Vasudeva

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Vasudeva
Krishna's great escape Bazaar art,1940's.jpg
Vasudeva carrying the newborn Krishna to Nand's house in Gokul via the river Yamuna
Devanagariवासुदेव
TextsBhagavata Purana, Harivamsa, Vishnu Purana, Mahabharata
Personal information
Parents
Siblings14 siblings including Pritha
SpouseRohini, Devaki and various other wives
ChildrenBalarama, Krishna, Subhadra and various other children
DynastyYadava and Chandravanshi

According to Hindu scripture, Vasudeva (Devanagari वसुदेव, IAST Vasudeva), also called Ānakadundubhii ("Drum", after the sound of drums heard at the time of his birth),[1][2] is the father of the Hindu deities Krishna (Vāsudeva, i.e. "son of Vasudeva"), Balarama and Subhadra. He was king of the Vrishnis and a Yadava prince.[3] He was the son of the Yadava king Shurasena. He was also the brother (cousin) of Nanda, the foster-father of Krishna.[4][5][6] His sister Kunti was married to Pandu. Kunti plays a big role later in the war Mahabharata.

The patronymic Vāsudeva (with long ā) is a popular name of Krishna, the son of Vasudeva with Devaki, "Vāsudeva" in the lengthened form being a vṛddhi-derivative of the short form "Vasudeva", a type of formation very common in Sanskrit signifying "of, belonging to, descended from".[7] "Vasudeva" as an object of worship in Hinduism usually refers to the son Vāsudeva (Krishna), rather than his father Vasudeva.

Family[edit]

Vasudeva was born to Yadava king Shurasena and his wife Marisha, in the Surasena kingdom. Vasudeva had many brothers such as Devashrava and Devabhaga, and sisters such as Kunti (mother of the Pandavas), Shrutasravas (mother of Shishupala) and others. According to the Harivansa Purana, Vasudeva and Nanda, the Kshatriya chief of Gokula, were brothers or cousins.[8][9]

Wives and children[edit]

Vasudeva and Devaki traveling in a carriage

Vasudeva married Devaki, and also others such as Pauravi (daughter of Bahlika), Rohini, Bhadra, Madira and Vrikadevi. Rohini begat sons such as Balarama, Sarana and Shatha.[10][11] Vrikadevi begat sons like Avagaha and Nandaka.[12] By Devaki, he had 8 sons - 6 of whom were killed by Kansa and the other 2 being Balarama (transferred into the womb of Rohini) and Krishna. He also had a daughter - Subhadra from Rohini. [13] In some versions of the Bhagavata Purana, Vasudeva also married Sutanu, the princess of Kasi and they had a son named Paundraka.[14]

Descendants[edit]

His sons in turn had many sons. Sarana had many sons like Satyadhriti and Marsti, and Shatha had a son called Sarthi. Balarama espoused Revati and had 2 sons - Nishatha and Ulmuka. Krishna had 8 principal wives, and he begat many children from them, such as Pradyumna, Samba, Bhanu etc, and they also had many children. Vasudeva's daughter Subhadra married Pandava prince Arjuna, and they had a son Abhimanyu. Ultimately, it was Abhimanyu's son Parikshit who ascended the Kuru throne after Yudhishthira.

Many of the Yadavas killed themselves in the Yadava fracticide. Krishna, Balarama and Vasudeva later gave up their lives, and the Pandavas collected the remaining Yadava children and ladies with them to Indraprastha, where Pradyumma's grandson Vajra was crowned as king of Mathura, and some other survivors also were crowned as kings of different places (See Mausala Parva).


Vasudeva carrying baby Krishna across the Yamuna. Circa 1st Century CE, Gatashram Narayan Temple. Mathura Museum

The sons of Vasudeva were related to Bhagavatism that was largely formed by the 1st-millennium BCE where Vāsudeva (Krishna, the son of Vasudeva) was worshiped as supreme ultimate reality. This is evidenced by texts and archaeological evidence. As textual evidence, the Mahanarayana Upanishad records the verse:

नारायाणाय विद्महे वासुदेवाय धीमहि तन्नो विष्णुः प्रचोदयात्

nārāyāṇāya vidmahē vāsudēvāya dhīmahi tannō viṣṇuḥ pracōdayāt

We endeavor to know Narayana, we meditate on Vāsudeva and Vishnu bestows wisdom on us.

— Mahanarayana Upanishad, Chapter 7,[15][16]
Krishna and Balarama meeting their parents (painting by Raja Ravi Varma).

This verse asserts that Narayana, Vāsudeva (Krishna) and Vishnu are synonymous.[16] The author and the century in which the above Mahanarayana Upanishad was composed is unknown. The relative chronology of the text, based on its poetic verse and textual style, has been proposed by Parmeshwaranand to the same period of composition as Katha, Isha, Mundaka and Shvetashvatara Upanishads, but before Maitri, Prashna and Mandukya Upanishad.[17] Feuerstein places the relative composition chronology of Mahanarayana to be about that of Mundaka and Prashna Upanishads.[18] These relative chronology estimates date the text to second half of 1st millennium BCE.[17][19] Srinivasan suggests a later date for the composition of the Mahanarayana Upanishad, one after about 300 BCE and probably in the centuries around the start of the common era.[20]

Other evidence is from archeological inscriptions, where Bhagavan is documented epigraphically to be from around 100 BCE, such as in the inscriptions of the Heliodorus pillar. An Indo-Greek ambassador from Taxila named Heliodorus, of this era, visited the court of a Shunga king, and addresses himself as a Bhagavata on this pillar, an epithet scholars consider as evidence of Vāsudeva worship was well established in 1st millennium BCE.[21] A popular short prayer for worshipping Vāsudeva is Dwadashaakshar.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Garg, Gaṅgā Rām (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World. Concept Publishing Company. p. 408. ISBN 978-81-7022-375-7.
  2. ^ Ph.D, Lavanya Vemsani (2016). Krishna in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Hindu Lord of Many Names: An Encyclopedia of the Hindu Lord of Many Names. ABC-CLIO. p. 297. ISBN 978-1-61069-211-3.
  3. ^ Williams, Joanna Gottfried (1981). Kalādarśana: American Studies in the Art of India. BRILL. p. 129. ISBN 978-90-04-06498-0.
  4. ^ Gopal Chowdhary (2014). The Greatest Farce of History. Partridge Publishing. p. 119. ISBN 978-1482819250.
  5. ^ Sanghi, Ashwin (2012). The Krishna key. Chennai: Westland. p. Key7. ISBN 9789381626689. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  6. ^ Lok Nath Soni (2000). The Cattle and the Stick: An Ethnographic Profile of the Raut of Chhattisgarh. Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Department of Culture, Delhi: Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Department of Culture, 2000 Original from the University of Michigan. p. 16. ISBN 978-8185579573.
  7. ^ Fortson (2004:116f)
  8. ^ Lok Nath Soni, The cattle and the stick: an ethnographic profile of the Raut of Chhattisgarh. Anthropological Survey of India, Govt. of India, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Dept. of Culture (2000).
  9. ^ Soni, Lok Nath (2000). The Cattle and the Stick: An Ethnographic Profile of the Raut of Chhattisgarh. Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Department of Culture. p. 13. ISBN 978-81-85579-57-3.
  10. ^ https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/shatha
  11. ^ https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/sharana#purana
  12. ^ https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/vrikadevi
  13. ^ https://www.wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/vishnu-purana-wilson/d/doc116012.html
  14. ^ Bhagavata Purana Skandha X Chapter 66, Motilal Bansaridass Publishers Book 4 Appendix (66A) pages 1884- 1885, additional verses in Vijaya-dhvaja's Bhagavata Purana, Chapter 69
  15. ^ Hattangadi 1999, p. ॥ ७॥ Adhayaya.
  16. ^ a b SM Srinivaschari (1994), Vaiṣṇavism: Its Philosophy, Theology, and Religious Discipline, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120810983, page 132-134, 212-218
  17. ^ a b Parmeshwaranand 2000, pp. 458-459.
  18. ^ Feuerstein 1989, pp. 119-120.
  19. ^ Olivelle 1998, pp. 11-14.
  20. ^ Srinivasan 1997, pp. 112, 120.
  21. ^ John Irvin (1973-1975), Aśokan Pillars: A Reassessment of the Evidence, The Burlington Magazine. v. 115, pages 706-720; v. 116, pages 712-727; v. 117, pages 631-643; v. 118, pages 734-753; OCLC 83369960

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • RG Bhandarkar: "Vasudeva of Panini" 4.3.98. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1910.