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The Vedanga (vedāṅga, "limbs of the Veda") are six auxiliary disciplines traditionally associated with the study and understanding of the Vedas.

  1. Shiksha (śikṣā): phonetics, phonology and morphophonology (sandhi)
  2. Kalpa (kalpa): ritual
  3. Vyakarana (vyākaraṇa): grammar
  4. Nirukta (nirukta): etymology
  5. Chandas (chandas): meter
  6. Jyotisha (jyotiṣa): Time measurement, forecasting movement of Sun, Moon and planetary movement, astronomy[1]

Traditionally, vyakarana and nirukta are common to all four vedas, while each veda has its own shiksha, chandas, kalpa and jyotisha texts.

The Vedangas are first mentioned in the Mundaka Upanishad (at 1.1.5) as subjects for students of the Vedas. Later, they developed into independent disciplines, each with its own corpus of Sutras.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Yukio Ohashi (Editor: H Selin) (1997). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine. Springer. pp. 83–86. ISBN 978-0792340669. 
  • Moritz Winternitz: Geschichte der Indischen Literatur, Leipzig, 1905 - 1922, Vol. I - III. English translation: History of Indian Literature, Motilal Barnarsidass, Delhi, 1985, Vol I - III

External links[edit]

  • Vedanga on the online Hindu Encyclopedia

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.