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Koose Munisamy Veerappan

(1952-01-18)18 January 1952[1]
Died18 October 2004(2004-10-18) (aged 52)[1]
Cause of deathBallistic trauma
Resting placeMoolakadu, Tamil Nadu, India
Known for
Spouse(s)Muthulakshmi (m. 1990–2004)

Koose Munisamy Veerappan Goundar[3][4] (18 January 1952 – 18 October 2004), more commonly known as simply Veerappan, was an Indian bandit (dacoit) who was active for 36 years, kidnapping major politicians for ransom. He was charged with sandalwood smuggling in the scrub lands and forests in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. He was wanted for killing approximately 184 people, about half of whom were police officers and forest officials[5] and was also wanted for poaching more than 500 elephants[6] and smuggling ivory worth US$2,600,000 (₹16 crore) and about 65000 kilograms of sandalwood[7] worth approximately US$22,000,000 (₹143 crore).[8] His long career and ability to evade police led him to be regarded as a Robin Hood figure to many.[9] The battle to nab Veerappan had cost the governments of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over ₹100 crore.[10]

He was born in Gopinatham, Karnataka in 1952.[11][12][13][4] In 1990, he was married to Muthulakshmi, who reportedly married him because of his "notoriety and moustache".[14][15] As of 2004, his two daughters, Vidya Rani (born in 1990) and Prabha (born in 1993), were studying in Tamil Nadu.[16]

Early life[edit]

Veerappan started by assisting his uncle Saalvai Gounder, a notorious poacher and sandalwood smuggler.[17] Veerappan began his career in crime in 1969 and was first arrested in 1972.[18]

Veerappan initially developed as a sandalwood and ivory smuggler, killing elephants for the latter. He later started killing those who resisted his activities. He committed his first murder at the age of 17 and his victims tended to be police officers, forest officials, and informants.[19]

In 1987, Veerappan kidnapped and murdered a Sathyamangalam District forest officer named Chidambaram from Tamil Nadu. This first brought him to the Indian Government's attention.[20][21] Among his most infamous killings are a senior IFS officer named Pandillapalli Srinivas in November 1991, and an ambush of a police party including a senior IPS officer, Harikrishna, among others, in August 1992.

Veerappan was not averse to killing civilians, and killed a man from his native village for having once travelled in a police jeep.[20] He regularly killed anyone suspected of being a police informer. Because of political instability, Veerappan could easily escape from one state to another. State jurisdiction problems also prevented police officers from entering other states to apprehend Veerappan.[22]

Palar blast[edit]

In Govindapadi, Mettur, Veerappan killed a Bandari person whom he suspected of being a police informer. As a result, a 41-member team of police officers and forestry officials were called in to investigate. On 9 April 1993, landmines were detonated underneath the two vehicles in which the team was traveling. The blast occurred at Palar, near Malai Mahadeswara Hills (present-day Chamarajanagar District, Karnataka) and killed 22 members of the team. Known as the Palar blast, this was Veerappan's single largest mass killing.[23]

Special Task Force[edit]

In 1992, the Karnataka and the Tamil Nadu Governments formed a Special Task Force to catch Veerappan.[19] It was headed in Tamil Nadu by Sanjay Arora and in Karnataka by Shankar Bidri with Walter Devaram as the joint chief. In February 1992, his lieutenant Gurunathan was killed by the Karnataka task force, with SI Shakeel Ahmed single-handedly responsible for the capture. Three months later, Veerappan attacked the Ramapura police station in the Chamarajanagar district in Karnataka, killing several policemen and capturing arms and ammunition. In August 1992, Veerappan laid a trap for SI Shakeel Ahmed, killing him along with five others. The Karnataka and Tamil Nadu Special Task Forces then began intensified combing operations along the two states' border areas and also around Gopinatham village, Veerappan's birthplace.[24]

Through these operations, under charge of Sanjay Arora and Shankar Bidari, the gang was reduced to 5 members.[24][25] Meetings with Gopinatham villagers were held, and the 5-crore bounty was announced.[25] In 1993, the task force arrested Veerappan's wife, Muthulakshmi, and charged her with aiding, but she was acquitted of all charges.[26]

Kidnap of Rajkumar[edit]

On 30 July 2000, Veerappan abducted actor Rajkumar and three others from Dodda Gajanur, a village in Sathyamangalam taluk Erode district near the Tamil Nadu-Karnataka border where the film star was attending his housewarming ceremony.[27][28][29] Public outcry and violence ensued in Bangalore as well as other parts of Karnataka.[29] A bandh, or strike, also occurred on 22 September in Bangalore. Karnataka's Chief Minister and police personnel sought the help of Tamil Nadu Government and visited Chennai seeking help.[29] Negotiations were conducted and R. Gopal, an editor of the Tamil magazine Nakkeeran, was involved in several rounds of talks with Veerappan.[30] Gopal had earlier visited Veerappan for similar negotiations,[17] and visited the forest several times for videotaped discussions. Veerappan demanded justice for Tamil Nadu in the Cauvery Water dispute, as well as making Tamil the second official language of Karnataka and the release of certain Tamil extremists jailed in Tamil Nadu.[31] Rajkumar was held for 108 days and finally released without harm in November 2000. A police official later suggested that 20 crore rupees had been paid by Karnataka government for his release.[28][32][33]

Kidnap of Nagappa[edit]

On 25 August 2002, Veerappan abducted H. Nagappa, a former minister of Karnataka, from his village house in Chamarajanagar district.[34] Nagappa had been a minister for Agricultural Marketing from 1996 to 1999.[34] The Joint Special task forces of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu worked with the Kerala police to help release Nagappa.[35] An encounter to release him failed, and Nagappa was found dead three months later in a Karnataka forest.[36] The reward offered by the Karnataka state government was then increased to 15 crore rupees.

Ransom demands[edit]

For several years during the 1990s, Veerappan kidnapped police officials and other personalities and demanded ransom money. It is believed that ransoms were often unofficially paid.[29] In July 1997, he kidnapped nine forest officials in the Burude forests in Chamarajanagar district. In that case, the hostages were released unharmed a few years later even though his ransom demand was not met. It is also believed that Veerappan buried large amounts of money in various parts of the forest; in 2002 police recovered 3.3 million rupees from his gang members.[37]

Banned organisations like the Tamil National Retrieval Troops (TNRT) and Tamil Nadu Liberation Army helped Veerappan to secure a Robin Hood image and to draft terms of negotiations when he kidnapped prominent people.[31] Kolathur Mani, president of Dravidar Viduthalai Kazhagam, formerly the Periyar Dravidar Kazhagam (PDK) party,[38] was arrested and brought to trial as an accomplice in several of Veerappan's crimes, although later acquitted due to lack of evidence.[26]


On 18 October 2004, Veerappan and two of his associates were killed by the Tamil Nadu Special Task Force[39] and N. K. Senthamarai Kannan under the proactive leadership of K Vijayakumar.[40]

The encounter happened near the village of Papparapatti[36][41] in Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu. Veerappan and his men were lured into an ambulance by an undercover policeman under the pretext of taking them to Dharmapuri for medical treatment.[41] The Tamil Nadu Special Task Force, which had been observing his movements for several months, surrounded the ambulance, and the gangsters were killed in the ensuing gunfight.[36]

The entire operation was named Operation Cocoon and Veerappan's associates Sethukuli Govindan, Chandre Gowdar and Sethumani were also killed in the operation.[42]

His death was described as the "death of a demon" by The Guardian.[14] The villagers of Gopinatham celebrated with firecrackers on hearing the news.[20]

Several human rights activists, who rallied under the banner of the Centre for Protection of Civil Liberties (CPCL), claimed that circumstantial evidence indicated that Veerappan was murdered by police after being tortured.[43] Since Veerappan's death, Gopinatham has been promoted as a destination for ecotourism by the Karnataka State Department of Forest and Tourism.[44]

Veerappan was buried at Moolakkadu near Mettur in Tamil Nadu, as his family members were more attached to it and most of his relatives in Gopinatham had left.[45] The police had planned a cremation but decided on a burial after objections from Veerappan's relatives.[45] Thousands of people turned out for the burial, while others were kept away by heavy security.[45][46]


Timeline of Veerappan's activities
Year Veerappan's Activities
1962 Veerappan's first crime. He was just 10 when he gunned down a tusker with the help of his mentor Sevi Gounder at Gopinatham. Nabbed three forest officials and killed them.
1970 Joined a gang of poachers.
27 August 1983 Killed K. M. Prithvi (age 25), a forest guard, near Mavukal, Ponnampet, Kodagu, Karnataka when the guard tried to prevent elephant poaching by the gang; he was the first forest official killed by Veerappan.[47]
1986 Arrested and lodged at Boodipada forest guest house but escaped under mysterious circumstances (reportedly bribed a police officer).[48]
26 August 1986 Killed Siddarama Naik, a forest watcher at Alegowdana Katte, Gundlupet, Karnataka.[47]
1987 Kidnapped and hacked Tamil Nadu forest officer Chidambaram.[21]
5 January 1989 Kidnapped and killed five members of a rival gang.[49]
1989 Killed three forest personnel after 15 days of abducting them from Begur forest range.[21]
9 April 1990 Killed three police SI Dinesh, Jagannath, Ramalingu and police constable Shankara Rao near Hogenakal. Shot and beheaded Karnataka deputy conservator of forests, Srinivas,[20] as revenge for Veerappan's sister Mala's suicide (the victim's head was traced three years later).
1991 Abducted son of a granite quarry owner and demanded ransom of Rs. 1 crore; released him for a ransom of Rs. 15 lakhs.[21]
1992 Attacked a police station in Ramapura, killing five policemen, injuring two and stealing arms and ammunition.[50] STF killed two gang members in retaliation.
14 August 1992 Meenyam Ambush : Trapped and killed Mysore District SP, T. Harikrishna, SI Shakeel Ahmed and four constables named Benegonda, C. M. Kalappa, Sundara and M. P. Appachu, through a false informant near Meenyam in Karnataka.[47]
25 January 1993 Veerappan and his gang had a close encounter and missed by a whisker the police team headed by "Rambo" Gopalakrishnan, Police officer from Tamil Nadu; one of his gang members and close associate Antony Raj was gunned down.[51]
1993 Border Security force (BSF) was deployed to hunt Veerappan but felt that language was the main barrier to carry out a successful operation.[51] Deployment of Border Security Force (of Central Government) was disliked by Tamil Nadu Government.[51] Veerappan killed about 20 combatants of BSF.[51]
April 1993 Trapped and blew up a Tamil Nadu bus carrying police, forest officials and civilians, using a landmine, which killed 22 civilians and police[21] in Palar blast incident.[23]
24 May 1993 Killed 6 policemen K. M. Uthappa, Prabhakara, Poovaiah, Machaiah, Swamy and Narasappa of STF commander Gopal Hosur's party and injured the police commander near Rangaswamy Vaddu, M. M. Hills, Karnataka.[21][47] Tamil Nadu government deploys Border Security Force (BSF). Joint operations of BSF and STF arrested 9 gang members and killed 6. Three policemen were killed. Veerappan requested amnesty. Victim's relatives opposed any type of government negotiations.
1994 Abducted Chidambaranathan, Deputy Superintendent of Police, Coimbatore and two others.[29]
1995 In November, kidnapped three forest department officials of Tamil Nadu.[29]
1996 Killed a police informer. Killed another 19 police personnel. Wounded police official Tamilselvan and killed a constable as revenge for the suicide of Veerappan's brother Arjunan in police custody.
1997 The gang kidnapped wildlife photographers Senani and Krupakar. Veerappan apparently killed 'Baby Veerappan', a gang member, who had visions to succeed Veerappan.[42] Kidnapped and released other photographers Senani and Krupakar. Kidnapped and executed nine Karnataka forest officials from Burude forests.
1998 Kidnapped Prof. Krishnasamy, A. S. Mani – editor "Netikan", Payumpuli – reporter and Richard Mohan – photographer. Special Task Force released them after combing operation.[52]
2000 Kidnapped Kannada film actor Dr. Rajkumar. Released him after 108 days (ransomed).
2002 Kidnapped and allegedly killed former Karnataka minister H. Nagappa. There are other sources, including police of Karnataka who claims that the bullet in the body of the former minister was from a rifle used by the Tamil Nadu Special Task Force (possibly the rifle used was stolen from Tamil Nadu task force or crossfire could have caused his death).
2004 Killed by Tamil Nadu Special Task Force members at a checkpoint, when the bandit was travelling in an ambulance driven by a disguised policeman.[36]

In Media[edit]

Film and television[edit]

  • "Attahasa" – a 2012 Kannada film, is based on Veerappan's life and death. The movie highlights the STF operations on Veerappan, kidnapping of Dr. Rajkumar and ultimately the Operation Cocoon. The film's Tamil version was "Vana Yuddham", released in the same year. The film was also dubbed to Telugu and Malayalam in 2013 titled as Veerappan.
  • Killing Veerappan – a 2016 Kannada film, written and directed by Ram Gopal Varma based on Operation Cocoon. The film was also released in Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam consequently with the same title.
  • Veerappan – a 2016 Hindi full length biographical feature film written and directed by Ram Gopal Varma. The film was also released in Tamil as Villathi Villan Veerappan.
  • "Sandhanakaadu" – a 2017 Tamil television series aired on Makkal TV, based on Veerappan's life starring Karate Raja as Veerappan.


Title Author Language Translations
Veerappan: India's Most Wanted Man Sunaad Raghuram English Marathi: Veerappan: The Untold Story
Sereyalli Kaleda Hadinalku Dinagalu Krupakar & Senani Kannada English: Birds, Beasts and Bandits: 14 days with Veerappan
Huliya Nenapugalu B. B. Ashok Kumar Kannada English: Memories of Tiger: Hunting Veerappan
Veerappan's Prize Catch: Rajkumar C. Dinakar English
Veerappan: Chasing the Brigand K. Vijay Kumar English Tamil: Veerappan

Kannada: Veerappan: Dantachorana Bennatti

Hindi: Veerappana: Ek Satya Katha

Marathi: Veerappan Viruddh Vijay Kumar

Veerappan Nakkeeran Gopal Tamil

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Prutvi narala".
  2. ^
  3. ^ Karthick, S (14 February 2013). "Farmers turned Veerappan's killer aides". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  4. ^ a b Singh, Shivani (19 October 2004). "Unravelling an Enigma". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ [3]
  8. ^ K.G., Kannabiran (2004). The Wages of Impunity: Power, Justice, and Human Rights. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 9788125026389.
  9. ^ "How Veerappan Fallen?". YouTube. News18 Tamilnadu Channel. 25 June 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  10. ^ [4]
  11. ^ Slater, Candace (1 March 2004). In Search of the Rain Forest. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822385279.
  12. ^ Ramachandran Ramesh (6 August 2000). "Caste politics may bail out Veerappan". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  13. ^ Subramanian, T.S. (11 November 2000). "A desperate alliance". Frontline. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  14. ^ a b Oliver, Mark (19 October 2004). "Death of a 'demon'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  15. ^ Kumar, M. T. Shiva (26 April 2011). "Muthulakshmi to bring out book on 'police atrocities'". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  16. ^ Illangovan, R (22 October 2004). "Leave us in peace, say Veerappan's daughters". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  17. ^ a b Harding, Luke (5 August 2000). "In the lair of India's asthmatic bandit king". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  18. ^ Oliver, Mark (2004). "Death of a 'demon'". The Guardian.
  19. ^ a b "How Veerappan was shot dead". The Times of India. 19 October 2004. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  20. ^ a b c d Ilangovan, R. (20 October 2004). "A relieved Gopinatham breathes easy". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  21. ^ a b c d e f "Veerappan: End of three decades of terror". The Times of India. 19 October 2004. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  22. ^ Estevez, Benita. Smugglers. R.W.Press. ISBN 978-1-909284-08-1. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  23. ^ a b Aravind, H M (14 February 2013). "Why Veerappan planned the Palar blast". The Times of India. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  24. ^ a b Palaniyappan, V. S. (27 January 2003). "STF planning to corner Veerappan near Gopinatham". The Hindu.
  25. ^ a b "STF tries to lure villagers". The Times of India. 28 January 2003. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  26. ^ a b "Muthulakshmi acquitted in Palar bomb blast case". The Hindu. 17 March 2011. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  27. ^ "Veerappan's widow Muthulakshmi acquitted in actor Rajkumar kidnap case". India Today. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  28. ^ a b "'Treasure hunt' for bandit's loot". BBC News. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Ravi, Sharma (5–18 August 2000). "Veerappan's Prize Catch". Frontline Magazine, Chennai. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  30. ^ "I have tried to be as truthful as possible". The Hindu. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  31. ^ a b Nambath, Suresh (20 October 2004). "Veerappan as "Robin Hood"". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  32. ^ "Govt, not Rajkumar family, paid ransom: Ex-DGP". The Times of India. 22 November 2002. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  33. ^ News archives of Dr.Rajkumar kidnap incident
  34. ^ a b "Veerappan sends cassette". Express India. 26 August 2002. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  35. ^ PTI (28 August 2002). "Kerala Police to help STF in operation against Veerappan". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  36. ^ a b c d "How Veerappan was shot dead". The Times of India. 19 October 2004. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
  37. ^ K.T., Sangameswaran (21 October 2004). "'Ransoms' remain a mystery". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  38. ^ TNN (19 August 2012). "Periyar Dravidar Kazhagam (PDK) splits into two parties". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  39. ^ "Veerappan shot dead". The Hindu. 19 October 2004. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  40. ^ Krupakar, Krupakar; Senani, Senani (2011). Birds, Beasts and Bandits: 14 Days with Veerappan. Penguin UK. ISBN 9788184754803.
  41. ^ a b M.B.Maramkal, Bansy Kalappa (20 October 2004). "Veerappan Brigand's last run". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  42. ^ a b Nambath, Suresh (31 October 2004). "Jungle Drama". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  43. ^ "Veerappan killed in fake encounter: activists". The Hindu. 19 January 2005. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  44. ^ Paneesha, V. (14 May 2011). "Have fun in Veerappan territory". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  45. ^ a b c Illangovan, R. (21 October 2004). "Veerappan buried after wrangling". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  46. ^ "Koose Muniswamy Veerappan: The Bandit King". The Independent. 20 October 2004. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  47. ^ a b c d Subrahmanya, K.V. (20 October 2004). "Police had 15 encounters with brigand". The Hindu. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  48. ^ Jafri, S.A. (20 October 2004). "The man who caught Veerappan alive". Reddif India News. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  49. ^ Mendonca, Allen J.; Gopinath, Kamal (30 August 1992). "Killer on the run". The Indian Express. p. 18.
  50. ^ Dinakar, C. (2003). Veerappan's prize catch: Rajkumar. Delhi: Konark Publishers Pvt ltd. p. 145. ISBN 978-81-220-0644-5.
  51. ^ a b c d N. R. Madhava Menon, D. Banerjea (2001). Criminal Justice, India series, Vol.16. 16. New Delhi: Allied Publishers. pp. 146, 147. ISBN 978-81-7764-519-4.
  52. ^ Reporter, Staff (29 April 2009). ""Nakeeran" Gopal acquitted". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 August 2012.

External links[edit]