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Vaughan

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Vaughan
City (lower-tier)
City of Vaughan
Vaughan as viewed from Canada's Wonderland
Vaughan as viewed from Canada's Wonderland
Official seal of Vaughan
Seal
Official logo of Vaughan
Logo
Vaughan is located in Southern Ontario
Vaughan
Vaughan
Coordinates: 43°50′N 79°30′W / 43.833°N 79.500°W / 43.833; -79.500Coordinates: 43°50′N 79°30′W / 43.833°N 79.500°W / 43.833; -79.500
Country Canada
Province Ontario
Regional Municipality York
Communities
Settled 1792
Incorporated 1850 (Township)
Incorporated 1991 (City)
Government
 • Type Municipal (City)
 • Mayor Maurizio Bevilacqua
 • Regional Councillor Gino Rosati
Michael Di Biase
Deb Schulte
 • City Manager Steve Kanellakos
 • Councillors
 • MPs, and MPPs
Area[1]
 • Land 273.56 km2 (105.62 sq mi)
Population (2016)[1]
 • Total 306,233
 • Density 1,119.4/km2 (2,899/sq mi)
 • Total Private Dwellings 71,265
  Population ranked 17th nationally
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 905, 289, and 365
Website www.vaughan.ca
Vaughan within York Region

Vaughan (2016 population 306,233)[1] is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is located in the Regional Municipality of York, just north of Toronto. Vaughan was the fastest-growing municipality in Canada between 1996 and 2006, achieving a population growth rate of 80.2% according to Statistics Canada[2] having nearly doubled in population since 1991. It is the fifth-largest city in the Greater Toronto Area, and the 17th-largest city in Canada.

History[edit]

In the late pre-contact period, the Huron-Wendat people populated what is today Vaughan. The Skandatut ancestral Wendat village overlooked the east branch of the Humber River (Pinevalley Drive) and was once home to approximately 2000 Huron in the sixteenth century.[3] The site is close to a Huron ossuary (mass grave) uncovered in Kleinburg in 1970, and one kilometre north of the Seed-Barker Huron site[4]

The first European to pass through Vaughan was the French explorer Étienne Brûlé, who traversed the Humber Trail in 1615. However, it was not until the townships were created in 1792 that Vaughan began to see European settlements, as it was considered to be extremely remote and the lack of roads through the region made travel difficult. The township was named after Benjamin Vaughan, a British commissioner who signed a peace treaty with the United States in 1783.

Despite the hardships of pioneer life, settlers came to Vaughan in considerable numbers. The population grew from 19 men, 5 women, and 30 children in 1800 to 4,300 in 1840. The first people to arrive were mainly Pennsylvania Germans, with a smaller number of families of English descent and a group of French Royalists. This migration from the United States was by 1814 superseded by immigrants from Britain. While many of their predecessors had been agriculturalists, the newer immigrants proved to be highly skilled tradespeople, which would prove useful for a growing community.

Around the facilities established by this group were a number of hamlets, the oldest of which was Thornhill, which witnessed the construction of a saw-mill in 1801, a grist mill in 1815, and boasted a population of 300 by 1836. Other such enclaves included Kleinburg, Coleraine, Maple, Richmond Hill, Teston, Claireville, Pine Grove, Carrville, Patterson, Burlington, Concord, Edgeley, Fisherville, Elder's Mills, Elgin Mills, Jefferson, Nashville, Purpleville, Richvale, Sherwood, Langstaff, Vellore, and Burwick (Woodbridge).

In 1846, the Township was primarily agricultural but had a population of 4,300. There were six grist mills and 25 saw mills.[5] By 1935, there were 4,873 residents.

However, World War II sparked an influx of immigration, and by 1960, the population stood at 15,957. The ethno-cultural composition of the area began to change with the arrival of different groups such as Italians, Jews and Eastern Europeans.

Incorporated in 1850 as Vaughan Township, a municipal government was established. Vaughan Road was a rural road constructed in 1850 that linked Vaughan Township with Toronto, though this street's current alignment is much shorter and serves only much of the eastern half of the former city of York.[6] In 1971, the new regional government of York Region was established, acquiring policing and welfare services from the communities it served; simultaneously, the township merged with the Village of Woodbridge to form the Town of Vaughan. In 1991, it changed its legal status to City of Vaughan.[7]

An F2 tornado tore through the city of Vaughan during the Southern Ontario Tornado Outbreak on August 20, 2009. Premier Dalton McGuinty and Mayor Linda Jackson toured the destruction the next day and reported 200 homes in critical shape and as many as 600 additional homes likely to be demolished. The tornado also ripped up trees, flipped cars, and left thousands of people without power. Vaughan declared a state of emergency because of the widespread damage.[8][9] One man injured in the storm suffered a heart attack the following morning.[10]

Mayor and Councillors[edit]

Vaughan City Hall

Vaughan City Council has nine members: the mayor, three regional councillors, and five local councillors. The mayor, elected at large, is the head of Vaughan council and a representative on York Region Council. The three regional councillors are elected to represent Vaughan at both local and regional levels of government. Five local councillors are also elected, one from each of Vaughan's five wards, to represent those wards on Vaughan Council. City councillors meet at the Civic Centre, located in the community of Maple. The City's new City Hall was opened on September 25, 2011. The building is named in memory of late Mayor Lorna Jackson. The new Civic Centre is one of the first in Canada to conform to a LEED Gold Standard, the second highest environmental classification available.[11]

Vaughan is the first municipality in Ontario to have a Youth City Councillor. The youth city councillor is appointed as a non-voting member of Council every six months to represent the youth of Vaughan. Vaughan council originally rejected the proposal of a youth councillor but, after the Vaughan Youth Cabinet amended its proposal, Council accepted the recommendation.[12]

After serving as mayor for nine years, Lorna Jackson sees the Town of Vaughan become incorporated as the City of Vaughan.[13] Following the death of Mayor Lorna Jackson in 2002, Michael Di Biase was appointed mayor by Vaughan council by virtue of his position as one of two regional councillors representing Vaughan, Joyce Frustaglio was the other regional councillor. Gino Rosati, a Vaughan local councillor, was subsequently appointed by Vaughan Council to fill Di Biase’s position as regional councillor and a by-election was held to fill Rosati’s local councillor’s position which was won by Linda Jackson, the daughter of Mayor Jackson. Di Biase first became involved in the city's politics in 1985, when he was elected as a local councillor in 1985. Di Biase retained the mayorship in the 2003 municipal clection, defeating challenger Robert Craig.

In the municipal election on November 13, 2006, Di Biase was narrowly defeated by Linda Jackson, who was sworn in as mayor on December 4, 2006. On June 18, 2008, an audit of Jackson's 2006 campaign finances found that the politician exceeded her legal spending limit of $120,419 by at least $12,356, or 10 per cent. The auditors, LECG Canada Ltd., say that amount could almost double if what they believed to be unreported contributions in kind at various election events – but couldn't prove – are later verified.[14]

They also found other apparent contraventions of the Canada Elections Act, including at least five instances where associated companies made donations that exceeded the normal $750 donation limit per company.

On June 24, 2008, Vaughan Council voted unanimously to hire a special prosecutor to consider laying charges against Mayor Linda Jackson under the Municipal Elections Act in reaction to the auditors' report. Council hired Timothy Wilkin, "an expert in municipal law" to decide what (if any) charges are to be laid.[15] If Jackson is charged and found guilty, she would face punishments ranging from fines to removal from office.

Subsequently, an audit was conducted on former Mayor Di Biase's 2006 election campaign funds. This exposed 27 contraventions under the Elections Act, along with a $155,000 anonymous cash payment made to his lawyer to cover his legal fees. Di Biase has refused to disclose who made this payment.[16]

On 25 October 2010, longtime MP Maurizio Bevilacqua was elected mayor and he assumed office in December 2010.

Geography[edit]

Vaughan is bounded by Caledon and Brampton to the west, King and Richmond Hill to the north, Markham and Richmond Hill to the east, and Toronto, to the south.

Communities[edit]

The city is made up of five major communities. Most residents (and even non-residents) identify more with these smaller communities than they do with the city as a whole. Even though Vaughan is a city, it is not listed in the phone book. Instead, Bell Canada uses the original community exchanges and lists them separately, resulting in local calling areas being different throughout the city.

  • Woodbridge: North/South - Major Mackenzie[17]/Steeles, East/West - Hwy 400/Hwy 50
  • Maple: North/South - King Vaughan Line/Rutherford, East/West - Bathurst/Hwy 400
  • Thornhill: North/South - Hwys. 7 and 407 (Major Mackenzie for the area west of Bathurst)/Steeles, East/West - Yonge/Dufferin
  • Concord: North/South - Rutherford/Steeles, East/West - Dufferin/Hwy 400
  • Kleinburg: North/South - King Vaughan Line/Major Mackenzie, East/West - Hwy 400/Hwy 50

These communities are seen today are extended far beyond their original sites, encompassing lesser-known and smaller communities in turn. Some of these smaller communities include Vaughan Metropolitan Centre, Pine Grove, and Teston.

Climate[edit]

Vaughan like much of the Greater Toronto Area features a continental climate Dfb and has four distinct seasons.


Services[edit]

Health Care[edit]

Vaughan is the largest city in Canada without a hospital.[19] The nearest full-service hospital facilities are Humber River Regional Hospital, to the south in Toronto, Brampton Civic Hospital, to the west in Brampton, and Mackenzie Richmond Hill Hospital to the east in Richmond Hill.

Mackenzie Vaughan Hospital is under construction along Major Mackenzie Drive (between Highway 400 and Jane Street)[20] which would serve Vaughan. Its planning stage began in 2007.[21] The provincial government of Ontario approved construction of the hospital in July 2011, and a tender for bids to construct it will be issued in 2014 or 2015.[22] Land preparation for construction began in the summer of 2014.[23] The expected date of completion is 2019.[24] It will be part of a regional hospital system with a "single governance, administration and medical staff"[22] managed by Mackenzie Richmond Hill Hospital.

Fire services[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Ethnic Origin (2016)[25] Population Percent
Italian 94,730 31.1
Russian 25,635 8.4
Canadian 24,185 8.0
Chinese 24,130 7.9
East Indian 20,595 6.7
Polish 18,265 6.0
Jewish 13,650 4.5
English 11,575 3.8
Ukrainian 9,570 3.1
Portuguese 9,145 3.0
Filipino 9,140 3.0
Irish 7,185 2.4
Vietnamese 6,845 2.2
Scottish 6,775 2.2
Iranian 6,685 2.2
Historical populations
YearPop.±%
197115,873—    
198129,674+86.9%
1991111,359+275.3%
1996132,549+19.0%
2001182,022+37.3%
2006238,866+31.2%
2011288,301+20.7%
2016306,233+6.2%

According to Statistics Canada, the population grew 6.2 percent from 2011 to 2016.[1] Median age as of 2016 was 40.2, lower than the Ontario median age of 41.3.[1]

Vaughan is known as having some of the highest concentrations of southern Europeans (notably Italians), Eastern Europeans (chiefly Russians) and Jewish people in Ontario, while those who are of British and/or Irish origin form a smaller proportion than in many other Southern Ontario cities.

Visible minorities make up 35.4% of the population.[1] Vaughan has small but growing Indian, Pakistani, Hispanic, Jamaican, Vietnamese and Chinese populations.

According to the 2016 Census, English is the mother tongue of 45.2% of the residents of Vaughan. Italian is the mother tongue for 12.3% of the population, followed by Russian (6.8%) and Spanish (2.4%). Each of Punjabi, Tagalog (Filipino), Hebrew, Persian, Mandarin, Urdu, Cantonese, and Vietnamese has a percentage ranging from 1.5% to 2.9%, signifying Vaughan's high linguistic diversity.[1]

As of 2011, 60.62% of the city's population adheres to Christianity, mostly Catholicism (46.23%). Those who practice non-Christian religions adhere to, in order of size, Judaism (15.28%), Islam (4.92%), Hinduism (4.50%), and Buddhism (2.52%). Those who do not have a religious affiliation account for 10.04% of the population.[26]

Crime[edit]

Organized crime has been prevalent in Vaughan.[27] Notable incidents include mob shootings outside the Terrace banquet hall in July 2013 resulting in two deaths, one of which was mobster Salvatore Calautti[28] and the Regina Sports Café in April 2014 resulting in the death of Carmine Verduci,[29] as well as the Woodbridge Cafe shooting at Islington Avenue and Highway 7 in June 2015.[30] Three killings in March 2017; on March 14, a 28-year-old Vaughan woman was shot as she sat in a car parked outside of a lighting business on Caster Avenue, on March 23, a shooting of a 26-year-old Ajax man at Jane Street and Highway 7,[31] and on March 30, a private social club shooting near Martin Grove Road and Highway 7.[32] In April 2017, mayor Maurizio Bevilacqua spoke after the third March murder, stating people "should not live in fear".[33][34]

Culture[edit]

Attractions[edit]

Sports[edit]

Vaughan is home to many amateur sports teams for a variety of sports, with an organization running a league for each of the four major sports. There are also rep and select levels of these sports where the Vaughan Rangers, Vaughan Panthers, and Vaughan Kings represent the city in youth hockey,[35][36] the Vaughan Vikings represent the city in baseball,[37] the Vaughan Rebels represent the city in football,[38] and the Vaughan Panthers represent the city in basketball.[39] Vaughan also has a high softball following, with the Vaughan Vikings and Woodbridge Warriors offering house league and rep opportunities, as well as and adult World Series Slo Pitch league.[40] The city also hosts the Vaughan Flames, a youth organization exclusively for woman's hockey.[41] The name also belonged to the former CWHL hockey team that folded in 2010. Additionally, the Vaughan Vipers formerly played in the Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League. In 2012, the Vipers were decommissioned and withdrew from their league.[42]

The city is also home to numerous gold and country clubs. These include The National Golf Club of Canada, one of Canada's highest ranking golf clubs.[43]

Vaughan Professional Sports Teams
Sport Team League Years Stadium League

Championships

Soccer Toronto FC II USL 2015-2017 Ontario Soccer Centre 0
Vaughan Azzurri L1O 2014–present McNaughton Turf 1
Woodbridge Strikers L1O 2014–present Vaughan Grove 1 0
York Region Shooters CSL 1998–present St. Joan of Arc Turf Field 3
Hockey Vaughan Flames CWHL 1999-2010 Vaughan Sports Village 0

Soccer[edit]

Vaughan SC and Woodbridge SC offer house league and rep programs for youth soccer, as players for Vaughan Azzurri and Woodbridge Stikers respectively. These team names are also used for the city's two League1 Ontario teams. Additionally, Vaughan is home to the Ontario Soccer Association, the largest sports organization in Canada.[44] The OSA has over 400,000 registered players, and runs leagues across the entire province.[45] Vaughan is also home to the Canadian Soccer Hall of Fame and Museum.[46] Vaughan is also home to the semi-professional York Region Shooters from the Canadian Soccer League.

Prior to 2018, Vaughan also played home to Toronto FC II, the United Soccer League affiliate team for Toronto FC.[47] Because the stadium's expansion to include more seating fell through, the team announced it would be moving to play in BMO Field / Lamport Stadium for the 2018 season.[48]

Media[edit]

Print[edit]

Based out of Vaughan, Dolce Publishing has printed a quarterly magazine known as Dolce Vita since 1996. This magazine is a focus on the luxury lifestyle for readers across the GTA. Since 2003, Dolce Publishing has also made City Life, a bi-monthly magazine about city living in Vaughan. In total, these two magazines have a total audience of roughly 370,000 people.[49][50]

Additionally, Vaughan has a weekly newspaper, the Vaughan Citizen. The newspaper has a circulation of roughly 59,000 and serves the city's major neighbourhoods of Concord, Kleinberg, Maple, and Woodbridge. The neighbourhood of Thornhill has its own weekly paper, the Thornhill Liberal.[51]

Film[edit]

Kleinburg is home to the Cinespace Film Studios, a centre for television and motion picture production. Several famous movie stars are often spotted around Kleinburg, making it a popular tourist/gawker attraction. The popular children's TV show The Forest Rangers, starring Gordon Pinsent, was filmed here between 1963 and 1965. In 2006, the movie The Sentinel was filmed at the McMichael Art Gallery.

Education[edit]

York University in North York, Ontario lies on the Toronto side of the Toronto-Vaughan border. It is a major comprehensive university, with more than 43,000 students enrolled through 10 different faculties. There are also a number of elementary and high schools in Vaughan, which operate under the York Region District School Board and the York Catholic District School Board. There are also some private schools, the largest of which is the Anne & Max Tanenbaum Community Hebrew Academy of Toronto (TanenbaumCHAT), a Jewish day school serving over 600 high school students. There is also a Waldorf school, the Toronto Waldorf School, which offers early childhood, elementary and accredited high school programs.

Economy[edit]

Vaughan is home to a number of small to large corporations that provide employment opportunities:

Archaeology[edit]

Vaughan is located in Ontario
Seed-Barker site
Seed-Barker site
Seed-Barker site 16th century Iroquoian village, Vaughan, ON

The Seed-Barker archaeological site is a 16th-century Iroquois village on the Humber River in Vaughan. It has been used as a summer school field trip site since 1976 by the Boyd archaeological field summer school for high school students. The school is sponsored by the York Region district school board in co-operation with the Royal Ontario Museum and the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (TRCA). In 1895, a local farmer began finding Iroquoian artifacts in the area. In 1895, Roland Orr recognized the classic ecological features favoured by the Iroquoian people for their villages: floodplains along a river, an easily defensible plateau and nearby forests. The Iroquois used the floodplains to plant maize, beans and squash,:1 known as the three sisters. In the 1950s, University of Toronto professor Norman Emerson and the students excavated artifacts from the Seed-Baker site. Since 1975, more that a million artifacts were discovered and nineteen longhouses were excavated revealing that the village was occupied by the Iroquois from c. 1500 - 1550 AD.[54]

Notable people[edit]

Order of Vaughan[edit]

In 2016, to celebrate the city's 25th anniversary, Mayor Bevilacqua introduced the Order of Vaughan. This award is meant to be the highest honour bestowed by the city.[55] Initially, twenty-five recipients were given the award as a reflection of the anniversary; however, the city announced in 2017 that up to ten new individuals would receive the award each year after.[56][57] The award is meant to recognize people in the categories of: accessibility, arts and entertainment, athletics, business, education, environment and spirituality, equity and diversity, health and wellness, media and communications, not-for-profit, philanthropy, public service, and science and technology.[58]

Twin cities[edit]

[59]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics (February 8, 2017). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Vaughan, City [Census subdivision], Ontario and Canada [Country]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved March 21, 2017. 
  2. ^ "Changes in population at the community level". A profile of the Canadian population: where we live. Statistics Canada. 2003-01-20. Retrieved 2006-10-29. 
  3. ^ Salvage excavations of nationally significant Huron sites in Vaughan continue into 2010. Cf., Gail Swainson, Toronto Star, First Nations want say in the preservation of important archaeological sites in Ontario, Aug. 29, 2010; U of T basements hold thousands of remains, Sept. 3, 2010; First Nation battles for history in court, Sept. 10, 2010. See also Archaeological Services, Inc., "Stage 4 Salvage Excavation of the Baker Site, June 2006.
  4. ^ University of Toronto, Anthropology Dept., Seed-Barker Site.
  5. ^ Smith, Wm. H. (1846). SMITH'S CANADIAN GAZETTEER - STATISTICAL AND GENERAL INFORMATION RESPECTING ALL PARTS OF THE UPPER PROVINCE, OR CANADA WEST:. Toronto: H. & W. ROWSELL. p. 199. 
  6. ^ "History of Vaughan Road". The Tollkeepers Cottage and Early Roads such as Vaughan Road. Retrieved 2008-02-19. 
  7. ^ Bulletin #4: Settlement, Education, Social and Political History. City of Vaughan Archives, Cultural Services Division. 1992. 
  8. ^ "'Miracle no one killed' by Vaughan tornado, mayor says". Vaughan Citizen. 2009-08-20. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  9. ^ "Relief and disbelief in Vaughan". Cnews.canoe.ca. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  10. ^ Roberts, Rob (2009-08-21). "Vaughan man suffers heart attack after tornado injuries; McGuinty visits damaged neighbourhood". National Post. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  11. ^ "Vaughan Highlights Environmental Partnerships at 2006 Smog Summit". 2006-06-07. Retrieved 2008-02-19. 
  12. ^ "Youth in Politics Article" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  13. ^ "City of Vaughan Celebrates 25 Years since Incorporation". GTA Real Estate News | Presented by Living Realty. 2016-09-27. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  14. ^ Vaughan mayor to face election-financing charges CBC News 25 June 2008
  15. ^ Vaughan mayor faces charges over election Phinjo Gombu, Toronto Star 25 June 2008.
  16. ^ Former Vaughan mayor Di Biase faces 27 election-related charges Caroline Grech, Yorkregion.com 17 Sept 2009
  17. ^ "Vaughan–Woodbridge - Maps Corner - Elections Canada Online". www.elections.ca. 
  18. ^ "Woodbridge, Ontario". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved 2013-12-17. 
  19. ^ "Ontario starts planning for new hospital in Vaughan". Canhealth.com. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  20. ^ [1] Archived October 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ http://www.city.vaughan.on.ca/vaughan/council/ward_5/pdf/newsletter%20special%20edition%20-%20hosptial%20announcement%20April%2027%202007.pdf
  22. ^ a b "York Central Hospital Receives Approval to Build New Hospital in Vaughan". Vaughan: CNW Group Ltd. Canada NewsWire. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-22. 
  23. ^ Guran, Catalina. "Early Work Preparation to Begin on Site of New Mackenzie Vaughan Hospital". mackenziehealth.ca. 
  24. ^ Cardoso, Nelson. "Mackenzie Vaughan Hospital". mackenziehealth.ca. 
  25. ^ "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". Statistics Canada. 
  26. ^ "NHS Profile, Vaughan, CY, Ontario, 2011". Statistics Canada. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2015. 
  27. ^ Grimaldi, Jeremy (30 December 2015). "Organized crime continues to be huge problem in Vaughan - YorkRegion.com". 
  28. ^ "Alleged mobsters shot to death at Vaughan stag party". 12 July 2013. 
  29. ^ "Rizzuto revenge suspected in murder of GTA mobster Carmine Verduci in Woodbridge - Toronto Star". thestar.com. 
  30. ^ "Double murder in Vaughan close to 2 other café murders over last year". 
  31. ^ Kelly, Tim (23 March 2017). "Second Vaughan killing in nine days; man shot on Hwy. 7 near Jane - YorkRegion.com". 
  32. ^ Kelly, Tim (1 April 2017). "UPDATE: Police identify man killed outside Vaughan private club - YorkRegion.com". 
  33. ^ Kelly, Tim (2 April 2017). "Vaughan Mayor Maurizio Bevilacqua speaks after third recent murder - YorkRegion.com". 
  34. ^ Herhalt, Chris (1 April 2017). "Vaughan mayor urges residents not to 'live in fear' after 3 deadly shootings". 
  35. ^ "About Us (City of Vaughan Hockey)". vaughanhockey.com. Retrieved 2018-02-03. 
  36. ^ "Home". Vaughan Kings. Retrieved 2018-02-03. 
  37. ^ "Mission & Rules – Vaughan Vikings". www.vaughanvikings.com. Retrieved 2018-02-03. 
  38. ^ "http://vaughanfootball.com/index.php". vaughanfootball.com. Retrieved 2018-02-03.  External link in |title= (help)
  39. ^ "Vaughan Panthers Basketball | Rep Basketball". vaughanpanthersbasketball.com. Retrieved 2018-02-03. 
  40. ^ "Vaughan World Series Slo-Pitch | ..: the sunday night league :." vwssl.com. Retrieved 2018-02-03. 
  41. ^ "Vaughan Girls Hockey Association powered by GOALLINE.ca". vaughan.goalline.ca. Retrieved 2018-02-03. 
  42. ^ Hayakawa, Michael (2012-03-09). "OJHL decomissions Vaughan Vipers". YorkRegion.com. Retrieved 2018-02-03. 
  43. ^ "2017-18 Ranking: Top 30 Courses in Canada - Golf Digest". Golf Digest. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  44. ^ "Contact Us". www.ontariosoccer.net. Retrieved 2018-02-02. 
  45. ^ "Who We Are". www.ontariosoccer.net. Retrieved 2018-02-02. 
  46. ^ "Canadian Soccer Hall of Fame, Vaughan". YorkRegion.com. 2007-06-28. Retrieved 2018-02-02. 
  47. ^ Kelly, Tim (April 15, 2016). "Toronto FC II Aims to Take Strong Start Into Home Opener". YorkRegion.com. 
  48. ^ "Toronto FC II announce 2018 home venues". Toronto FC. 2018-01-26. Retrieved 2018-02-03. 
  49. ^ "Publications To Inspire, Delight And Enrich People's Lives | City Life Vaughan Lifestyle Magazine". 2017-10-07. Archived from the original on 2017-10-07. Retrieved 2018-02-18. 
  50. ^ "Publications | City Life Magazine Vaughan Woodbridge". 2017-07-21. Archived from the original on 2017-07-21. Retrieved 2018-02-18. 
  51. ^ "York Region : About Us | YorkRegion.com". 2017-04-25. Archived from the original on 2017-04-25. Retrieved 2018-02-18. 
  52. ^ http://www.canadianmanufacturing.com/procurement/scottish-bus-maker-establish-ontario-plant-part-metrolinx-deal-142679/
  53. ^ Home. Toys R Us. Retrieved on April 3, 2018. "Toys"R"Us (Canada) Ltd. 2777 Langstaff Road, Concord ON L4K 4M5"
  54. ^ Burgar & Crinnion 2005.
  55. ^ "Vaughan celebrates 25 years". www.newswire.ca. Retrieved 2018-01-30. 
  56. ^ Kelly, Tim (2016-10-21). "City reveals 25 who make cut for Order of Vaughan". YorkRegion.com. Retrieved 2018-01-30. 
  57. ^ "Ten residents invested with the Order of Vaughan". www.vaughan.ca. Retrieved 2018-01-30. 
  58. ^ "Vaughan introduces the Order of Vaughan". www.vaughan.ca. Retrieved 2018-01-30. 
  59. ^ City of Vaughan International Partnerships Accessed 18 November 2010

External links[edit]