Vaporizer (inhalation device)
A vaporizer or vaporiser is a device used to vaporize the active ingredients of plant material, commonly cannabis, tobacco, or other herbs or blends for the purpose of inhalation. However, they can be used with pure chemicals when mixed with plant material (e.g. tobacco-free nicotine).
Vaporizers contain various forms of extraction chambers including straight bore, venturi, or sequential venturi, and are made of materials such as metal or glass. The extracted vapor may be collected in an inflatable bag, or inhaled directly through a hose or pipe. With no combustion happening when used properly and cooler temperatures, a significantly better efficiency in extracting the ingredients can be obtained. Hence, the irritating and harmful effects of smoking are heavily reduced, as is secondhand smoke.
An electronic cigarette (EC, e-cig, or e-cigarette), personal vaporizer (PV), or electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) is a battery-powered vaporizer which simulates the feeling of smoking, but without tobacco combustion. Their use is commonly called vaping. They are often cylindrical, but come in many variations. The user automatically activates the e-cigarette by taking a puff; other devices turn on by pressing a button manually. Some e-cigarettes look like traditional cigarettes, but others do not. There are disposable "cigalikes" which are known as first generation cigalikes and there are reusable versions. There are also second generation, third generation, and fourth generation devices. Instead of cigarette smoke, the user inhales an aerosol, commonly called vapor. E-cigarettes typically have a heating element that atomizes a liquid solution known as e-liquid. E-liquids usually contain propylene glycol, glycerin, water, nicotine, and flavorings. E-liquids are also sold without propylene glycol, without nicotine, or without flavors.
The benefits to users and the health risks of e-cigarettes are uncertain. There is no evidence they are better than regulated medication for quitting smoking, but there is tentative evidence of benefit as a smoking cessation aid. Their usefulness in tobacco harm reduction is unclear, but in an effort to decrease tobacco related death and disease, they have a potential to be part of the strategy. Their safety risk to users is like that of smokeless tobacco. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved products, such as nicotine inhalers, are probably safer than e-cigarettes. E-cigarettes are probably safer than smoking. While later-generation and "hotter" e-cigarettes (e.g. 5.0 volts) may generate equal or higher levels of formaldehyde than smoking, reduced voltage e-cigarettes generate very low levels of formaldehyde. Nicotine is associated with cardiovascular disease, potential birth defects, and poisoning. There is inadequate research to demonstrate that nicotine is associated with cancer in humans. Exactly what comprises the vapor varies across and within manufacturers. E-cigarettes contain possibly harmful chemicals that are not found in tobacco.
Vaporizers are also used to inhale marijuana. Of the studies about vaporizing marijuana, few have addressed the quality of the vapor extracted and delivered; instead, studies usually focus on the mode of usage of the vaporizers. There are 483 identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in the cannabis plant, and at least 85 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the plant. The aromatic terpenoids begin to vaporize at 126.0 °C (258.8 °F), but the more bio-active tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) do not vaporize until near their respective boiling points: THC 157 °C (315 °F), CBD 160–180 °C (320–356 °F), and CBN 185 °C (365 °F).
Vaporizers for medical use
Studies have shown that vaporizing cannabis exposes the user to lower levels of harmful substances than smoking cannabis. These findings are important for it is estimated that 10–20 percent of patients with chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and HIV/AIDS have admitted to smoking cannabis for therapeutic purposes. For patients, a study found that smoking cannabis sativa reduced daily pain by 34%, a statistically significant amount.
In a study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology in May 2008, it was stated that vaporizers were a "suitable method for the administration of THC". A 2007 study by the University of California, San Francisco, published in the Journal of the American Academy of Neurology, found that "there was virtually no exposure to harmful combustion products using the vaporizing device". A 2006 study performed by researchers at Leiden University found that vaporizers were "safe and effective cannabinoid delivery system(s)". The study stated that the amount of THC delivered by vaporizers were equivalent to the amount delivered by smoking. Because of those studies and other studies, vaporizers are medically sound devices for delivering THC.
- Specimen density
- Weight, content of water and essential oils
- Consistency of material in the filling chamber
- Storage time of the vapor
- Inhalation method (breathing technique)
Not all those have been scientifically tested. Research using vaporizers found the delivery efficiency highest at around 226 °C (439 °F), falling to about half efficiency at 150 °C (302 °F) to 180 °C (356 °F) degrees depending on material. The purest preparations produced the highest efficiencies, about 56% for pure THC versus 29% for plant material (female flower tops) with 12% THCA content. Besides THC, several other cannabinoids as well as a range of other plant components including terpenoids were detected in the plant material. Using pure THC in the vaporizer, no degradation products (delta-8-THC (D8-THC), cannabinol (CBN), or unknown compounds) were detected by HPLC analysis. The longer vapor is stored, the more THC is lost as it condenses on the surface of the vaporizer or the balloon. This loss may be negligible over a few minutes but may exceed 50% after 90 minutes. The Leiden University study found that as much as 30–40% of inhaled THC was not absorbed by the lungs but simply exhaled. However, they did not find large individual differences in the amounts exhaled.
Vaporizers are sometimes used by chefs as a method of applying controlled heat to herbs and spices to release flavors that are otherwise difficult to titrate or apply, or that might be spoiled by overheating during cooking. Grant Achatz, chef-proprietor of Alinea in Chicago, "uses the aroma-filled bags as place-mats, punctured when plates are placed in front of the customer".
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