennifer; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Meza, Leah; Sussman, Steve (2018). "A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (2): 313. doi:10.3390/ijerph15020313. ISSN 1660-4601. PMID 29439464. This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  114. ^ a b c Cheney, Marshall K.; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin (2016). "Vapor Store Owner Beliefs and Messages to Customers". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 18 (5): 694–699. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntv129. ISSN 1462-2203. PMID 26113622.
  115. ^ a b c d Nayak, Pratibha; Kemp, Catherine B.; Redmon, Pamela (2016). "A Qualitative Study of Vape Shop Operators' Perceptions of Risks and Benefits of E-Cigarette Use and Attitude Toward Their Potential Regulation by the US Food and Drug Administration, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, or North Carolina, 2015". Preventing Chronic Disease. 13. doi:10.5888/pcd13.160071. ISSN 1545-1151. PMC 4877178. PMID 27197081.
  116. ^ dskriloff (7 July 2016). "Vape Culture Grows, Still Nobody Knows". Rockland County Times.
  117. ^ Zainol Abidin, Najihah; Zainal Abidin, Emilia; Zulkifli, Aziemah; Karuppiah, Karmegam; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Amer Nordin, Amer Siddiq (2017). "Electronic cigarettes and indoor air quality: a review of studies using human volunteers". Reviews on Environmental Health. 0 (0). doi:10.1515/reveh-2016-0059. ISSN 2191-0308. PMID 28107173.
  118. ^ Tony Casey (9 August 2016). "Area vape shop owners and tobacco experts at odds over FDA e-cig regulations". Johnson City Press.
  119. ^ Keith Carls (6 July 2015). "SB County Considers E-Cig Ban in Public Places". NPG of California.
  120. ^ Galstyan, Ellen; Galimov, Artur; Sussman, Steve (2018). "Commentary: The Emergence of Pod Mods at Vape Shops". Evaluation & the Health Professions: 016327871881297. doi:10.1177/0163278718812976. ISSN 0163-2787. PMID 30477337.
  121. ^ Selena Ross (24 January 2015). "Vape shops becoming a more common sight across Nova Scotia". CBC News.
  122. ^ Caponnetto, Pasquale; Campagna, Davide; Papale, Gabriella; Russo, Cristina; Polosa, Riccardo (2012). "The emerging phenomenon of electronic cigarettes". Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine. 6 (1): 63–74. doi:10.1586/ers.11.92. ISSN 1747-6348. PMID 22283580.
  123. ^ Esterl, Mike (26 August 2014). "Big Tobacco's E-Cigarette Push Gets a Reality Check". The Wall Street Journal.
  124. ^ Groskopf, Christopher (10 February 2016). "What Yelp data reveal about the sudden rise of vape shops in America". Quartz (publication).
  125. ^ Rose, S. W.; Barker, D. C.; D'Angelo, H.; Khan, T.; Huang, J.; Chaloupka, F. J.; Ribisl, K. M. (2014). "The availability of electronic cigarettes in US retail outlets, 2012: results of two national studies". Tobacco Control. 23 (Supplement 3): iii10–iii16. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051461. ISSN 0964-4563. PMID 24935892.
  126. ^ Rinkoo, ArvindVashishta; Kaur, Jagdish (2017). "Getting real with the upcoming challenge of electronic nicotine delivery systems: The way forward for the South-East Asia region". Indian Journal of Public Health. 61 (5): 7. doi:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_240_17. ISSN 0019-557X. PMID 28928312.
  127. ^ Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang (2016). "Geographic density and proximity of vape shops to colleges in the USA". Tobacco Control: tobaccocontrol-2016–052957. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-052957. ISSN 0964-4563. PMID 27302700.
  128. ^ a b Bhatnagar, A.; Whitsel, L. P.; Ribisl, K. M.; Bullen, C.; Chaloupka, F.; Piano, M. R.; Robertson, R. M.; McAuley, T.; Goff, D.; Benowitz, N. (24 August 2014). "Electronic Cigarettes: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association". Circulation. 130 (16): 1418–1436. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000107. PMID 25156991.
  129. ^ Bostean, Georgiana; Sanchez, Luis; Lippert, Adam M. (2018). "Sociodemographic disparities in e-cigarette retail environment: Vape stores and census tract characteristics in Orange County, CA". Health & Place. 50: 65–72. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.12.004. ISSN 1353-8292. PMID 29414423.
  130. ^ Todd Hambleton (10 June 2016). "Vape Depot opens Cornwall location". Cornwall Standard Freeholder.
  131. ^ "The big smoke". Economist Group. 2 April 2016.
  132. ^ a b Lastennet, Vincent (7 February 2016). "Cigarettes électroniques. Le marché de la vape en deux cartes". Le Télégramme.
  133. ^ a b David Keith (2016). "The "Deeming Rule": Vape Shops" (PDF). United States Department of Health and Human Services. United States Food and Drug Administration.
  134. ^ Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.; Steinberg, Michael B. (2016). "Perspectives for Clinicians on Regulation of Electronic Cigarettes". Annals of Internal Medicine. doi:10.7326/M16-1345. ISSN 0003-4819. PMID 27571380.
  135. ^ Aamer Madhani (8 August 2016). "It's about to get a lot harder for minors to vape". USA Today.
  136. ^ a b Lydia Wheeler (11 October 2017). "FDA: Ban on free tobacco samples includes e-cigs". The Hill.
  137. ^ a b Jim McDonald (23 August 2016). "FDA Using Minors in Sting Ops of Vape Shops". Vaping360.
  138. ^ Priscila Korb; Patch Staff (19 December 2017). "5 Vape Shop Clerks Sold Products To Minors In Suffolk: Police". Patch Media.
  139. ^ Khachatoorian, Careen; Jacob, Peyton; Sen, Amy; Zhu, Yifang; Benowitz, Neal L.; Talbot, Prue (2019). "Identification and quantification of electronic cigarette exhaled aerosol residue chemicals in field sites". Environmental Research. 170: 351–358. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2018.12.027. ISSN 0013-9351. PMID 30623881.
  140. ^ Richtel, Matt; Kaplan, Sheila (27 August 2018). "Did Juul Lure Teenagers and Get 'Customers for Life'?". The New York Times.
  141. ^ Spencer Kent (25 April 2018). "FDA warns 2 N.J. vape shops over sale of Juul e-cigarettes to minors". NJ.com.
  142. ^ a b c Gottlieb, Scott (24 April 2018). "Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on new enforcement actions and a Youth Tobacco Prevention Plan to stop youth use of, and access to, JUUL and other e-cigarettes". United States Department of Health and Human Services. United States Food and Drug Administration. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  143. ^ Janissa Delzo (26 April 2018). "Juul Vape: FDA Begins Nationwide Crackdown on Product and Other E-Cigarette Brands". Yahoo! News.
  144. ^ Susan Abram (9 June 2016). "California snuffs out tobacco sales to teens, but some call new law unfair". Los Angeles Daily News.
  145. ^ a b c d e Ali Bay (9 June 2016). "New California Tobacco Laws Go Into Effect". California Department of Public Health. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  146. ^ "Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products". Federal Register. Food and Drug Administration: 234. 10 May 2016.
  147. ^ Tripp Mickle (7 July 2015). "FDA Cloud Hangs Over Vape Shops". The Wall Street Journal.
  148. ^ F A Kelley (8 July 2015). "New Regulations for Liquid Nicotine Expected to Have Major Impact on Vape Shops". NewsInferno.
  149. ^ Barraza, Leila F.; Weidenaar, Kim E.; Cook, Livia T.; Logue, Andrea R.; Halpern, Michael T. (2017). "Regulations and policies regarding e-cigarettes". Cancer. doi:10.1002/cncr.30725. ISSN 0008-543X. PMID 28440949.
  150. ^ "The government crackdown is here: What the FDA regulations mean for e-cigarettes". MarketWatch. 8 August 2016.
  151. ^ Neal, Meghan (6 May 2014). "The E-Cig Industry Will Choke on New FDA Regulations—Except Big Tobacco". Motherboard.
  152. ^ Gabrielle Komorowski (13 July 2015). "FDA proposes strict regulations for vaping". WYFF.
  153. ^ "New FDA regulations smoke out local vape shop owners". News Channel 10. 16 May 2016.
  154. ^ Shari Rudavsky (9 May 2016). "Indiana vape shop owners say new FDA rule will crush industry". The Indianapolis Star.
  155. ^ Bee Staff Reports (2 January 2017). "E-cigarette sellers now need state license". The Modesto Bee.
  156. ^ Eric Hrin (7 June 2016). "Local vape shop, industry hope for the best". The Courier Express.
  157. ^ Sabrina Tavernise (5 May 2016). "F.D.A. Imposes Rules for E-Cigarettes in a Landmark Move". The New York Times.
  158. ^ Allie Hinds (10 June 2016). "Local vapor shops concerned new FDA rules will shut them down". WJHL.
  159. ^ Eric Lipton (2 September 2016). "A Lobbyist Wrote the Bill. Will the Tobacco Industry Win Its E-Cigarette Fight?". The New York Times.
  160. ^ Elaine Thompson (24 June 2016). "Vape shop owners say new federal regulations could close them down". Telegram & Gazette.
  161. ^ Nate Raymond (30 January 2018). "Vape shops sue to block U.S. regulation covering e-cigarettes". Reuters.
  162. ^ a b c Duprey, Rich (17 November 2018). "Winners and Losers From FDA's New E-Cig Rules". Yahoo! Finance. The Motley Fool.
  163. ^ a b Charles White (10 April 2017). "How strict new e-cig laws coming into force next month will affect you". Metro (British newspaper).
  164. ^ Katrina Chilver (17 March 2017). "Nuneaton market trader claimed she was ill and busy when she sold nicotine products to children". Coventry Telegraph. Trinity Mirror.
  165. ^ Nadia Jefferson-Brown (25 March 2017). "Vape shop worker fined £440". The Press (York). Newsquest.
  166. ^ a b "Vaping shops selling to non-smokers". BBC News. 7 April 2017.
  167. ^ Katie Forster (6 April 2017). "Nine out of 10 vape shops 'break industry code by selling to non-smokers', reveals undercover investigation". The Independent.
  168. ^ "Undercover investigation finds 9 in 10 vape shops prepared to sell to non-smokers". Royal Society for Public Health. 7 April 2017.
  169. ^ James Rodger (7 April 2017). "How vaping shops are selling e-cigarettes to non-smokers". Birmingham Mail.
  170. ^ "Vape store owners argue new Quebec law infringes on freedom of speech". CBC News. 26 February 2016.
  171. ^ "Canadian vaping industry challenging Quebec law". CTV News. The Canadian Press. 13 April 2016.
  172. ^ "Map: Smoking laws across Canada". CBC News. 27 November 2015.
  173. ^ "Quebec cracks down on e-cigarettes, bans patio smoking". CBC News. 27 November 2015.
  174. ^ a b c "Quebec e-cigarette vendors frustrated by reality of new anti-tobacco law". CBC News. 11 December 2015.
  175. ^ a b c Justin Blackwell (23 November 2015). "Council bans e-cigarettes, exempts vape shops". Rawlco Communications.
  176. ^ Stratton 2018, p. Secondhand Exposure to E-Cigarette Aerosol, 77.
  177. ^ Susan Oser (18 August 2016). "Vaping from the Outside: Is Trade Show/Conventiion Admission Worth the Money". Vaping News Magazine.
  178. ^ Jaime Joyce (1 July 2014). "Is the E-Cigarette Bubble About to Burst?". Washingtonian.
  179. ^ Erik Mclaren (25 August 2016). "We Went to Toronto's Vape Olympics, Which Might Be the Last of its Kind in Ontario". Torontoist.
  180. ^ Eric Larson (25 January 2014). "Pimp My Vape: The Rise of E-Cigarette Hackers". Mashable.
  181. ^ John Madden (27 September 2013). "ECC Day 1 Recap: Global Vapers Unite in Anaheim!". EcigaretteReviewed.com.
  182. ^ G Trudeau (14 November 2014). "Thousands cloud up NRG Center for Vape Summit II". KIAH-TV.
  183. ^ CSD Staff (8 January 2014). "Vapor World Expo To Debut Near Chicago". Convenience Store Decisions. Harbor Communications.
  184. ^ a b c Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Ebrahimi Kalan, Mohammad (2018). "World Vapor Expo 2017: e-cigarette marketing tactics". Tobacco Control: tobaccocontrol-2017–054128. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-054128. ISSN 0964-4563. PMID 29540557.
  185. ^ Tyler James (13 June 2015). "Vape cloud competitions are a thing, and they even have an event in Oregon". That Oregon Life.
  186. ^ Rebecca Burn-Callander (5 May 2015). "Are you a vanilla custard cloud chaser?". The Daily Telegraph.
  187. ^ Joe Bish (9 May 2016). "I Went to the UK's Biggest Vaping Event and All I Got Was This Lousy Empathy". Vice.
  188. ^ Nathalie Dunand (1 April 2016). "Paris Vape Summit, a meeting from vapers to vapers". VapingPost.
  189. ^ Simon Rosselat (18 July 2016). "VAPESHOW Prague 2016 – the main event in Czech Republic devoted to vape business". VapingPost.
  190. ^ "The Hall of Vape". VapingPost. 2017.
  191. ^ a b "Reed Huabo to Organize The 2nd Vape Expo China (Shenzhen)". PR Newswire. 18 July 2016.
  192. ^ Joe Tonelli (20 April 2018). "My Journey to the Vape Industry's Bleeding Edge". Gizmodo.