Walpurgis Night

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This article is about the eve of the feast day of St Walpurga. For George Balanchine's 1975 ballet, see Walpurgisnacht Ballet.
Walpurgis Night
Thingstätte Heidelberg Walpurgisnacht 1.JPG
Walpurgisnacht at the open-air theatre in Heidelberg
Observed by The Czechs, Dutch, Estonians, Finns, Germans, Latvians, Lithuanians, Slovenians and Swedes
Type Cultural
Celebrations Bonfires, dancing
Date 30 April or 1 May
Frequency Annual
Related to May Day, Beltane

Walpurgis Night is the English translation of Walpurgisnacht [valˈpʊʁɡɪsˌnaχt], one of the Dutch and German names for the night of 30 April, so called because it is the eve of the feast day of Saint Walpurga, an 8th-century abbess in Francia. In Germanic folklore, Walpurgisnacht, also called Hexennacht (Dutch: heksennacht), literally "Witches' Night", is believed to be the night of a witches' meeting on the Brocken, the highest peak in the Harz Mountains, a range of wooded hills in central Germany between the rivers Weser and Elbe.[1] The first known written occurrence of the English translation "Walpurgis Night" is from the 19th century.[2] Local variants of Walpurgis Night are observed throughout Europe in the Netherlands, Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Sweden, Lithuania, Latvia, Finland, and Estonia. In Denmark the tradition with bonfires to fence of the witches going to the Brocken is observed as Saint John's Eve - essentially a midsummer celebration "with witches".


Title illustration of Johannes Praetorius (writer)' Blocksbergs Verrichtung (1668)

The current festival is, in most countries that celebrate it, named after the English missionary Saint Walpurga (c. 710–777/9). As Walpurga's feast was held on 1 May (c. 870),[3] she became associated with May Day, especially in the Finnish and Swedish calendars.[4] The eve of May Day, traditionally celebrated with dancing, came to be known as Walpurgisnacht ("Walpurga's night"). The name of the holiday is Walpurgisnacht or Hexennacht ("Witches' Night") in German, Heksennacht in Dutch, Valborgsmässoafton in Swedish, Vappen in Finland Swedish, Vappu in Finnish, Volbriöö in Estonian, Valpurgijos naktis in Lithuanian, Valpurģu nakts or Valpurģi in Latvian, čarodějnice and Valpuržina noc in Czech.

The Germanic term Walpurgisnacht is recorded in 1668 by Johannes Praetorius[5] as S. Walpurgis Nacht or S. Walpurgis Abend. An earlier mention of Walpurgis and S. Walpurgis Abend is in the 1603 edition of the Calendarium perpetuum of Johann Coler,[6] who also refers to the following day, 1 May, as Jacobi Philippi, feast day of the apostles James the Less and Philip in the Catholic calendar.

The 17th-century German tradition of a meeting of sorcerers and witches on May Day eve (Hexennacht, "Witches' Night") is influenced by the descriptions of Witches' Sabbaths in 15th- and 16th-century literature.[citation needed]

Regional variations[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

30 April is pálení čarodějnic ("burning of the witches") or čarodějnice ("the witches") in the Czech Republic. Huge bonfires—up to 8 metres (26 ft) tall—are built and burnt in the evening, preferably on top of hills. Young people gather around. Sudden black and dense smoke formations are cheered as "a witch flying away". As evening advances to midnight and fire is on the wane, it is time to go search for a cherry tree in blossom. Young women should be kissed past midnight (and during the following day) under a cherry tree. They "will not dry up" for an entire year. The First of May is celebrated then as "the day of those in love".


In Estonia, Volbriöö is celebrated throughout the night of 30 April and into the early hours of 1 May, where 1 May is a public holiday called "Spring Day" (Kevadpüha). Volbriöö is an important and widespread celebration of the arrival of spring in the country. Influenced by German culture, the night originally stood for the gathering and meeting of witches. Modern people still dress up as witches to wander the streets in a carnival-like mood.

The Volbriöö celebrations are especially vigorous in Tartu, the university town in southern Estonia. For Estonian students in student corporations (fraternities and sororities), the night starts with a traditional procession through the streets of Tartu, followed by visiting each other's corporation houses throughout the night.


People at a Vappu picnic in Kaivopuisto in 2008

In Finland, Walpurgis day (Vappu) is one of the four biggest holidays along with Christmas Eve, New Year's Eve, and Midsummer (Juhannus). Walpurgis witnesses the biggest carnival-style festival held in the streets of Finland's towns and cities. The celebration, which begins on the evening of 30 April and continues to 1 May, typically centres on copious consumption of sima, sparkling wine and other alcoholic beverages. Student traditions, particularly those of the engineering students, are one of the main characteristics of Vappu. Since the end of the 19th century, this traditional upper-class feast has been appropriated by university students. Many lukio (university-preparatory high school) alumni wear the black and white student cap and many higher education students wear student coveralls. One tradition is to drink sima, a home-made low-alcohol mead, along with freshly cooked funnel cakes.

In the capital Helsinki and its surrounding region, fixtures include the capping (on 30 April at 6 pm) of the Havis Amanda, a nude female statue in Helsinki, and the biennially alternating publications of ribald matter called Äpy and Julkku, by engineering students of Aalto University. Both are sophomoric; but while Julkku is a standard magazine, Äpy is always a gimmick. Classic forms have included an Äpy printed on toilet paper and a bedsheet. Often, the magazine has been stuffed inside standard industrial packages, such as sardine cans and milk cartons. For most university students, Vappu starts a week before the day of celebration. The festivities also include a picnic on 1 May, which is sometimes prepared in a lavish manner, particularly in Ullanlinnanmäki in Helsinki city.

The Finnish tradition is also a shadowing of the Socialist May Day parade. Expanding from the parties of the left, the whole of the Finnish political scene has adopted Vappu as the day to go out on stumps and agitate. This includes not only political activists. Other institutions, such as the state Lutheran church, have followed suit, marching and making speeches. Left-wing activists of the 1970s still party on May Day. They arrange carnivals. And radio stations play leftist songs from the 1970s.

Traditionally, 1 May is celebrated by a picnic in a park. For most, the picnic is enjoyed with friends on a blanket with good food and sparkling wine. Some people, however, arrange extremely lavish picnics with pavilions, white tablecloths, silver candelabras, classical music and extravagant food. The picnic usually starts early in the morning, where some of the previous night's party-goers continue their celebrations undaunted by lack of sleep.

Some student organisations reserve areas where they traditionally camp every year. Student caps, mead, streamers and balloons have their role in the picnic, as well as in the celebration as a whole.


Lewis Morrison as "Mephistopheles" in Faust!: "The Brocken". Poster for a theatrical performance of Goethe's play showing Mephistopheles conjuring supernatural creatures on the German mountain, the Brocken (or Blocksberg), which according to the tale is the scenery for the Walpurgisnight, from 30 April to 1 May.

In Germany, Walpurgisnacht or Hexennacht ("Witches' Night"), the night from 30 April to 1 May, is the night when witches are reputed to hold a large celebration on the Brocken and await the arrival of spring.

Walpurgisnacht Night (in German folklore) the night of 30 April (May Day's eve), when witches meet on the Brocken mountain and hold revels with the Devil...

Brocken is the highest of the Harz Mountains of north central Germany. It is noted for the phenomenon of the Brocken spectre and for witches' revels which reputedly took place there on Walpurgis night.

The Brocken Spectre is a magnified shadow of an observer, typically surrounded by rainbow-like bands, thrown onto a bank of cloud in high mountain areas when the sun is low. The phenomenon was first reported on the Brocken.[7]

A scene in Goethe's Faust Part One is called "Walpurgisnacht," and one in Faust Part Two is called "Classical Walpurgisnacht." The last chapter of book five in Thomas Mann's The Magic Mountain is also called "Walpurgisnacht." In Edward Albee's 1962 play Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Act Two is entitled "Walpurgisnacht."

From Bram Stoker's short story, "Dracula's Guest," an Englishman (whose name is never mentioned) is on a visit to Munich before leaving for Transylvania. It is Walpurgis Night, and in spite of the hotelier's warning not to be late coming back, the young man later leaves his carriage and wanders toward the direction of an abandoned "unholy" village. As the carriage departs with the frightened and superstitious driver, a tall and thin stranger scares the horses at the crest of a hill.

In some parts of northern coastal regions of Germany, the custom of lighting huge fires is still kept alive to celebrate the coming of May, while most parts of Germany have a derived Christianized custom around Easter called "Easter fires" (Osterfeuer).

In rural parts of southern Germany, it is part of popular youth culture to play pranks such as tampering with neighbours' gardens, hiding possessions, or spraying graffiti on private property.

In Berlin, traditional leftist May Day riots usually start at Walpurgis Night in the Mauerpark in Prenzlauer Berg. There is a similar tradition in the Schanzenviertel district of Hamburg, though in both cases, the situation has significantly calmed down in the past few years.


While the name Walpurgis is taken from the eighth-century English missionary Saint Walburga, Valborg, as it is called in Swedish, has very little to do with religion and everything to do with the arrival of spring. The forms of celebration vary in different parts of the country and between different cities. Walpurgis celebrations are not a family occasion but rather a public event, and local groups often take responsibility for organising them to encourage community spirit in the village or neighbourhood.

Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden

In the Middle Ages, the administrative year ended on 30 April. Accordingly, this was a day of festivity among the merchants and craftsmen of the town, with trick-or-treat, dancing and singing in preparation for the forthcoming celebration of spring. Sir James George Frazer in The Golden Bough writes, "The first of May is a great popular festival in the more midland and southern parts of Sweden. On the eve of the festival, huge bonfires, which should be lighted by striking two flints together, blaze on all the hills and knolls."[8]

Walpurgis bonfires are part of a Swedish tradition dating back to the early 18th century. At Walpurgis (Valborg), farm animals were let out to graze and bonfires (majbrasor, kasar) lit to scare away predators. In Southern Sweden, an older tradition, no longer practiced, was for the younger people to collect greenery and branches from the woods at twilight. These were used to adorn the houses of the village. The expected reward for this task was to be paid in eggs.

A large crowd, mostly students in typical Swedish white student caps, participating in the traditional Walpurgis Night celebration with song outside the Castle in Uppsala. The silhouette of the cathedral towers may be seen in the background. To the right are banners and standards of the student nations. Image from c. 1920.

Choral singing is a popular pastime in Sweden, and on Walpurgis Eve virtually every choir in the country is busy. Singing traditional songs of spring is widespread throughout the country. The songs are mostly from the 19th century and were spread by students' spring festivities. The strongest and most traditional spring festivities are also found in the old university cities, such as Uppsala and Lund, where undergraduates, graduates, and alumni gather at events that last most of the day from early morning to late night on April 30, or siste april ("The Last Day of April") as it is called in Lund, or sista april as it is called in Uppsala. For students, Walpurgis Eve heralds freedom. Traditionally the exams were over and only the odd lecture remained before term ends. On the last day of April, the students don their characteristic white caps and sing songs of welcome to spring, to the budding greenery and to a brighter future.

More modern Valborg celebrations, particularly among Uppsala students, often consist of enjoying a breakfast including champagne and strawberries. During the day, people gather in parks, drink considerable amounts of alcoholic beverages, barbecue, and generally enjoy the weather, if it happens to be favorable.

In Uppsala, since 1975, students honor spring by rafting on Fyrisån through the center of town with rickety, homemade, in fact quite easily wreckable, and often humorously decorated rafts. Several nations also hold "Champagne Races" (Swedish: Champagnegalopp), where students go to drink and spray champagne or somewhat more modestly priced sparkling wine on each other. The walls and floors of the old nation buildings are covered in plastic for this occasion, as the champagne is poured around recklessly and sometimes spilled enough to wade in. Spraying champagne is, however, a fairly recent addition to the Champagne Race. The name derives from the students running down the downhill slope from the Carolina Rediviva library, toward the Student Nations, to drink champagne.

In Linköping many students and former students begin the day at the park Trädgårdföreningen, in the field below Belvederen where the city laws permits alcohol, to drink champagne breakfast in a similar way to Uppsala. Later at 15:00 o'clock the students and public gather at the courtyard of Linköping Castle. Spring songs are sung by the Linköping University Male Voice Choir, and speeches are made by representatives of the students and the university professors.

In Gothenburg, the carnival parade, The Cortège, which has been held since 1909 by the students at Chalmers University of Technology, is an important part of the celebration. It is seen by around 250,000 people each year. Another major event is the gathering of students in Trädgårdsföreningen to listen to student choirs, orchestras, and speeches. An important part of the gathering is the ceremonial donning of the student cap, which stems from the time when students wore their caps daily and switched from black winter cap to white summer cap.

In Umeå, there is a tradition of having local bonfires. During recent years, however, there has been a tradition of celebrating Walpurgis at the Umeå University campus. The university organizes student choir songs, there are different types of entertainment and a speech by the president of the university. Different stalls sell hot dogs, candies, soft drinks, etc.

The Netherlands[edit]

Walpurgis night bonfires

As in all Germanic countries, Walpurgisnacht was celebrated in areas of what is now the Netherlands.[9] It is not celebrated today due to the national Koninginnedag falling on the same date, though the new koningsdag (king's day) is on 27 April. The island of Texel celebrates a festival known as the 'Meierblis (nl)' (roughly translated as 'May-Blaze') on that same day, where bonfires are lit near nightfall, just as on Walpurgis. But with the meaning to drive away the remaining cold of winter and welcome spring.[citation needed] Occasional mentions to the ritual occur, and at least once a feminist group co-opted the name to call for attention to the position of women (following the example of German women's organizations[10]), a variety of the Take Back the Night phenomenon.[11]

Still, in recent years a renewed interest in pre-Christian religion and culture has led to renewed interest in Walpurgis Night as well.[12] In 1999, suspicions were raised among local Reformed party members in Putten, Gelderland of a Walpurgis festival celebrated by Satanists. The party called for a ban. Whether such a festival even existed, however, and whether it was 'Satanic', was doubted by others.[13] Rumors that Satanic sects celebrate Walpurgis Night come from other towns as well, with the local churches in Dokkum, Friesland organizing a service in 2003 to pray to the Holy Spirit to counter such Satanic action.[14]

In popular culture[edit]

Walpurgis Night has appeared many times in works of popular culture.

  • The second act of Edward Albee's play Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? is titled "Walpurgisnacht."
  • Walpurgisnacht is the title of a Russian ballet, whose setting takes place on Walpurgisnacht. The ballet choreographed by Leonid Lavrovsky, with music by Gounod was performed by the Bolshoi Theatre's ballet Company.
  • A scene in Goethe's Faust, Part One is called "Walpurgisnacht."
  • The last chapter of book five in Thomas Mann's The Magic Mountain is named "Walpurgis Night."
  • "Songe d'une nuit du sabbat (Dream of the Night of the Sabbath)," the final movement of Hector Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique, is often rendered in German as "Walpurgisnacht."
  • In The Devil Rides Out by Dennis Wheatley, the main Sabbat of the satanists takes place on Walpurgis Night on Salisbury Plain where the Duc de Richleau and Rex van Ryn rescue their friend Simon Aron from a devil-worshipping cult.
  • Gustav Meyrink wrote a novel called Walpurgis Night in 1917, about a carnivalesque popular uprising in Prague against the city's longtime Germanic monarchs.
  • The Bram Stoker short story "Dracula's Guest" takes place on Walpurgisnacht: "Walpurgis Night was when, according to the belief of millions of people, the devil was abroad – when the graves were opened and the dead came forth and walked. When all evil things of earth and air and water held revel."
  • In The House with a Clock in its Walls by John Bellairs, Lewis Barnavelt unwittingly raises from the dead a long-dead witch with megalomaniac designs on Walpurgis Night.
  • The climax of Robert Anton Wilson's "The Illuminatus! Trilogy" takes place on Walpurgisnacht.
  • In Mikhail Bulgakov's book The Master and Margarita, Satan hosts a Grand Ball on Walpurgis Night.
  • In the H. P. Lovecraft story "The Dreams in the Witch House", Walpurgis Night is referred to as "the Witches' Sabbath", when Hell's blackest evil roamed the earth and all the slaves of Satan gathered for nameless rites and deeds.
  • In the 1923 memoir Dersu Uzala, set in the Ussuri taiga wilderness of Siberia, Russian explorer Vladimir Arsenyev describes the forests as similar to Walpurgis Night.
  • In Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice a 1919 fantasy book by James Branch Cabell, in return for standing up for the devil in a previous days conversation the main character, Jurgen, is given a gift from the devil. He enters into a cave on Walpurgisnacht, where his journey begins.
  • In Anton Szandor LaVey's The Satanic Bible, Walpurgisnacht is listed as an important Satanic holiday
  • Thomas Pynchon's novel, Gravity's Rainbow, has several scenes set during Walpurgis Night 1945, and also makes references to such matters as the Brocken Spectre.
  • In Ogden Nash's poem entitled A Tale of the Thirteenth Floor , where the ghostly thirteenth floor of a New York hotel only becomes accessible to mortals on Walpurgis Night.
  • The last major work of the Viennese satirist Karl Kraus was an anti-Nazi polemic titled Die dritte Walpurgisnacht ("The Third Walpurgis Night").
  • In her short story "The Waltz", Dorothy Parker refers to the gentleman's dancing as "something you do on St. Walpurgis Night."
  • The protagonist in Vladimir Nabokov's novella The Enchanter questions of his two contradicting passions "whether one is a rare flowering of the other on the Walpurgis Night of my murky soul."
  • In the Neal Stephenson novel Quicksilver, protagonist Jack Shaftoe inadvertently happens upon the Walpurgisnacht celebration while lost in the Harz Mountains.
  • In the Etienne Leroux novel Seven days at the Silbersteins a symbolical version of Walpurgisnacht is carried out on the sixth day of Henry van Eeden's visit to Welgevonden. The symbolic value of this ritual pays close attention to the idea of individuation as proposed by Carl Jung.
  • The manga series King of Cards by Makoto Tateno features a shop called Walpurgis Night, which is a hangout for underhanded Chaos card players.
  • The Swedish novel The White Lioness by Henning Mankell refers to Walpurgis Eve in chapter six when a thief is forced to work on that night. The book has been translated into English by Laurie Thompson.
  • The character Lisbeth Salander in the novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo has her birthday on Walpurgis night.
  • Roger Zelazny wrote a short story called "Walpurgisnacht".
  • Jonathan L. Howard's novel Johannes Cabal the Necromancer begins on "Walpurgisnacht" with Cabal traveling to Hell.
  • In Henry H. Neff's fantasy quintet Warlpurgisnacht is a major event in the third book The Fiend And The Forge and also the day of much reverence in the demon community[15]
  • Shadow of Night, All Souls Trilogy by Deborah Harkness. "We fled Prague by the light of the bonfires. The creatures were in hiding on Walpurgisnacht, not wanting to be seen by the revelers in case they found themselves flung onto the pyre.”
  • The action of Otfried Preussler's children's book The Little Witch is set off by the title character's exclusion from Walpurgis Night festivities because of her young age.
  • Romantic composer Felix Mendelssohn composed a dramatic choral oratorio, Die erste Walpurgisnacht, in 1831, based on the Goethe poem.
  • In the third of his set of six piano sketches, "From the Bohemian Forest", Czech composer Antonín Dvořák portrays the rituals of Walpurgis Night.
  • Contemporary Lithuanian classical music composer Giedrius Alkauskas in 2009 composed a four-song cycle "Walpurgis night" for a bass singer and a piano, to the verses of Goethe from the first part of "Faust", based on the Lithuanian translation made by Aleksys Churginas.[16][17] The four songs are "Marching song of Faust, Mephistopheles and will-o‘-the-wisp", "Faust marches and sings about a strange light", "The choir of witches and wizards", and "A reverberation of the Walpurgis night".
  • British band Procol Harum recorded their classical-inspired song "Repent Walpurgis" in 1967, one of the earliest and best known prog epics.
  • Heavy metal pioneers, Black Sabbath had a song called "Walpurgis". It was the original version of their song "War Pigs" with lyrics involving the events at a Black Mass, likely based on some of the popular fiction novels of Dennis Wheatley (whose famous book The Devil Rides Out dealt with a group of friends battling Satanists in and around the black mass on Walpurgis night) which Geezer Butler had read. It was only ever recorded once with those lyrics on John Peel's Radio show in 1970. According to several sources, both the band and the record label were concerned with the recent events of the Manson killings. Not wishing to be associated with Satanists or dark cults, Geezer chose to rewrite the song into an anti-war statement instead. The track was eventually released on Ozzy Osbourne's 1997 album 'The Ozzman Cometh."[18]
  • The American noise rock band Liars released a concept album, They Were Wrong, So We Drowned, which is loosely based on Walpurgisnacht.
  • Night on Bröcken, the title track from the debut album by American progressive metal band Fates Warning, is based on Walpurgis night.
  • German metal band Running Wild released a song entitled Walpurgis Night on their 1984 debut album Gates to Purgatory.
  • The Russian punk rock band Sektor Gaza (Сектор Газа) has a song called Valpurgiyeva Noch' (Вальпургиева Ночь), meaning Walpurgis Night.
  • Beginning with Badmotorfinger, Matt Cameron's work with Soundgarden is credited to the ASCAP publishing body "Walpurgis Night Music".
  • Austrian blackened death metal band Belphegor released an album in 2009 entitled Walpurgis Rites - Hexenwahn which contains a song called Walpurgis Rites.
  • Chicago-based composer Joe Clark's "Asterism" for Choir (2009), recipient of the 2009 Kleinman Award and based on text by H.P. Lovecraft, is to be performed on Walpurgis Night "when the stars are right..."
  • Spanish band Fangoria has a song on their 2009 album Absolutamente called "Las Walpurgis te van a Llamar" (The Walpurgis are going to Call You).
  • German thrash metal band Holy Moses released the cut "Walpurgisnight" on their 1986 album, Queen of Siam.
  • The theme of the witch, Nine the Phantom, composed by Daisuke Ishiwatari for the video game BlazBlue: Central Fiction, is entitled "Walpurgisnacht".
  • The closing sequence (Night on Bald Mountain / Ave Maria) of Fantasia (1940) is intended to portray Walpurgisnacht, not Halloween, as is popularly supposed.
  • In the 1931 film Dracula, a Romanian peasant describes the night on which the film begins as Walpurgis Night.
  • La Noche de Walpurgis (translated as Walpurgis Night but also given several other titles) is a 1971 Spanish horror movie, the fourth in a series about the werewolf Count Waldemar Daninsky.
  • In one of the opening scenes of Akira Kurosawa's Dersu Uzala (1975 film), shot on location in the Ussuri taiga wilderness of Siberia, the forests are described as similar to Walpurgis Night.
  • In the Japanese Hentai Bible Black series, Walpurgis Night is mentioned in both the game and OVAs, used in the titles and serves as a key date in the plot.
  • In the anime series, Puella Magi Madoka Magica, Walpurgis Night is personified and is depicted as an intensely powerful entity known as a 'witch,' portrayed as one of the primary antagonists of the story.[19]
  • In the anime series, Sugar Sugar Rune, a Walpurgis Night festival is held every year by the witches of the Magical World.
  • In the anime series, Betrayal Knows My Name, an episode called Walpurgis Night is featured as a day when demons referred as Duras become stronger.
  • In the anime series, Dance in the Vampire Bund, an episode is called "Walpurgis Night".
  • An episode of the TV programme Lexx was titled "Walpurgis Night".
  • In the 1970 made–for–TV−movie Ritual of Evil, a young woman commits suicide after realizing she murdered a man who was offered as a human sacrifice in a Satanic ritual held on Walpurgis Night.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Miller, Jenni (May 6, 2016). "These Witches Dancing to German Reggae Are Having More Fun Than You". The Cut. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  2. ^ Collins English Dictionary Millennium Edition. 1998. 
  3. ^ PD-icon.svg Casanova, Gertrude (1913). "St. Walburga". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 30 April 2016. 
  4. ^ "Saint Walburga". Patron Saints Index. Catholic Forum. .
  5. ^ Praetorius, Johannes (1668). Blockes-Berges Verrichtung oder ausführlicher geographischer Bericht von den hohen trefflich alt- und berühmten Blockes-Berge: ingleichen von der Hexenfahrt und Zauber-Sabbathe, so auff solchen Berge die Unholden aus gantz Teutschland Jährlich den 1. Maij in Sanct-Walpurgis-Nachte anstellen sollen; Aus vielen Autoribus abgefasset und mit schönen Raritäten angeschmücket sampt zugehörigen Figuren; Nebenst einen Appendice vom Blockes-Berge wie auch des Alten Reinsteins und der Baumans Höle am Hartz (in German). Leipzig: Scheiber. 
  6. ^ Coler, Johann (1603). M. Iohannis Coleri Calendarium Perpetuum, Et Libri Oeconomici: Das ist, Ein stetswerender Calender, darzu sehr nützliche vnd nötige Haußbücher: Vor die Haußwirt, Ackerleut, Apotecker, Kauffleute, Wanderßleute, Weinhern, Gärtner, den gemeinen Handwerckßleuten, und all den jenigen, so mit Wirtschafften oder Gastungen umbgehen. (in German). Wittemberg: Paul Helwig. p. 89. Retrieved August 15, 2011. 
  7. ^ Oxford Phrase & Fable.
  8. ^ Frazer, James G. (1961). The New Golden Bough. Anchor Books. p. 356. 
  9. ^ Hielkema, Haro (19 April 2003). "Pasen in het Finkersgebergte". Trouw (in Dutch). Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  10. ^ Ferree, Myra (2012). Varieties of Feminism: German Gender Politics in Global Perspective. Stanford UP. p. 90. ISBN 9780804757607. 
  11. ^ Roggeband, Cornelia Maria (2002). Over de grenzen van de politiek: een vergelijkende studie naar de opkomst en ontwikkeling van de vrouwenbeweging tegen seksueel geweld in Nederland en Spanje (in Dutch). Van Gorcum. p. 172. ISBN 9789023238300. 
  12. ^ "Theoloog Henk Vreekamp: ik ben een heiden; 'Kerk moet terug naar heidense wortels'". Friesch Dagblad (in Dutch). 27 September 2003. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  13. ^ "RPF/GPV staat alleen in geloof in heksenfeest". Utrechts Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). 23 June 1999. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  14. ^ "Rennie Schoorstra te gast in Geloven en Beleven" (in Dutch). RTV Noordoost Friesland. 2 January 2003. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  15. ^ "Henry Neff: Book Details". henryhneff.com. 
  16. ^ "Giedrius Alkauskas "Į sapnų ir burtų lauką"" (in Lithuanian). bernardinai.lt. 
  17. ^ "Recordings of the cycle "Walpurgis Night" on Youtube". 
  18. ^ The Ozzman Cometh
  19. ^ "Puella Magi Madoka Magica - Zusammenfassung der Handlung Teil 1 - 12". Retrieved 28 February 2015. 

External links[edit]