||This article is incomplete. (February 2017)|
|103rd Prime Minister of Portugal|
18 July 1974 – 19 September 1975
|President||António de Spínola
Francisco da Costa Gomes
|Deputy||José Teixeira Ribeiro
António Arnão Metelo
|Preceded by||Adelino da Palma Carlos|
|Succeeded by||José Pinheiro de Azevedo|
|Minister of Education and Culture|
29 November 1974 – 4 December 1974
|Preceded by||Vitorino Magalhães Godinho|
|Succeeded by||Manuel Rodrigues Carvalho|
|Born||Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves
3 May 1922
|Died||11 June 2005
|Spouse(s)||Aida Rocha Afonso|
|Children||1 daughter and 1 son|
|Alma mater||Portuguese Military Academy|
|Awards||Order of Aviz
Order Playa Girón
|Years of service||1942–1975|
General Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves OA (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈvaʃku ɡõˈsaɫvɨʃ]; Lisbon 3 May 1921 – 11 June 2005) was a Portuguese army officer in the Engineering Corps who took part in the Carnation Revolution and later served as the 104th Prime Minister from 18 July 1974 to 19 September 1975.
Gonçalves short tenure as Prime Minister of Portugal was marked by political turmoil and instability. As prime minister, Gonçalves oversaw the transition of the Portugal into a democracy known as the Processo Revolucionário Em Curso or the Ongoing Revolutionary Process. Gonçalves leadership was challenged early in March 1975 during a right wing coup d'état which ultimately failed. As prime minister, the Portuguese government nationalized all Portuguese-owned capital in the banking, insurance, petrochemical, fertilizer, tobacco, cement, and wood pulp sectors of the economy, as well as the Portuguese iron and steel company, major breweries, large shipping lines, most public transport, two of the three principal shipyards, core companies of the Companhia União Fabril (CUF) conglomerate, radio and TV networks (except that of the Roman Catholic Church), and important companies in the glass, mining, fishing, and agricultural sectors. Because of the key role of the domestic banks as holders of stock, the government indirectly acquired equity positions in hundreds of other firms. An Institute for State Participation was created to deal with the many disparate and often tiny enterprises in which the state had thus obtained a majority shareholding. Another 300 small to medium enterprises came under public management as the government "intervened" to rescue them from bankruptcy following their takeover by workers or abandonment by management. Several high-profile entrepreneurs had to leave the country due to the pro-communist radicalism of both a section of the population and the new revolutionary leadership in charge of the government - the Junta de Salvação Nacional (National Salvation Junta).
In April 1975, the Socialist Party and their allies gained a majority in the provisonal constituent assembly, they quickly denounced Gonçalves and began a series of campaigns of civil disobedience against Gonçalves' government. On August 18, 1975 Gonçalves delivered a forceful speech decrying his political opponents. The tone of this speech raised doubts about his sanity and two weeks later, amid a growing threat of civil war, President Vasco Gomez dismissed Gonçalves.
- "PORTUGAL: The New Command," TIME (magazine), 28 October 1974.
- "The World: Four Views from the Top," TIME (magazine), 5 May 1975.
- "PORTUGAL: A Resounding Vote for Moderation," TIME (magazine), 5 May 1975.
- "Lisbon's Troika: Red Threat in Portugal" (cover), TIME (magazine), 11 August 1975.
- "PORTUGAL: Western Europe's First Communist Country?" TIME (magazine), 11 August 1975.
- "The World: The Cork, the Ideologue, the Playboy," TIME (magazine), 11 August 1975.
- "PORTUGAL: Hammers Yes, Sickles No,", TIME (magazine), 29 September 1975.
- "Portuguese ex-PM Gonçalves dies," BBC News, Sunday, 12 June 2005.
- Fuchs, Dale. "General Vasco Gonçalves" (obituary), The Guardian (London, UK), Monday, 13 June 2005.
- Gallagher, Tom. "General Vasco Gonçalves: Marxist prime minister of Portugal" (obituary), The Independent (London, UK), Tuesday, 14 June 2005.
- Hershman, Gabriel & Graeme, Chris. "Portugal mourns its revolutionaries," Algarve (Portugal) Resident, Thursday, 16 June 2005.
- "General Vasco Gonçalves" (obituary), The Daily Telegraph (London, UK), Thursday, 23 June 2005.
Adelino da Palma Carlos
|Prime Minister of Portugal
José Baptista Pinheiro de Azevedo