A major contributor to this article appears to have a close connection with its subject. (January 2021)
|1st Prime Minister of Armenia|
13 August 1990 – 26 September 1991
|Preceded by||position established|
|Succeeded by||Gagik Harutyunyan|
|Acting Defence Minister of Armenia|
20 October 1992 – 21 August 1993
|Preceded by||Vazgen Sargsyan|
|Succeeded by||Serzh Sargsyan|
|Born||13 February 1946|
Leninakan, Armenian SSR, Soviet Union
|Political party||National Democratic Union|
Vazgen Mikayeli Manukyan (Armenian: Վազգեն Միքայելի Մանուկյան, born 13 February 1946) is an Armenian politician who served as the first Prime Minister of Armenia from 1990 to 1991. From 1992 to 1993, during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War, Manukyan was Defence Minister of Armenia. In 1990-1995 he was a member of the Supreme Council of Armenia, in 1995–2007 he was a member of the National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia.
Vazgen Manukyan was a co-founder and the coordinator of the Karabakh Committee (officially founded in February 1988), the body which led the Karabakh movement aimed at uniting Nagorno-Karabakh with Soviet Armenia. He was arrested by Soviet authorities on December 10, 1988, along with other members of the Karabakh Committee, and spent 6 months in Moscow's Matrosskaya Tishina prison. He was elected the first chairman of the Pan-Armenian National Movement in October 1989
From 1990 to 1991, he served as the Prime Minister of Armenia. On September 26, 1991, Vazgen Manukyan resigned as prime minister and founded his own party, the National Democratic Union (NDU), and has since served as its chairman. In September 1992, he was appointed Minister of State and Minister of Defense, while managing the military-industrial complex of the Republic of Armenia at the same time. Under Vazgen Manukyan, the Armenian Armed Forces were formed, the course of the war changed in favor of the Armenian side. He was dismissed from his post in August 1993. 
In 1996 the main political parties united nominating Vazgen Manukyan as a candidate in the presidential elections. Elections of 1996 resulted in widespread electoral fraud in favor of Levon Ter-Petrosyan.Opposition disputed the results of the 1996 presidential election and major protests broke out in Yerevan. Vazgen Manukyan lost further presidential elections in 1998, 2003 and 2008.
In the aftermath of the defeat of the Armenian side in the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war and the signing of the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement, a wave of protests broke out in Armenia demanding the resignation of Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan. On 3 December 2020, a coalition of 17 parliamentary and extra-parliamentary political parties formed the Homeland Salvation Movement and had nominated Vazgen Manukyan as their joint candidate for the position of prime minister and to form a transitional government. Ultimately, neither Vazgen Manukyan or the Homeland Salvation Movement participated in the 2021 Armenian parliamentary elections.
Early life and career
Vazgen Manukyan was born in Leninakan (modern-day Gyumri) in 1946. His family emigrated to Yerevan from the region of Moxoene during the Armenian genocide. His father, Mikael Manuki Manukyan, graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Yerevan State University (YSU) and was a doctor of sciences and a professor at Yerevan State University. His mother, Astghik Hmayaki Hakobyan, was born in Gyumri and graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Yerevan State University.
Vazgen Manukyan attended Yerevan's Anton Chekhov School no. 55. From 1963 to 1968 he studied at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Yerevan State University, then from 1966 to 1967 he continued his studies at Moscow State University, and conducted his postgraduate studies at the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union from 1969 to 1972. He is a candidate of physics and mathematics, has the title of Docent, and has authored a number of scientific articles. From 1972 to 1990 he lectured at Yerevan State University.
His wife, Varduhi Ishkhanyan, who is a mathematician by profession, is the daughter of well-known linguist and literary critic Rafael Ishkhanyan and linguist Byurakn Cheraz (whose father, Vahan Cheraz, was a famous Armenian athlete).
In 1988, three movements emerged in Armenia at the same time. The first was a large environmental one, the second was a smaller one, mainly organized by dissidents who were released from prison in 1987. The third movement, which aimed to unite Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia, was the one that gained the most momentum. In February 1988, the Karabakh Committee was established and soon took leadership of the Karabakh movement. Vazgen Manukyan was a founding member of the Karabakh Committee and became its coordinator in June 1988. The members of the committee often met in Manukyan's apartment.
Under the leadership of Vazgen Manukyan the Karabakh movement transformed from being purely concerned with the unification of Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia into a broader national-democratic movement, eventually raising the question of independence. In May 1988, political and ideological differences emerged among the leaders of the movement. Some wanted to focus only on the Karabakh issue and though that that no other issues should be raised. Others held that so many issues existed in Soviet Armenia that it was impossible to successfully advance the Karabakh issue without raising those as well. Manukyan held the view that it was necessary to work towards Armenian independence alongside the issue of Nagorno-Karabakh, and gradually the demand for independence came to the forefront of the movement as well.
On July 5, 1988, after Karabakh protestors clashed with Soviet troops at Zvartnots Airport, Vazgen Manukyan gave a speech at Opera Square calling for a nationwide strike for the first time.
In August 19, 1988 at the Opera Square Vazgen Manukyan announced about the creation of the "Pan-Armenian National Movement" (ANM) and presents its ideological principles. Later when ANM founding board was created it consisted of almost all the members of the Karabakh Committee and Vazgen Manukyan was elected the first chairman of the party board.
On December 10, 1988, Vazgen Manukyan was arrested along with the other members of the Karabakh Committee and spent six months in Moscow's Matrosskaya Tishina prison before being released and returning the Yerevan, where the committee continued its activities.
Prime Minister of Armenia
In May 1990, Vazgen Manukyan was elected a member of the Supreme Council of Armenia, and on August 13, 1990, he was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Armenia by the Supreme Council as a result, becoming the last head of government of Soviet Armenia and the first prime minister of the Third Republic of Armenia after it declared independence on September 21, 1991. Manukyan became head of government during a difficult period for Armenia: the USSR was rapidly collapsing, and the political and economic blockade of Armenia from the north began.
Manukyan's government had to deal with the collapse of the Soviet economic system and took the first steps to move towards a new economic system based on private property. Vazgen Manukyan maintained a strong layer of professionals, experienced ministers and directors of large factories, who played a major role in establishing full relations with the new government, the USSR economic structures. According to Manukyan, the systemic reforms launched by his government provided a serious foundation for Armenia's further development.
On September 25, 1991, due to growing disagreements with Levon Ter-Petrosyan and other members of the ANM, Manukyan resigned as prime minister and founded his own party called the National Democratic Union.
Although Manukyan and other opposition politicians had called for Levon Ter-Petrosyan's resignation following setbacks in the Nagorno-Karabakh War in the summer of 1992, Ter-Petrosyan appointed Manukyan State Minister in September 1992 and Minister of Defense in October. During Manukyan's ministry, the regular Armenian Army was formed and the Armenian side registered a series of military victories against Azerbaijan. Through the efforts of Manukyan and his deputy, Soviet Army officer Norat Ter-Grigoryants, the advance of the Azerbaijani Army was suppressed. Armenian forces then went on the offensive, capturing the entirety of the Kalbajar, Zangilan, Jabrayil, and Agdam districts of Azerbaijan, as well as part of Fuzuli District between April and August 1993. This created the frontline between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces that remained essentially unchanged until the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war. On Republic Day in May 1993, a military parade of the newly formed military on the occasion of the diamond jubilee of the First Republic of Armenia was held on Republic Square in Yerevan, during which Defence Minister Manukyan delivered the holiday address during that event.
1996 presidential election
In the September 1996 presidential election, Vazgen Manukyan was the main contender against incumbent president Levon Ter-Petrosyan. Although Ter-Petrosyan was initially expected to win by a large margin due to the opposition being divided, three other candidates dropped out of the race and endorsed Manukyan. According to the official results, Manukyan received 41% of the vote, while Ter-Petrosyan received about 52%, just above the 50% required to win without a runoff election. Manukyan refused to accept the results of the election, alleging widespread fraud. On September 25, Manukyan came to the Armenian parliament with a large crowd of 150-200,000 of his supporters to demand that the Central Electoral Commission check three randomly chosen ballot boxes from each province for fraud. Manukyan told the crowd to come after him if he did not return in 20-30 minutes, after which his supporters stormed the parliament building and beat the speaker and deputy speaker of parliament. President Ter-Petrosyan declared a state of emergency and ordered the army to restore order. On 1 October 1996, the ODIHR mission sent to observe the election issued a statement which said that while irregularities in the counting process "did not characterize the entire vote tabulation process [they] do raise questions about the integrity of the election process." In 1998, former interior minister under Ter-Petrosyan Vano Siradeghyan also alleged that the results of the 1996 election had been falsified.
Manukyan received around 12 percent of the votes in the special presidential elections held in 1998. He ran for president again in 2003 and received less than 1% of the vote. In the February 2008 presidential election, Manukyan placed fifth with 1.3% of the vote according to final official results.
From March 2009 to December 2019, he was the Chairman of the Public Council of Armenia, a consultative body within the Ministry of Justice. Since 2019, he has been the President of the Vernatun Socio-Political Club.
In 2020, following the protests that broke out over the Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement that Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan signed to end to the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war, a coalition of 17 opposition parties (most notably the former ruling Republican Party, the parliamentary opposition party Prosperous Armenia, and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation) under the name of the "Homeland Salvation Movement" announced Manukyan as their candidate to lead a “national accord” government.
- ""Former Prime Ministers"". www.gov.am. Government of the Republic of Armenia website.
- "National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia".
- "National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia2".
- "National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia3".
- "National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia4".
- Hakobyan, Tatul. ""Who is Vazgen Manukyan? His political past and present"". civilnet.am. CivilNet.
- Petrosyan, Anna (14 May 2018). "Ղարաբաղեան Շարժումի 30-ամեակի Առիթով. Արցախեան Շարժումի Նախապատրաստական Շարժումը «Թարգմանչաց Տօներ»։" [On the Occasion of the 30th Anniversary of the Karabakh Movement: The Artsakh Movement's Preparatory Movement: "Holidays of the Translators]. aztagdaily.com. Aztag Daily.
- "Karabakh Movement 88: A Chronology of Events on the Road to Independence". www.evnreport.com. 26 January 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
- "«ՀՀՇ Վարչության նախագահները»".
- "Vazgen Manoukyan (Manukyan)- Biography". www.armenian-history.com. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
- Panossian, Razmik. "Post-Soviet Armenia". In Barrington, Lowell W. (ed.). After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States (PDF). University of Michigan Press. p. 8.
- "Հրց. Պավել Ֆելգենհաուերի հետ, «Շատերը կարծում էին, որ ինձ կդարձնեն քավության նոխազ»". Yerkir newspaper. 27 August 1993.
- Պակևիչյան Տիգրան. "«Վազգեն Մանուկյանը հեռանում է, կամ հաղթող բանակի պարտված հրամանատարը»։". Հայլուր, (Օգոստոսի 24, 1993)։.
- "88-was for Artsakh, 96 was for the entire Armenia, page 33, Yerevan Information Center 1996".
- "Armenia: After the 1996 Presidential Election".
- "Vazgen Manukyan appointed chairman of the Public Council of Armenia".
- "Former Public Council Head Makes Bid To Re-Enter Politics".
- "Armenia: Tens of thousands rally to demand PM's resignation over Azerbaijan pact". www.dw.com. Deutsche Welle. 5 December 2020. Retrieved 2020-12-30.
- "Ընդդիմադիր կուսակցությունների վարչապետի միասնական թեկնածուն Վազգեն Մանուկյանն է" [The opposition parties' joint candidate for prime minister is Vazgen Manukyan]. armenpress.am. ArmenPress. 3 December 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
- "Opposition in Armenia Forms "National Movement for the Salvation of the Homeland"; Announce Yerevan Rally on December 5". hetq.am. Hetq. 3 December 2020.
- "Vazgen Manukyan's official website".
- "«Особенность Карлемана для одного класса функций», Доклады АН, Арм. ССР, том XXII N5, 1981г. «Особенность Карлемана для функций непрерывных хотя бы в одной точке», Известия АН, Арм. ССР, XXI, N 6, 1981г. «О подсистеме функций Уолша являющейся системой представления», Доклады АН, Арм. ССР, 1987г. «О носителях функции образуюшихполную ортонормальную систему», Известия АН, Арм. ССР, XXI, N 6, 1981г".
- "How in 1967 A protest rally was held in front of the Turkish Embassy in Moscow". Lragir. 20 April 2015.
- "Amid Crackdown, Ter-Petrosian Proclaimed Victorious". Monitor. 2 (181). 30 September 1996.
- "Political Prisoner Families Begin Sit In". Asbarez. 14 May 1997.
- Dubnov, Arkady (2019). Почему распался СССР. Вспоминают руководители союзных республик [Why did the USSR collapse: Leaders of the union republics remember]. Individuum. pp. 194–217.
- Manoyan, Mariam; Tadevosyan, Ara (21 February 2013). "Աննա Իսրայելյան` կուռքի վերածված տղաները զերծ չէին թուլություններից" [Anna Israelian: the boys who were turned into idols were not free of weaknesses]. mediamax.am.
- "Mediamax presented its "Movement 1988/25" book devoted to the 25th anniversary of the Karabakh Movement".
- De Waal, Thomas (2003). Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. New York and London: New York University Press. p. 56. ISBN 0-8147-1944-9.
- "Տիգրան Սարգսյան` նոր էլիտայի ձեւավորման համար ժամանակ էր պետք". Mediamax.
- "Դավիթ Շահնազարյան. շարժումն ուներ բարձր քաղաքական հասունություն". Mediamax.
- Շարժում 1988/25 [Movement 88/25]. Yerevan: Mediamax. 2013. pp. 49–52.
- Շարժում 1988/25 [Movement 88/25]. Yerevan: Mediamax. 2013. p. 134.
- "Who is Vazgen Manukyan?".
- Manukyan, Vazgen (2002). "Նպատակը մեր շարժումը ջարդելն է". Հայկական երազանքը գոյատևման փակուղում․ Ելույթներ և հոդվածների ժողովածու [“The Armenian dream in the deadlock of survival”, Collection of speeches and articles] (PDF). Yerevan. pp. 3–4. ISBN 99930-941-1-0.
- "Armenian dream in the deadlock of survival". pp. Page 9-13.
- "ՀՀՇ ծննդյան առաջին փաստաթուղթը" [Founding document of the HHSh]. aniarc.am. ANI Armenian Research Center. 23 March 2015.
- De Waal, Thomas (2003). Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. New York and London: New York University Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-8147-1944-9.
- Manukyan, Vazgen (2002). "PM Vazgen Manukyan's speech at the Supreme Council of Armenia on August 13, 1990". Հայկական երազանքը գոյատևման փակուղում․ Ելույթներ և հոդվածների ժողովածու [“The Armenian dream in the deadlock of survival”, Collection of speeches and articles] (PDF). Yerevan. pp. 90–94. ISBN 99930-941-1-0.
- "Comparative Report about the implementation of International Civil and Political Rights Covenant, RA, Page 4, point 9" (PDF).
- Manukyan, Vazgen (3 December 2020). "Վազգեն Մանուկյան. Իմ ղեկավարած կառավարությունը իր բոլոր թերություններով ու սխալներով հանդերձ, մեծ քայլ արեց Հայաստանում նոր հասարակություն, նոր տնտեսական համակարգ ստեղծելու գործում" [Vazgen Manukyan: The government I led, with all its shortcomings and mistakes, took a big step in creating a new society and a new economic system in Armenia]. aravot.am. Aravot.
- "Government of the Republic of Armenia, Former Miniters".
- "ՀՀ ՏԱՐԱԾՔՈՒՄ ԱՐԺԵԹՂԹԵՐԻ ՇՈՒԿԱՅԻ ՄԱՍՆԱԿԻՑՆԵՐԻՆ (ՄԻՋՆՈՐԴՆԵՐԻՆ) ԱՐԺԵԹՂԹԵՐԻ ՀԵՏ ԳՈՐԾԱՌՆՈՒԹՅՈՒՆՆԵՐ ԻՐԱԿԱՆԱՑՆԵԼՈՒ ԹՈՒՅԼՏՎՈՒԹՅԱՆ ԺԱՄԱՆԱԿԱՎՈՐ ԿԱՐԳԻ ՄԱՍԻՆ".
- "Հայաստանի Հանրապետության ազգային հարստություն" (PDF).
- "Gazprom Armenia, History".
- "AT&T; PUTS ARMENIA ON TELEPHONE MAP".
- "Emporium Magazine, N 7[15} May 2013, Interview with Vazgen Manukyan".
- ""One week with the Prime Minister Vazgen Manukyan"".
- "Ինչպես հրաժարական տվեց Վազգեն Մանուկյանը վարչապետի պաշտոնից 1991թվականի սեպտեմբերի 26-ին".
- Manukyan, Vazgen (2002). "Vazgen Manukyan's resignation speech at the Supreme Council of Armenia on September 25, 1991". Հայկական երազանքը գոյատևման փակուղում․ Ելույթներ և հոդվածների ժողովածու [“The Armenian dream in the deadlock of survival”, Collection of speeches and articles] (PDF). Yerevan. pp. 164–168. ISBN 99930-941-1-0.
- Павел Фельгенгауэр (August 1993). "Многие думали, что я буду козлом отпущения" (Сегодня ed.).
27Cite journal requires
- «Հայ զինվոր», Газета Министра обороны РА, N 5, июнь 1-10, 1993 г.
- «Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն» Газета Верховного Совета Армении, N 106 (710), Май 29,1993 г
- "Armenian Presidential election" (PDF). Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. 1997. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
- "1996-ի սեպտեմբերի 25-ը. ի՞նչ տեղի ունեցավ" [What happened on September 25, 1996?]. aniarc.am. ANI Armenian Research Center. 25 September 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
- "Armenia: FAQ About February's Presidential Election", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, February 18, 2008.
- Avanesov, Alexandr (4 April 2019). "Vazgen Manukyan appointed chairman of the Public Council of Armenia". arminfo.info.
- Khulian, Artak. "Former Public Council Head Makes Bid To Re-Enter Politics". Azatutyun. Retrieved 2020-12-30.
- "Opposition Parties Choose Vazgen Manukyan as Prime Minister Candidate". Asbarez.com. 2020-12-03. Retrieved 2020-12-05.
- "Opposition Names Vazgen Manukyan Candidate for Prime Minister". The Armenian Mirror-Spectator. 2020-12-03. Retrieved 2020-12-05.