Vatican Apostolic Archive
|Latin: Archivum Apostolicum Vaticanum|
Italian: Archivio Apostolico Vaticano
Former seal of the Vatican Apostolic Archive
|Headquarters||Cortile del Belvedere, Vatican City|
Location on a map of Vatican City
The Vatican Apostolic Archive (Latin: Archivum Apostolicum Vaticanum; Italian: Archivio Apostolico Vaticano), known until October 2019 as the Vatican Secret Archive, is the central repository in the Vatican City for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See. The pope, as Sovereign of Vatican City, owns the material held in the archive until his death or resignation, with ownership passing to his successor. The archive also contains the state papers, correspondence, papal account books, and many other documents which the church has accumulated over the centuries. In the 17th century, under the orders of Pope Paul V, the Secret Archive was separated from the Vatican Library, where scholars had some very limited access, and remained closed to outsiders until the late 19th century, when Pope Leo XIII opened the archive to researchers, more than a thousand of whom now examine some of its documents each year.
The use of the word "secret" in the former title, "Vatican Secret Archive", does not denote the modern meaning of confidentiality. A fuller and perhaps better translation of the Latin may be the "private Vatican Apostolic archive", indicating that its holdings are the Pope's personal property, not those of any particular department of the Roman Curia or the Holy See. The word "secret" continues to be used in this older, original sense in English in phrases such as "secret servants", "secret cupbearer", "secret carver", or "secretary", much like an esteemed position of honour and regard comparable to a VIP. One study in 1969 said the name "secret" was merited because the cataloguing system was so inadequate that it remained "an extensive buried city, a Herculaneum inundated by the lava of time ... secret as an archeological dig is secret".
Parts of the archive do, however, remain truly secret (or "classified" in a modern context). Most of the materials which are actively denied to outsiders relate to contemporary personalities and activities, including everything dated after 1939, as well as the private records of church figures after 1922.
Building an archive
The early church
In the first century of Christianity, the Church was already assembling a sizable collection of records. Known alternately as the Holy Scrinium or the Chartarium, it normally travelled with the current pope. The vast majority of these documents are now lost, but we know of them through references in contemporary and later works.
In later centuries, as the Church amassed power, popes would visit heads of state to negotiate treaties or make political appearances around Europe. Popes would also have multiple places of residency. When they travelled for diplomatic or other purposes, they would take their archives with them, since they needed it for administrative work. This resulted in some loss of items.
Uprisings, revolts, and the Western Schism (1085–1415)
By the 11th century, the archives of the church were devolved to at least three separate sites: the Lateran, St. Peter's Basilica, and the Palatine palace. Between the 11th and the 13th centuries, a large part of these archives disappeared.
When the Popes moved to Avignon, the process of transporting their archives took twenty years, all told. The various places where the archives were kept along the way were sacked by the Ghibellines three separate times, in 1314, 1319, and 1320.
Antipopes also had their own archives. The Western Schism resulted in two sets of papal archives being developed at once; this rose to three during the era of Pisan antipope John XXIII. The disparate archives of the rival papal claimants were not fully reunited in the Vatican's archives until 1784.
During the 1404 sack of the Vatican, papal registers and historical documents were thrown into the streets, and Pope Innocent VII fled the city. His successor, Pope Gregory XII, supposedly sold off a large number of archival materials in 1406, including some of the papal registers.
Founding the archive
French seizure and restoration
As Napoleon conquered the states on the Italian peninsula in the 1790s, he demanded works of art and manuscripts as tribute. His armistice with Holy See on 23 June 1796 stipulated that "the Pope shall deliver to the French Republic one hundred pictures, busts, vases or statues ... and five hundred manuscripts" all chosen by French agents. The 1798 Treaty of Tolentino made even greater demands and the works sent to Paris included the Codex Vaticanus, the oldest extant manuscript of the Bible in Greek. By the time Napoleon became emperor in 1804, he envisaged a central archive in Paris of the records and treasures of Europe. In 1809 he ordered the entire Vatican Archive transferred to Paris and by 1813 more than 3,000 crates had been shipped with only modest losses.
In April 1814, following Napoleon's defeat, the new French government ordered the archive returned, but provided inadequate financing. Vatican officials raised funds by selling some volumes as well as bundling documents for sale by weight.[a] Inadequate funding led to losses en route and one scholar of the period estimates that "about one-fourth to one-third of the archival materials that went to Paris never returned to the Vatican."[b]
Access to scholars
Nineteenth century developments
In 1855, Augustin Theiner, prefect of the Archive, began to publish multi-volume collections of documents from the archive. His predecessor Marino Marini had produced an account of Galileo's trials that failed to satisfy scholars who saw it as an apology for the Inquisition. Beginning in 1867, Theiner and his successor granted individual scholars access to the manuscripts relating to the trial of Galileo, leading to an extended dispute about their authenticity. Scholarly access was briefly interrupted following the dissolution of the Papal States in 1870, when archive officials restricted access to assert their control against competing claims by the victorious Italian state.
In 1879, Pope Leo XIII appointed as archivist Cardinal Josef Hergenröther, who immediately wrote a memo recommending that historians be allowed to access to the archive. Access had remained limited out of concern that Protestant researchers might use their access to slander or embarrass the Church. Hergenröther's approach led to Pope Leo ordering a reading room constructed for researchers; it opened on 1 January 1881. When the German Protestant historian Theodor von Sickel, in April 1883, published the results of his research in the archive that defended the Church against charges of forgery,[c] Pope Leo was further persuaded. In August 1883 he wrote to the three cardinals who shared responsibility for the archives and praised the potential of historical research to clarify the role of the papacy in European culture and Italian politics. He announced that the archives would be open to research that was impartial and critical. In an address to the Görres Society in February 1884, Pope Leo said: "Go to the sources. That is why I have opened the archives to you. We are not afraid of people publishing documents out of them."
Access in the modern era
In 1979, historian Carlo Ginzburg sent a letter to the newly-elected Pope John Paul II, asking that the archives of the Holy Office (the Roman Inquisition) be opened. Pope Benedict XVI said that letter was instrumental in the Vatican's decision to open those archives.
Though the archive has developed policies that restrict access to material by pontificate, with access granted 75 years after the close of a pope's reign, popes have granted exceptions. Pope Paul VI made the records of the Second Vatican Council available not long after in ended. In 2002, for example, Pope John Paul II allowed scholars access to documents from the historical archives of the Secretariat of State (Second Section) pertaining to the Holy See's relations with Germany during the pontificate of Pope Pius XI (1922–39) in order "to put an end to unjust and thoughtless speculation" about the Church's relationship with the Nazi Party.
Following the success of the 2008 film Angels & Demons adapted from the Dan Brown novel of the same name, which depicts a visit to the Archive, the Vatican opened the Archives to a select group of journalists in 2010 to dispute the film's treatment.
In 2018, Pope Francis ordered the Vatican Archive to open documents which would assist in a "thorough study" concerning former Cardinal Theodore McCarrick, who was accused of sexually molesting seminarians and having affairs with young priests.
Pope Francis announced on 4 March 2019 that materials relating to Pope Pius XII will be opened on 2 March 2020. Francis said that Pius's legacy had been "debated and even criticized (one might say with some prejudice or exaggeration)", that "The Church is not afraid of history", and that he anticipated "appropriate criticism".  In addition to assessing Pius's response to the Holocaust, the archives of the papacy of Pope Pius XII should point to much broader shift in global Christianity from Europe to the global South. Since 2006, members of the archives department have been organising the estimated 16 million pages of documents, to get them ready for viewing by researchers.
The Vatican Apostolic Archive has been estimated to contain 85 kilometres (53 mi) of shelving, with 35,000 volumes in the selective catalogue alone.
Complete archives of letters written by the popes, known as the papal registers, are available beginning with the papacy of Innocent III (r. 1198-1216). A few registers of earlier popes also survive, including John VIII (r. 872-882) and Gregory VII (r. 1073-1085). There is little other documentation of the papacy before the 13th century.
Notable documents include Henry VIII of England's request for a marriage annulment, a handwritten transcript of the trial of Galileo for heresy, and letters from Michelangelo complaining he had not been paid for work on the Sistine Chapel.
To mark the 400th anniversary of the Vatican Archives, 100 documents dating from the 8th to the 20th century were put on display from February to September 2012 in the "Lux in arcana – The Vatican Secret Archives reveals itself" exhibition held at the Capitoline Museums in Rome. They included the 1521 bull of excommunication of Martin Luther and a letter from Mary, Queen of Scots, written while awaiting her execution.
The archive also supports its own photographic and conservation studios.
Qualified scholars from institutions of higher education pursuing scientific research with an adequate knowledge of archival research may apply for an entry card. Scholars need an introductory letter from either a recognized institute of research or a suitably qualified person in their field of historical research. Applicants need to provide their personal data (name, address, etc.), as well as the purpose of their research. Only sixty researchers per day are allowed inside.
With limited exceptions, materials dated after 1939 are unavailable to researchers until 2 March 2020, when material from Pius XII's tenure (1939-1958) is opened. An entire section of the archives relating to the personal affairs of cardinals from 1922 onwards cannot be accessed.
Early in the 21st century, the Vatican Apostolic Archives began an in-house digitization project, to attempt to both make the documents more available to researchers and to help to preserve aging physical documents.
The archives by 2018 had 180 terabytes of digital storage capacity, and had digitized over seven million images. Given how vast the archives are, however, this means that only a small fraction of the total content of the Archives is available online; an even smaller percentage has been transcribed into searchable computer text.
In Codice Ratio
In 2017, a project based in Roma Tre University called In Codice Ratio began using artificial intelligence and optical character recognition to attempt to transcribe more documents from the archives. While character-recognition software is adept at reading typed text, the cramped and many-serifed style of medieval handwriting makes distinguishing individual characters difficult for the software. Many individual letters of the alphabet are often confused by human readers of medieval handwriting, let alone a computer program. The team behind In Codice Ratio tried to solve this problem by developing a machine-learning software that could parse this handwriting. Their program eventually achieved 96% accuracy in parsing this type of text.
Other Holy See archives
There are other Holy See archives in Rome, since each department of the Roman Curia has its own archives. The word "secret" in its modern sense can be applied to some of the material kept by the Apostolic Penitentiary, when it concerns matters of the internal forum; but registers of the rescripts that it issued up to 1564 have been deposited in the Vatican Apostolic Archives and are open for consultation by qualified scholars. Half of these have already been put in digital form for easier consultation. The confidentiality of the material means that, in spite of the centuries that have passed since 1564, special rules apply to its publication.
- Actes et documents du Saint Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale (Acts and Documents of the Holy See relative to the Second World War)
- Acta Apostolicae Sedis
- Archive of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
- Vatican Film Library
- List of national archives
- Some records are now held by the library of Trinity College, Dublin, and the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.
- Documents relating to Galileo were stolen from the Paris archive by the Comte de Blacas (1771–1839) and only returned to the Vatican by his widow in 1843.
- Von Sickel studied the letter in which the Holy Roman Emperor Otto the Great made grants to the papacy, the Privilegium Ottonis, a document critical to establishment of the Papal States.
- "Contacts". Vatican Secret Archives. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- "Apostolic Letter in the form of a Motu proprio for the change of the name of the Vatican Secret Archive to the Vatican Apostolic Archive, 28.10.2019". Holy See Press Office. 28 October 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
- Harris, Elise (28 October 2019). "Vatican archive will no longer be 'secret' but apostolic". Crux. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
Signed Oct. 22 and released Oct. 28, the pope's new norm goes into effect immediately.
- Pastor, Ludwig von (1906). The History of the Popes, from the Close of the Middle Ages: Drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatican and other original sources. III. K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Company, Limited. p. 31.
- Boyle, Leonard E. (2001). A Survey of the Vatican Archives and of Its Medieval Holdings. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. p. 14. ISBN 9780888444172.
- "The Title "Vatican Secret Archives"". Archived from the original on 5 August 2009.
- Ambrosini, Maria Luisa (1969). The Secret Archives of the Vatican. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co. pp. 16, 27, 134. ISBN 0760701253. OCLC 35364715. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
- John, Christina (4 March 2013). "Making the Invisible Visible: The Secret Vatican Archives". Glocal Notes. University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Cuccia, Phillip (2013). "Controlling the Archives: The Requisition, Removal, and Return of the Vatican Archives during the Age of Napoleon". Napoleonica. La Revue. 2 (17): 66–74. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- Chadwick, Owen (1976). Catholicism and History: The Opening of the Vatican Archives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 18.
- Chadwick, Owen (1976). Catholicism and History: The Opening of the Vatican Archives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 21.
- van Gebler, Karl (1879). Galileo Galilei and the Roman Curia. London: C. Kegan Paul & Company. pp. 324ff. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
- Chadwick, Owen (1976). Catholicism and History: The Opening of the Vatican Archives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 93.
- Chadwick, Owen (1976). Catholicism and History: The Opening of the Vatican Archives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 95.
- Chadwick, Owen (1976). Catholicism and History: The Opening of the Vatican Archives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 97–103.
- Tussing, Nicholas (September 2007). "The Politics of Leo XIII's Opening of the Vatican Archives: The Ownership of the Past". The American Archivist. 70 (2): 364–386. doi:10.17723/aarc.70.2.4076070w5831168x. ISSN 0360-9081.
- Schutte, Anne Jacobsen (1 May 1999). "Palazzo del Sant'Uffizio: The Opening of the Roman Inquisition's Central Archive". Perspectives on History. American Historical Association. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "Vatican Archivists Rush to Declassify WWII Documents". Catholic World News. 20 February 2002.
- Squires, Nick (27 May 2010). "The Vatican opens its Secret Archives to dispel Dan Brown myths". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "Pope authorizes thorough study of Vatican archives into ex-Cardinal McCarrick scandal". WFTV. 6 October 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- Winfield, Nicole (6 October 2018). "Pope authorizes study of Vatican archives into McCarrick scandal". PBS News Hour. Associated Press. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- "Address of His Holiness Pope Francis to Officials of the Vatican Secret Archive". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019. Cite journal requires
- D'Souza, Rinald (10 March 2019). "The Shift in the Vatican Secret Archives". Historia Domus. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "Pius XII: Pope to open Holocaust-era archives". BBC News. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- "Home Page Archivio Segreto Vaticano". www.archiviosegretovaticano.va.
- Ambrosini, Maria Luisa (1969). The Secret Archives of the Vatican. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co. pp. 84, 92. ISBN 0760701253. OCLC 35364715. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
- Paul Fraser Collectibles. "Henry VIII". Paul Fraser Collectibles.
- Macdonald, Fiona (19 August 2016). "The secret libraries of history". BBC. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- "Nothing mysterious about Vatican archives, official says". Catholic News Agency. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "Conservation and restoration". www.archiviosegretovaticano.va. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "Storeroom of the new premises".
- "Admission request". www.archiviosegretovaticano.va. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- O'Loughlin, Michael (1 September 2014). "What's hidden in the Vatican Secret Archives?". CRUX. Boston Globe Media Partners, LLC. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- "Catholic World News : Computerizing Archives for the Holy Office, Inquisition". 21 November 2003. Archived from the original on 21 November 2003. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "Digital acquisition". www.archiviosegretovaticano.va. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- Kean, Sam (30 April 2018). "Artificial Intelligence Is Cracking Open the Vatican's Secret Archives". The Atlantic. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Firmani, D.; Merialdo, P.; Nieddu, E.; Scardapane, S. (2017). "In codice ratio: OCR of handwritten Latin documents using deep convolutional networks" (PDF). International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence for Cultural Heritage. pp. 9–16.
- "AI tackles the Vatican's secrets". MIT Technology Review. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- Firmani, Donatella; Merialdo, Paolo; Maiorino, Marco (25 September 2017). "In Codice Ratio: Scalable Transcription of Vatican Registers". ERCIM News. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "The Archive of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary".
- Additional sources
- Blouin, Jr., Francis X.; Coombs, Leonard A.; Yakel, Elizabeth; Carlen, Claudia; Gill, Katherine J. (1998). Vatican Archives: an inventory and guide to historical documents of the Holy See. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509552-9.
- Borromeo, Agostino (2003). L'inquisizione : atti del Simposio internazionale, Città del Vaticano [The inquisition: proceedings of the international Symposium, Vatican City] (in Italian). Biblioteca apostolica vaticana. ISBN 88-210-0761-8.
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