Vasily Sokolovsky

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky
Vasily Sokolovsky.jpg
Born(1897-07-21)July 21, 1897
Kozliki, Russian Empire
DiedMay 10, 1968(1968-05-10) (aged 70)
Moscow, Soviet Union
Allegiance Soviet Union
Service/branchRed Army
Years of service1918–1960
RankMarshal of the Soviet Union
Commands held43rd Rifle Division
Western Front
Chief of the General Staff
Battles/warsRussian Civil War
World War II
AwardsHero of the Soviet Union
Order of Lenin (8)
Order of the Red Banner (2)
Order of the October Revolution
Order of Suvorov, 1st Class (3)
Order of Kutuzov, 1st Class (3)

Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (Russian: Васи́лий Дани́лович Соколо́вский; July 21, 1897 – May 10, 1968) was a Soviet military commander.

Early life[edit]

Sokolovsky was born into a peasant family in Kozliki, a small town in the province of Grodno (now in Białystok County in Poland, then part of the Russian Empire). He worked as a teacher in a rural school, where he took part in a number of protests and demonstrations against the Tsar.

Military career[edit]

Sokolovsky as a cadet of the Military Academy of Moscow, 1920

Sokolovsky joined the Red Army in[1] February 1918.

He began his formal military schooling in 1919, but was frequently called up by the Red Army and forced to leave his schoolwork. He graduated in 1921 and became the chief of staff of a division stationed in Turkmenistan. He was wounded during a battle near Samarkand and subsequently decorated for bravery. After the Russian Civil War ended in 1922/1923 he held a number of staff positions, eventually becoming the chief of staff for the Moscow Military District and then the Deputy Chief of the General Staff, the position he held at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa (22 June 1941).

In December 1941, with German forces a mere 20 kilometers from Moscow, Sokolovsky was made the chief of staff of the Soviet Western Front, where he was able to help co-ordinate the Soviet winter counter-attacks that forced the Germans away from Moscow. He remained in this position until February 1943, when he became the commander of the Western Front.

Sokolovsky (seated right) with Zhukov (middle) during the signing the German Instrument of Surrender at the Soviet headquarters in Karlshorst, 1945

He led this front through the Kursk battles (July-August 1943) and until April 1944, when the Western Front was broken into two parts and Sokolovsky was made chief of staff of 1st Ukrainian Front. He remained in this position until the end of the war in 1945. As the chief of staff of 1st Ukrainian Front, Sokolovsky helped plan and execute the Berlin operation, among others. After World War II, Sokolovsky became the deputy commander-in-chief of the Soviet Forces in East Germany until July 3, 1946.

On that day Sokolovsky was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union, and also made commander-in-chief of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany and head of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany. His walking out of a meeting of the Allied Control Council on 20 March 1948 as the Soviet representative on that body effectively immobilized it from that date. In 1949 he became the Soviet Union's Deputy Minister of Defense, a position he held until 1952, when he was made the Chief of the General Staff. In 1960 Sokolovsky became the Inspector-General of the Ministry of Defense. He retained this position until his death on May 10, 1968.

Sokolovsky became widely known in the West with the publication in 1962 of Military Strategy, a book that contained rare detail on Soviet thinking about war, particularly nuclear war.

Sokolovsky was a key member of the Soviet war command during World War II and known[by whom?] as an excellent planner and exceptional military leader. He was particularly well-trusted by Marshal Georgy Zhukov. The urn containing Sokolovsky’s ashes is buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis.

Sokolovsky appears as a prominent figure in William T. Vollmann's 2005 National Book Award-winning novel, Europe Central.

Honours and awards[edit]

Soviet Union
Hero of the Soviet Union medal.png Gold Star Medal Hero of the Soviet Union (29 April 1945 - № 6454)
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Eight Orders of Lenin (22 February 1941, 2 January 1942, 21 February 1945, 29 May 1945, 20 July 1947, 24 June 1948, 20 July 1957, 20 July 1967)
Order october revolution rib.png Order of the October Revolution (22 February 1968)
Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png Order of the Red Banner, three times (28 February 1928, 3 November 1944, 20 June 1949)
Order suvorov1 rib.png Order of Suvorov, 1st class, three times (9 April 1943, 28 August 1943, 6 April 1945)
Order kutuzov1 rib.png Order of Kutuzov, 1st class, three times (27 August 1943, 25 August 1944, 18 December 1956)
Ribbon bar for the medal for the Defense of Moscow.png Medal "For the Defence of Moscow" (1 May 1944)
OrderStGeorge4cl rib.png Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" (9 May 1945)
20 years of victory rib.png Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945" (7 May 1965)
800thMoscowRibbon.png Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow"
20 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army"(22 February 1938)
30 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy"
40 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
50 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
Именная шашка.png Honorary weapon with gold National Emblem of the Soviet Union (22 February 1968)
Foreign awards
OrdenZnam.png Order of the Red Banner (Mongolia)
Patriotic Order of Merit GDR ribbon bar gold.png Patriotic Order of Merit in gold, twice (East Germany)
Order of the partisan star with golden wreath Rib.png Golden Order of the Partisan Star (Yugoslavia)
POL Virtuti Militari Komandorski BAR.svg Commander's Cross of the Virtuti Militari (Poland)
POL Order Krzyża Grunwaldu 3 Klasy BAR.svg Cross of Grunwald, 3rd class (Poland)
POL Za Warszawę 1939-1945 BAR.svg Medal "For Warsaw 1939-1945" (Poland)
POL Medal za Odrę Nysę i Bałtyk BAR.svg Medal "For Oder, Neisse and the Baltic" (Poland)
Order of the White Lion.svg Order of the White Lion, 1st class (Czechoslovakia)
CS Dukielski Medal Pamiatkowy.jpg Medal "In Commemoration of the Battle of Dukla Pass" (Czechoslovakia)
Order of the Slovak National Uprising 3 kl.png Medal of the Order of the Slovak National Uprising (Czechoslovakia)
US Legion of Merit Commander ribbon.png Commander, Legion of Merit (USA)
Legion Honneur GO ribbon.svg Grand Officer of Legion of Honour (France)
Order of the British Empire (Military) Ribbon.png Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (Military Division) (UK)
Order of the Republic (Tuvan People's Republic, 31 March 1942)


External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Sergei Shtemenko
Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union
June 1952 – April 1960
Succeeded by
Matvei Zakharov