Varadhan's lemma

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In mathematics, Varadhan's lemma is a result from large deviations theory named after S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan. The result gives information on the asymptotic distribution of a statistic φ(Zε) of a family of random variables Zε as ε becomes small in terms of a rate function for the variables.

Statement of the lemma[edit]

Let X be a regular topological space; let (Zε)ε>0 be a family of random variables taking values in X; let με be the law (probability measure) of Zε. Suppose that (με)ε>0 satisfies the large deviation principle with good rate function I : X → [0, +∞]. Let ϕ  : X → R be any continuous function. Suppose that at least one of the following two conditions holds true: either the tail condition

where 1(E) denotes the indicator function of the event E; or, for some γ > 1, the moment condition


See also[edit]


  • Dembo, Amir; Zeitouni, Ofer (1998). Large deviations techniques and applications. Applications of Mathematics (New York) 38 (Second ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. xvi+396. ISBN 0-387-98406-2. MR 1619036.  (See theorem 4.3.1)