Vardar Offensive

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Vardar Offensive
Manœuvre d'Uskub.jpg
Allied advance 15-29 September 1918
Date14–29 September 1918
Location
Result Bulgarian capitulation
Belligerents
Central Powers:
 Bulgaria
 Germany
Allied Powers:
 Serbia
 France
 United Kingdom
 Greece
 Italy
Commanders and leaders
Kingdom of Bulgaria Georgi Todorov
Kingdom of Bulgaria Hristo Burmov
Kingdom of Bulgaria Stefan Nerezov
Kingdom of Bulgaria Ivan Lukov
Kingdom of Bulgaria Stefan Toshev
German Empire Friedrich von Scholtz
German Empire Kuno von Steuben
France Louis Franchet d'Esperey
Kingdom of Serbia Petar Bojović
Kingdom of Serbia Živojin Mišić
United Kingdom George Milne
Kingdom of Greece Panagiotis Danglis
Kingdom of Italy Ernesto Mombelli
Strength
Kingdom of Bulgaria 550,000
German Empire 18,000
Total: c. 568,000, supported by 1217 artillery pieces, 2710 machine guns and 30 airplanes[1]

France 195,000
Kingdom of Serbia 150,000
United Kingdom 140,000
Kingdom of Greece 140,000
Kingdom of Italy 44,000

Total: c. 711,000 men, supported by 2609 artillery pieces, 2682 machine guns, 6434 automatic rifles and 200 airplanes[1]
Casualties and losses
90,000 men and 800 guns captured as of the 30th of September[2] France 3,449
Kingdom of Serbia 3,215
United Kingdom 4,589
Kingdom of Greece 5,295
Kingdom of Italy 747
Total:17,295 killed, missing and wounded[3]

The Vardar Offensive that took place between 14 and 29 of September 1918 was the last major military operation on the Macedonian Front during World War I.

After much preparation the multinational Allied Army of the East was able to break the deadlock that had been reigning on this theater for several years, by breaking through the enemy lines in the Battle of Dobro Pole on 14-15 September.

After this victory, the Entente army continued to liberate southern Serbia. On 21 September Demir Kapija was liberated, on the 23rd Prilep, on the 25th Kruševo, on the 26th Veles and finally on the 29th Skopje. The German 11th Army fled towards the north-west in the direction of Tetovo, while the Bulgarian First Army fell back on Sofia.[4]

This offensive forced the capitulation of Bulgaria, thus decidedly turning the strategic and operational balance of the war against the Central Powers.[5]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Balkan Breakthrough: The Battle of Dobro Pole 1918, Richard C. Hall, 2010, p.134
  2. ^ Τόμος Δεύτερος, Η Συμμετοχή της Ελλάδος εις τον Πόλεμον 1918, Ο Ελληνικός Στρατός κατά τον Πρώτον Παγκόσμιον Πόλεμον 1914-1918, Διεύθυνσις Ιστορίας Στρατού, Αθήναι 1961, page 184
  3. ^ Τόμος Δεύτερος, Η Συμμετοχή της Ελλάδος εις τον Πόλεμον 1918, Ο Ελληνικός Στρατός κατά τον Πρώτον Παγκόσμιον Πόλεμον 1914-1918, Διεύθυνσις Ιστορίας Στρατού, Αθήναι 1961, Appendix 16, page 224
  4. ^ Offensive du Drobopolje en Serbie
  5. ^ Doughty 2005, p. 491.

References

In English:

  • Hall, Richard (2010). Balkan Breakthrough: The Battle of Dobro Pole 1918. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-35452-8.
  • Tucker, Spencer C; Roberts, Priscilla Mary (2005). Encyclopedia of World War I. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio. ISBN 1-85109-420-2. OCLC 61247250.
  • Mitrović, Andrej (2007). Serbia's Great War, 1914–1918. ISBN 978-1-55753-477-4.
  • Owen, Collinson (2009). Salonica and After the Sideshow That Ended the War. ISBN 978-1-115-40803-5.
  • Doughty, R. A. (2005). Pyrrhic Victory: French Strategy and Operations in the Great War. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University. ISBN 0-67401-880-X.
  • Thomas, Nigel; Babac, Dusan (2001). Armies in the Balkans 1914–18. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-194-7.
  • Villari, Luigi (1922). The Macedonian Campaign (PDF). T.F. Unwin. OCLC 6388448. Retrieved 9 November 2013.

In Russian:

In Bulgarian

  • Noykov, Stefan (1922). Защо не победихме. Печатница на армейския военно издателски фонд, София.
  • Azmanov, Dimitar (1935). Урокът от Добро поле. Печатница Книпеграф.
  • Недев, Никола (1923). Дойранската епопея 1915 - 1918. Печатница на Армейския Военно - Издателски Фонд; София. ISBN 978-954-8247-05-4.

In German:

In Greek:

  • Ο Ελληνικός Στρατός κατά τον Πρώτον Παγκόσμιον Πόλεμον 1914-1918, Τόμος Δεύτερος, Η Συμμετοχή της Ελλάδος εις τον Πόλεμον 1918. Διεύθυνσις Ιστορίας Στρατού, Αθήναι. 1961.

External links

Where is Macedonia. The end of the Macedonian Front