Jump to content


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Vegetarian)

DescriptionDiet derived from plants, with or without eggs and dairy
VarietiesOvo, lacto, ovo-lacto, veganism, raw veganism, fruitarianism, Buddhist vegetarianism, Jain vegetarianism, Jewish vegetarianism, Christian vegetarianism, Sattvic vegetarianism

Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, insects, and the flesh of any other animal). It may also include abstaining from eating all by-products of animal slaughter.[1][2] A person who practices vegetarianism is known as a vegetarian.

Vegetarianism may be adopted for various reasons. Many people object to eating meat out of respect for sentient animal life. Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs as well as animal rights advocacy. Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political, environmental, cultural, aesthetic, economic, taste-related, or relate to other personal preferences.

There are many variations of the vegetarian diet: an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products, an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs. As the strictest of vegetarian diets, a vegan diet excludes all animal products, and can be accompanied by abstention from the use of animal-derived products, such as leather shoes.

Vegetarian diets pose some difficulties. For vitamin B12, depending on the presence or absence of eggs and dairy products in the diet or other reliable B12 sources, vegetarians may incur a nutritional deficiency.[3] Packaged and processed foods may contain minor quantities of animal ingredients.[2][4] While some vegetarians scrutinize product labels for such ingredients, others do not object to consuming them, or are unaware of their presence.[2][5][6]



The first written use of the term "vegetarian" originated in the early 19th century, when authors referred to a vegetable regimen diet.[7] Historically, 'vegetable' could be used to refer to any type of edible vegetation.[8] Modern dictionaries explain its origin as a compound of vegetable (adjective) and the suffix -arian (in the sense of agrarian).[9] The term was popularized with the foundation of the Vegetarian Society in Manchester in 1847,[10] although it may have appeared in print before 1847.[10][11][12] The earliest occurrences of the term seem to be related to Alcott House—a school on the north side of Ham Common, London—which was opened in July 1838 by James Pierrepont Greaves.[11][12][13] From 1841, it was known as A Concordium, or Industry Harmony College, from which time the institution began to publish its own pamphlet entitled The Healthian, which provides some of the earliest appearances of the term "vegetarian".[11]


Parshwanatha founded Jain vegetarianism in the 9th century BCE

The earliest record of vegetarianism comes from the 9th century BCE,[14] inculcating tolerance towards all living beings.[15][16] Parshwanatha and Mahavira, the 23rd and 24th tirthankaras in Jainism, respectively, revived and advocated ahimsa and Jain vegetarianism between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE; the most comprehensive and strictest form of vegetarianism.[17][18][19] In Indian culture, vegetarianism has been closely connected with the attitude of nonviolence towards animals (called ahimsa in India) for millennia and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers.[20] The Ācārāṅga Sūtra from 5th century BCE advocates Jain-vegetarianism; and forbids the monks from walking on grass in order to avoid inflicting pain on them and prevent small insects dwelling inside from getting killed.[21] The ancient Indian work of the Tirukkuṟaḷ, dated before the 5th century CE, explicitly and unambiguously emphasizes shunning meat and non-killing as a common man's virtues.[22]: 156–171 [23]: 13 [24]: 127–129  Chapter 26 of the Tirukkural, particularly couplets 251–260, deals exclusively on moral vegetarianism or veganism.[25]: 156–171 [26]

Vegetarianism in ancient India
Throughout the whole country the people do not kill any living creature, nor drink intoxicating liquor, nor eat onions or garlic. The only exception is that of the Chandalas. That is the name for those who are (held to be) wicked men, and live apart from others. ... In that country they do not keep pigs and fowls, and do not sell live cattle; in the markets there are no butchers' shops and no dealers in intoxicating drink. In buying and selling commodities they use cowries. Only the Chandalas are fishermen and hunters, and sell flesh meat.

Faxian, Chinese pilgrim to India (4th/5th century CE), A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms (translated by James Legge)[27][28]

Among the Hellenes, Egyptians, and others, vegetarianism had medical or ritual purification purposes. Vegetarianism was also practiced in ancient Greece and the earliest reliable evidence for vegetarian theory and practice in Greece dates from the 6th century BCE. The Orphics, a religious movement spreading in Greece at that time, also practiced and promoted vegetarianism.[29] Greek teacher Pythagoras, who promoted the altruistic doctrine of metempsychosis, may have practiced vegetarianism,[30] but is also recorded as eating meat.[31] A fictionalized portrayal of Pythagoras appears in Ovid's Metamorphoses, in which he advocates a form of strict vegetarianism.[32] It was through this portrayal that Pythagoras was best known to English-speakers throughout the early modern period and, prior to the coinage of the word "vegetarianism", vegetarians were referred to in English as "Pythagoreans".[32] Vegetarianism was also practiced about six centuries later in another instance (30 BCE–50 CE) in the northern Thracian region by the Moesi tribe (who inhabited present-day Serbia and Bulgaria), feeding themselves on honey, milk, and cheese.[33]

Emperor Tenmu began bans on killing and eating meat in 675 CE in Japan.

In Japan in 675, the Emperor Tenmu prohibited the killing and the eating of meat during the busy farming period between April and September but excluded the eating of wild birds and wild animals. These bans and several others that followed over the centuries were overturned in the nineteenth century during the Meiji Restoration.[34] In China, during the Song Dynasty, Buddhist cuisine became popular enough that vegetarian restaurants appeared where chefs used ingredients such as beans, gluten, root vegetables and mushrooms to create meat analogues including pork, fowl, eggs and crab roe[35][36] and many meat substitutes used even today such as tofu, seitan and konjac originate in Chinese Buddhist cuisine.

Labeling is mandatory in India to distinguish vegetarian products (green) from non-vegetarian products (brown).[37]

Following the Christianization of the Roman Empire in late antiquity, vegetarianism practically disappeared from Europe, as it did elsewhere, except in India.[38] Several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them eschewed fish.[39] Moreover, the medieval definition of "fish" included such animals as seals, porpoises, dolphins, barnacle geese, puffins, and beavers.[40] Vegetarianism re-emerged during the Renaissance,[41] becoming more widespread in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1847, the first Vegetarian Society was founded in the United Kingdom;[42] Germany, the Netherlands, and other countries followed. In 1886, the vegetarian colony Nueva Germania was founded in Paraguay, though its vegetarian aspect would prove short-lived.[43]: 345–358  The International Vegetarian Union, an association of the national societies, was founded in 1908. In the Western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the 20th century as a result of nutritional, ethical, and—more recently—environmental and economic concerns.


A variety of vegan and vegetarian deli foods
A vegetarian hamburger with potato slices
Comparison of the main vegetarian diets
Meat Eggs Dairy
Ovo vegetarianism No Yes No
Lacto-ovo vegetarianism No Yes Yes
Lacto vegetarianism No No Yes
Vegan diet No No No
Comparison of selected vegetarian and semi-vegetarian diets (view template)
Plants Dairy Eggs Seafood Poultry All other animals
Vegetarianism Ovo-lacto vegetarianism Yes Yes Yes No No No
Ovo vegetarianism No No Yes No No No
Lacto vegetarianism Yes Yes No No No No
Veganism Yes No No No No No
Semi-vegetarianism Flexitarianism Yes Yes Yes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes
Pollotarianism Yes Maybe Maybe Maybe Yes No
Pescetarianism Yes Maybe Maybe Yes No No

There are a number of vegetarian diets that exclude or include various foods:

Within the "ovo-" groups, there are many who refuse to consume fertilized eggs (with balut being an extreme example); however, such distinction is typically not specifically addressed.

Some vegetarians also avoid products that may use animal ingredients not included in their labels or which use animal products in their manufacturing. For example, sugars that are whitened with bone char, cheeses that use animal rennet (enzymes from animal stomach lining), gelatin (derived from the collagen inside animals' skin, bones, and connective tissue), some cane sugar (but not beet sugar) and beverages (such as apple juice and alcohol) clarified with gelatin or crushed shellfish and sturgeon, while other vegetarians are unaware of, or do not mind, such ingredients.[2][4][5] In the 21st century, 90% of rennet and chymosin used in cheesemaking are derived from industrial fermentation processes, which satisfy both kosher and halal requirements.[46]

Individuals sometimes label themselves "vegetarian" while practicing a semi-vegetarian diet,[47][48][49] as some dictionary definitions describe vegetarianism as sometimes including the consumption of fish,[50] or only include mammalian flesh as part of their definition of meat,[50][51] while other definitions exclude fish and all animal flesh.[52] In other cases, individuals may describe themselves as "flexitarian".[48][53] These diets may be followed by those who reduce animal flesh consumed as a way of transitioning to a complete vegetarian diet or for health, ethical, environmental, or other reasons. Semi-vegetarian diets include:

Semi-vegetarianism is contested by vegetarian groups, such as the Vegetarian Society, which states that vegetarianism excludes all animal flesh.[52]

Consumption of eggs is not considered to be a part of a vegetarian diet in India, as egg is an animal product that gives birth to the next generation of the relevant species.

Health research


On average, vegetarians consume a lower proportion of calories from fat (particularly saturated fatty acids), fewer overall calories, more fiber, potassium, and vitamin C, than do non-vegetarians. Vegetarians generally have a lower body mass index. These characteristics and other lifestyle factors associated with a vegetarian diet may contribute to the positive health outcomes that have been identified among vegetarians.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 – A report issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services[54]

Countries' positions on vegetarian diets within their food-based dietary guidelines:
  No guidelines
  Guideline not analysed
Acorn noodle soup
A fruit stall in Barcelona

In Western countries, the most common motive for people practicing vegetarianism is health consciousness.[55][56] The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has stated that at all stages of life, a properly planned vegetarian diet can be "healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases."[57] Vegetarian diets offer lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, vitamins C and E, and phytochemicals.[57][58]



Studies have shown that a (non-lacto) vegetarian diet may increase the risk of calcium deficiency and low bone mineral density.[59] A 2019 review found that vegetarians have lower bone mineral density at the femoral neck and lumbar spine compared to omnivores.[60] A 2020 meta-analysis found that infants fed a lacto-vegetarian diet exhibited normal growth and development.[59] A 2021 review found no differences in growth between vegetarian and meat-eating children.[61]



Vegetarian diets are under preliminary research for their potential to help people with type 2 diabetes.[57][62][63]

Cardiovascular system


Meta-analyses have reported a reduced risk of death from ischemic heart disease and from cerebrovascular disease among vegetarians.[64]

Mental health


Reviews of vegan and vegetarian diets showed a possible association with depression and anxiety, particularly among people under 26 years old.[65][66] Another review found no significant associations between a vegetarian diet and depression or anxiety.[67]

Eating disorders


The American Dietetic Association discussed that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders, indicating that vegetarian diets do not cause eating disorders, but rather "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder".[68]

Mortality risk


A 2012 study found a reduced risk in all-cause mortality in vegetarians.[69] A 2017 review found a lower mortality (−25%) from ischemic heart disease.[70]

Diet composition and nutrition


Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12.[71] Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin B and calcium if they do not eat enough items such as collard greens, leafy greens, tempeh and tofu (soy).[72] High levels of dietary fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat are all considered to be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet.[73] A well planned vegetarian diet will provide all nutrients in a meat-eater's diet to the same level for all stages of life.[74]



Protein intake in vegetarian diets tends to be lower than in meat diets but can meet the daily requirements for most people.[75] Studies at Harvard University as well as other studies conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and various European countries, confirmed that vegetarian diets provide sufficient protein intake as long as a variety of plant sources are available and consumed.[76]



Vegetarian diets typically contain similar levels of iron to non-vegetarian diets, but this has lower bioavailability than iron from meat sources, and its absorption can sometimes be inhibited by other dietary constituents.[77] According to the Vegetarian Resource Group, consuming food that contains vitamin C, such as citrus fruit or juices, tomatoes, or broccoli, is a good way to increase the amount of iron absorbed at a meal.[78] Vegetarian foods rich in iron include black beans, cashews, hempseed, kidney beans, broccoli, lentils, oatmeal, raisins, jaggery, spinach, cabbage, lettuce, black-eyed peas, soybeans, many breakfast cereals, sunflower seeds, chickpeas, tomato juice, tempeh, molasses, thyme, and whole-wheat bread.[79][failed verification] The related vegan diets can often be higher in iron than vegetarian diets, because dairy products are low in iron.[73] Iron stores often tend to be lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, and a few small studies report very high rates of iron deficiency (up to 40%,[80] and 58%[81] of the respective vegetarian or vegan groups). However, the American Dietetic Association states that iron deficiency is no more common in vegetarians than non-vegetarians (adult males are rarely iron deficient); iron deficiency anaemia is rare no matter the diet.[82]

Vitamin B12


Vitamin B12 is not generally present in plants but is naturally found in foods of animal origin.[83][84] Lacto-ovo vegetarians can obtain B12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from manufactured fortified foods (including plant-based products and breakfast cereals) and dietary supplements.[83][85][86] A strict vegan diet avoiding consumption of all animal products risks vitamin B12 deficiency, which can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for several health disorders, including anemia, neurological deficits, gastrointestinal problems, platelet disorders, and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.[83][87] The recommended daily dietary intake of B12 in the United States and Canada is 0.4 mcg (ages 0–6 months), rising to 1.8 mcg (9–13 years), 2.4 mcg (14+ years), and 2.8 mcg (lactating female).[84] While the body's daily requirement for vitamin B12 is in microgram amounts, deficiency of the vitamin through strict practice of a vegetarian diet without supplementation can increase the risk of several chronic diseases.[83][87][84]

Fatty acids


Plant-based, or vegetarian, sources of Omega 3 fatty acids include soy, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, canola oil, kiwifruit, hempseed, algae, chia seed, flaxseed, echium seed and leafy vegetables such as lettuce, spinach, cabbage and purslane. Purslane contains more Omega 3 than any other known leafy green. Olives (and olive oil) are another important plant source of unsaturated fatty acids. Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. EPA and DHA can be obtained directly in high amounts from oily fish, fish oil, or algae oil. Vegetarians, and particularly vegans, have lower levels of EPA and DHA than meat-eaters. While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels.[88][clarification needed]. Significantly, for vegetarians, certain algae such as spirulina are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA).[89][90]



Calcium intake in vegetarians and vegans can be similar to non-vegetarians, as long as the diet is properly planned.[91] Lacto-ovo vegetarians that include dairy products can still obtain calcium from dairy sources like milk, yogurt, and cheese.[92]

Non-dairy milks that are fortified with calcium, such as soymilk and almond milk can also contribute a significant amount of calcium in the diet.[93] Broccoli, bok choy, and kale have also been found to have calcium that is well absorbed in the body.[91][92][94] Though the calcium content per serving is lower in these vegetables than a glass of milk, the absorption of the calcium into the body is higher.[92][94] Other foods that contain calcium include calcium-set tofu, blackstrap molasses, turnip greens, mustard greens, soybeans, tempeh, almonds, okra, dried figs, and tahini.[91][93] Though calcium can be found in Spinach, swiss chard, beans and beet greens, they are generally not considered to be a good source since the calcium binds to oxalic acid and is poorly absorbed into the body.[92] Phytic acid found in nuts, seeds, and beans may also impact calcium absorption rates.[92] See the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements for calcium needs for various ages,[92] the Vegetarian Resource Group[93] and the Vegetarian Nutrition Calcium Fact Sheet from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics[91] for more specifics on how to obtain adequate calcium intake on a vegetarian or vegan diet.

Vitamin D


Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and sensible exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in sunlight.[95][96] Products including milk, soy milk and cereal grains may be fortified to provide a source of vitamin D.[97] For those who do not get adequate sun exposure or food sources, vitamin D supplementation may be necessary.

Vitamin D2

  • Plants
    • Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), shoot: 4.8 μg (192 IU) vitamin D2, 0.1 μg (4 IU) vitamin D3[98]
  • Fungus, from USDA nutrient database,[99] per 100 g:
    • Mushrooms, portabella, exposed to ultraviolet light, raw: Vitamin D2: 11.2 μg (446 IU)
    • Mushrooms, portabella, exposed to ultraviolet light, grilled: Vitamin D2: 13.1 μg (524 IU)
    • Mushrooms, shiitake, dried: Vitamin D2: 3.9 μg (154 IU)
    • Mushrooms, shiitake, raw: Vitamin D2: 0.4 μg (18 IU)
    • Mushrooms, portabella, raw: Vitamin D2: 0.3 μg (10 IU)
    • Mushroom powder, any species, illuminated with sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light sources

Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol is found in fungus (except alfalfa which is a plantae) and created from viosterol, which in turn is created when ultraviolet light activates ergosterol (which is found in fungi and named as a sterol from ergot). Any UV-irradiated fungus including yeast form vitamin D2.[100] Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation is effective in improving vitamin D status and not different from a vitamin D2 supplement according to study.[101] For example, vitamin D2 from UV-irradiated yeast baked into bread is bioavailable.[102] By visual assessment or using a chromometer, no significant discoloration of irradiated mushrooms, as measured by the degree of "whiteness", was observed[103] making it hard to discover if they have been treated without labeling. Claims have been made that a normal serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup, or 60 grams) of mushrooms treated with ultraviolet light increase their vitamin D content to levels up to 80 micrograms,[104] or 2700 IU if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested.[105]



Choline is a nutrient that helps transfer signals between nerve cells and is involved in liver function. It is highest in dairy foods and meat but it is possible to be obtained through a vegan diet.[106]

Ethics and diet




With regard to the ethics of eating meat, scholars consider vegetarianism an ideology and a social movement.[107][108] Ethical reasons for choosing vegetarianism vary and are usually predicated on the interests of non-human animals. In many societies, controversies and debates have arisen over the ethics of eating animals. Some people, while not vegetarians, refuse to eat the flesh of certain animals due to cultural taboo, such as cats, dogs, horses or rabbits. Others support meat eating for scientific, nutritional and cultural reasons, including religious ones. Some meat eaters abstain from the meat of animals reared in particular ways, such as factory farms, or avoid certain meats, such as veal or foie gras. Some people follow vegetarian or vegan diets not because of moral concerns involving the raising or consumption of animals in general, but because of concerns about the specific treatment and practices involved in the processing of animals for food. Others still avoid meat out of concern that meat production places a greater burden on the environment than production of an equivalent amount of plant protein.[109] Ethical objections based on consideration for animals are generally divided into opposition to the act of killing in general, and opposition to certain agricultural practices surrounding the production of meat.

Ethics of killing for food


Ethical vegetarians believe that killing an animal, like killing a human, especially one who has equal or lesser cognitive abilities than the animals in question, can only be justified in extreme circumstances and that consuming a living creature for its enjoyable taste, convenience, or nutrition value is not a sufficient cause.[110] Another common view is that humans are morally conscious of their behavior in a way other animals are not, and therefore subject to higher standards.[111] Jeff McMahan proposes that denying the right to life and humane treatment to animals with equal or greater cognitive abilities than mentally disabled humans is an arbitrary and discriminatory practice based on habit instead of logic.[112] Opponents of ethical vegetarianism argue that animals are not moral equals to humans and so consider the comparison of eating livestock with killing people to be fallacious. This view does not excuse cruelty, but maintains that animals do not possess the rights a human has.[113]

Dairy and eggs


One of the main differences between a vegan and a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet is the avoidance of both eggs and dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter and yogurt. Ethical vegans do not consume dairy or eggs because they state that their production causes the animal suffering or a premature death.[114]

To produce milk from dairy cattle, farmers separate calves from their mothers soon after birth to retain cow milk for human consumption.[115]

Treatment of animals


Ethical vegetarianism has become popular in developed countries particularly because of the spread of factory farming and environmental consciousness. Some believe that the current mass-demand for meat cannot be satisfied without a mass-production system that disregards the welfare of animals, while others believe that practices like well-managed free-range farming or the consumption of game (particularly from species whose natural predators have been significantly eliminated) could substantially alleviate consumer demand for mass-produced meat.[116]

Religion and diet


Jainism teaches vegetarianism as moral conduct, as do some[117] sects of Hinduism. Buddhism in general does not prohibit meat eating, but Mahayana Buddhism encourages vegetarianism as beneficial for developing compassion.[118] Other denominations that advocate a vegetarian diet include the Seventh-day Adventists, the Rastafari movement, the Ananda Marga movement and the Hare Krishnas. Sikhism[119][120] does not equate spirituality with diet and does not specify a vegetarian or meat diet.[121]

Baháʼí Faith


While there are no dietary restrictions in the Baháʼí Faith, `Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the religion's founder, noted that a vegetarian diet consisting of fruits and grains was desirable, except for people with a weak constitution or those that are sick.[122] He stated that there are no requirements that Baháʼís become vegetarian, but that a future society should gradually become vegetarian.[122][123][124] `Abdu'l-Bahá also stated that killing animals was contrary to compassion.[122] While Shoghi Effendi, the head of the Bahá'í Faith in the first half of the 20th century, stated that a purely vegetarian diet would be preferable since it avoided killing animals,[125] both he and the Universal House of Justice, the governing body of the Baháʼís have stated that these teachings do not constitute a Baháʼí practice and that Baháʼís can choose to eat whatever they wish but should be respectful of others' beliefs.[122]


Sign promoting vegetarianism at Key Monastery, Spiti, India

Theravadins in general eat meat.[126] If Buddhist monks "see, hear or know" a living animal was killed specifically for them to eat, they must refuse it or else incur an offense.[127] However, this does not include eating meat which was given as alms or commercially purchased. In the Theravada canon, Shakyamuni Buddha did not make any comment discouraging them from eating meat (except specific types, such as human, elephant, horse, dog, snake, lion, tiger, leopard, bear, and hyena flesh[128]) but he specifically refused to institute vegetarianism in his monastic code when a suggestion had been made.[a][129]

In several Sanskrit texts of Mahayana Buddhism, Buddha instructs his followers to avoid meat.[130][131][132][133] However, each branch of Mahayana Buddhism selects which sutra to follow, and some branches, including the majority of Tibetan and Japanese Buddhists, actually do eat meat.[134][135]

Meanwhile, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese Buddhism (in some sectors of East Asian Buddhism) monks and nuns are expected to abstain from meat, and traditionally, to abstain from eggs and dairy as well.[136][137][138][139][140]

Different Buddhist traditions have differing teachings on diet, which may also vary for ordained monks and nuns compared to others. Many interpret the precept "not to kill" to require abstinence from meat, but not all. In Taiwan, su vegetarianism excludes not only all animal products but also vegetables in the allium family (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and garlic): onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, chives, or shallots.



Various groups within Christianity have practiced specific dietary restrictions for various reasons.[141] The Council of Jerusalem in around 50 AD, recommended Christians keep following some of the Jewish food laws concerning meat. The early sect known as the Ebionites are considered to have practiced vegetarianism. Surviving fragments from their Gospel indicate their belief that – as Christ is the Passover sacrifice and eating the Passover lamb is no longer required – a vegetarian diet may (or should) be observed. However, orthodox Christianity does not accept their teaching as authentic. Indeed, their specific injunction to strict vegetarianism was cited as one of the Ebionites' "errors".[142][143]

At a much later time, the Bible Christian Church founded by Reverend William Cowherd in 1809 followed a vegetarian diet.[144] Cowherd was one of the philosophical forerunners of the Vegetarian Society.[145] Cowherd encouraged members to abstain from eating of meat as a form of temperance.[146]

Seventh-day Adventists are encouraged to engage in healthy eating practices, and ovo-lacto-vegetarian diets are recommended by the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Nutrition Council (GCNC). They have also sponsored and participated in many scientific studies exploring the impact of dietary decisions upon health outcomes.[147] The GCNC has in addition adapted the USDA's food pyramid for a vegetarian dietary approach.[147][148] However, the only kinds of meat specifically frowned upon by the SDA health message are unclean meats, or those forbidden in scripture.[149]

Additionally, some monastic orders follow a pescatarian diet, and members of the Eastern Orthodox Church follow a vegan diet during fasts.[150] There is also a strong association between the Quakers and vegetarianism dating back at least to the 18th century. The association grew in prominence during the 19th century, coupled with growing Quaker concerns in connection with alcohol consumption, anti-vivisection and social purity. The association between the Quaker tradition and vegetarianism, however, becomes most significant with the founding of the Friends' Vegetarian Society in 1902 "to spread a kindlier way of living amongst the Society of Friends."[151]

Seventh-day Adventist

Sanitarium products for sale

The Seventh-day Adventist Church is well known for presenting a health message that recommends vegetarianism and expects adherence to the kosher laws in Leviticus 11. Obedience to these laws means abstinence from pork, shellfish, and other animals proscribed as "unclean". The church discourages its members from consuming alcoholic beverages, tobacco or illegal drugs (compare Christianity and alcohol). In addition, some Adventists avoid coffee, tea, cola, and other beverages containing caffeine.[citation needed]

The pioneers of the Adventist Church had much to do with the common acceptance of breakfast cereals into the Western diet, and the "modern commercial concept of cereal food" originated among Adventists.[152] John Harvey Kellogg was one of the early founders of Adventist health work. His development of breakfast cereals as a health food led to the founding of Kellogg's by his brother William. In both Australia and New Zealand, the church-owned Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company is a leading manufacturer of health and vegetarian-related products, most prominently Weet-Bix. Kellogg encouraged his students Daniel H. Kress and Lauretta E. Kress to study medicine together at the University of Michigan Medical School and become public advocates of vegetarianism; together they published an important vegetarian cookbook and became early founders of what was later Washington Adventist Hospital.[153]

Research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health has shown that the average Adventist in California lives 4 to 10 years longer than the average Californian. The research, as cited by the cover story of the November 2005 issue of National Geographic, asserts that Adventists live longer because they do not smoke or drink alcohol, have a day of rest every week, and maintain a healthy, low-fat vegetarian diet that is rich in nuts and beans.[154] The cohesiveness of Adventists' social networks has also been put forward as an explanation for their extended lifespan.[155] Since Dan Buettner's 2005 National Geographic story about Adventist longevity, his book, The Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who've Lived the Longest, named Loma Linda, California, a "blue zone" because of the large concentration of Seventh-day Adventists. He cites the Adventist emphasis on health, diet, and Sabbath-keeping as primary factors for Adventist longevity.[156]

An estimated 35% of Adventists practice vegetarianism or veganism, according to a 2002 worldwide survey of local church leaders.[157][158] North American Adventist health study recruitments from 2001 to 2007 found a similar prevalence of vegetarianism/veganism. A small majority of Adventists, 54%, were conventional meat-eaters. Of the remaining 46% it was found that 28% were Ovo/Lacto-vegetarians, 10% were Pesco-vegetarians and 8% were vegans. It is common for Adventists who choose to eat meat to also eat plant-based foods; 6% of the "meat-eaters" group restricted their intake of meat/fish to no more than once per week.[159]


Illustrative of vegetarian Hindu meals

Though there is no strict rule on what to consume and what not to, the food habits of Hindus vary according to their specific caste and sub-caste, community, location, custom and varying traditions. Historically and currently, a majority of Hindus (about 70%) eat meat, while a large proportion of Hindus are vegetarian (about 30%).[160]

Some sects of Hinduism such as Vaishnavism follow the purest form of vegetarianism as an ideal while Shaktism and Tantric sects freely consume chicken, mutton (goat and sheep meat), fish and eggs. The reasons stated by Jains and Vaishnavas are: the principle of nonviolence (ahimsa) applied to animals;[161] the intention to offer only "pure" (vegetarian) food to a deity and then to receive it back as prasada; and the conviction that a sattvic diet is beneficial for a healthy body. A sattvic diet is lacto-vegetarian, which includes dairy, but excludes eggs.[162] An overwhelming majority of the Hindus consider the cow to be a holy and sacred animal whose slaughter for meat is forbidden. Thus, beef is a taboo for the majority of Hindus, Jains and Sikhs[163]



Some followers of Islam, or Muslims, chose to be vegetarian for health, ethical, or personal reasons. However, the choice to become vegetarian for non-medical reasons can sometimes be controversial due to conflicting fatwas and differing interpretations of the Quran. Though some more traditional Muslims may keep quiet about their vegetarian diet, the number of vegetarian Muslims is increasing.[164][165]

Sri Lankan Sufi master Bawa Muhaiyaddeen, who established The Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship of North America in Philadelphia.[clarification needed] The former Indian president Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was also famously a vegetarian.[166][167]

In January 1996, The International Vegetarian Union announced the formation of the Muslim Vegetarian/Vegan Society.[168]

Many non-vegetarian Muslims will select vegetarian (or seafood) options when dining in non-halal restaurants. However, this is a matter of not having the right kind of meat rather than preferring not to eat meat on the whole.[165]


The food choices of Jains are based on the value of Ahimsa (non-violence).

Followers of Jainism believe that all living organisms, including microorganisms, are living and have a soul, and have one or more senses out of five senses. They go to great lengths to minimise any harm to any living organism. Most Jains are lacto-vegetarians, but more devout Jains do not eat root vegetables, because they believe that root vegetables contain many more microorganisms as compared to other vegetables, and that, by eating them, violence against these microorganisms is inevitable. They therefore prefer eating beans and fruits, whose cultivation involves killing fewer microorganisms. No products obtained from already-dead animals are allowed because of potential violence against decomposing microorganisms.[169][170] Some particularly dedicated individuals are fruitarians.[171] Honey is forbidden, being the regurgitation of nectar by bees [172] and potentially containing eggs, excreta and dead bees. Many Jains do not consume plant parts that grow underground such as roots and bulbs, because the plants themselves and tiny animals may be killed when the plants are pulled up.[173]



While classical Jewish law neither requires nor prohibits the consumption of meat, Jewish vegetarians often cite Jewish principles regarding animal welfare, environmental ethics, moral character, and health as reasons for adopting a vegetarian or vegan diet.[174]

Rabbis may advocate vegetarianism or veganism primarily because of concerns about animal welfare, especially in light of the traditional prohibition on causing unnecessary "pain to living creatures" (tza'ar ba'alei hayyim).[175][176] Some Jewish vegetarian groups and activists believe that the halakhic permission to eat meat is a temporary leniency for those who are not ready yet to accept the vegetarian diet.[177]

The book of Daniel starts in its first chapter with the benefits of vegetarianism. Due to its size, its late time of origin and its revealing content, the book is of particular importance for the time of the following exile, which lasts now for 2000 years and technically still goes on until the Temple in Jerusalem is rebuilt. A diet described as "pulse and water" is presented along benefits such as accordance with the biblical dietary laws, health, beauty, wisdom and vision. Vegetarianism can be seen as a safeguard around the dietary laws or the beautification of them.

Jewish vegetarianism and veganism have become especially popular among Israeli Jews. In 2016, Israel was described as "the most vegan country on Earth", as five percent of its population eschewed all animal products.[178] Interest in veganism has grown among both non-Orthodox and Orthodox Jews in Israel.[179]



Within the Afro-Caribbean community, a minority are Rastafari and follow the dietary regulations with varying degrees of strictness. The most orthodox eat only "Ital" or natural foods, in which the matching of herbs or spices with vegetables is the result of long tradition originating from the African ancestry and cultural heritage of Rastafari.[180] "Ital", which is derived from the word vital, means essential to human existence. Ital cooking in its strictest form prohibits the use of salt, meat (especially pork), preservatives, colorings, flavorings and anything artificial.[181] Most Rastafari are vegetarian.[182]


At the Sikh langar, all people eat a vegetarian meal as equals.

The tenets of Sikhism do not advocate a particular stance on either vegetarianism or the consumption of meat,[183][184][185][186] but leave the decision of diet to the individual.[187] The tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, however, prohibited "Amritdhari" Sikhs, or those that follow the Sikh Rehat Maryada (the Official Sikh Code of Conduct)[188] from eating Kutha meat, or meat which has been obtained from animals which have been killed in a ritualistic way. This is understood to have been for the political reason of maintaining independence from the then-new Muslim hegemony, as Muslims largely adhere to the ritualistic halal diet.[183][187]

"Amritdharis" that belong to some Sikh sects (e.g. Akhand Kirtani Jatha, Damdami Taksal, Namdhari[189] and Rarionwalay,[190] etc.) are vehemently against the consumption of meat and eggs (though they do consume and encourage the consumption of milk, butter and cheese).[191] This vegetarian stance has been traced back to the times of the British Raj, with the advent of many new Vaishnava converts.[187] In response to the varying views on diet throughout the Sikh population, Sikh Gurus have sought to clarify the Sikh view on diet, stressing their preference only for simplicity of diet. Guru Nanak said that over-consumption of food (Lobh, Greed) involves a drain on the Earth's resources and thus on life.[192][193] Passages from the Guru Granth Sahib (the holy book of Sikhs, also known as the Adi Granth) say that it is "foolish" to argue for the superiority of animal life, because though all life is related, only human life carries more importance: "Only fools argue whether to eat meat or not. Who can define what is meat and what is not meat? Who knows where the sin lies, being a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian?"[187] The Sikh langar, or free temple meal, is largely lacto-vegetarian, though this is understood to be a result of efforts to present a meal that is respectful of the diets of any person who would wish to dine, rather than out of dogma.[186][187]

Environment and diet


Environmental vegetarianism is based on the concern that the production of meat and animal products for mass consumption, especially through factory farming, is environmentally unsustainable. According to a 2006 United Nations initiative, the livestock industry is one of the largest contributors to environmental degradation worldwide, and modern practices of raising animals for food contribute on a "massive scale" to air and water pollution, land degradation, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The initiative concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global."[194]

In addition, animal agriculture is a large source of greenhouse gases. According to a 2006 report it is responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions as estimated in 100-year CO2 equivalents. Livestock sources (including enteric fermentation and manure) account for about 3.1 percent of US anthropogenic GHG emissions expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents.[195] This EPA estimate is based on methodologies agreed to by the Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC, with 100-year global warming potentials from the IPCC Second Assessment Report used in estimating GHG emissions as carbon dioxide equivalents.

Meat produced in a laboratory (called in vitro meat) may be more environmentally sustainable than regularly produced meat.[196] Reactions of vegetarians vary.[197] Rearing a relatively small number of grazing animals can be beneficial, as the Food Climate Research Network at Surrey University reports: "A little bit of livestock production is probably a good thing for the environment".[198]

In May 2009, Ghent, Belgium, was reported to be "the first [city] in the world to go vegetarian at least once a week" for environmental reasons, when local authorities decided to implement a "weekly meatless day". Civil servants would eat vegetarian meals one day per week, in recognition of the United Nations' report. Posters were put up by local authorities to encourage the population to take part on vegetarian days, and "veggie street maps" were printed to highlight vegetarian restaurants. In September 2009, schools in Ghent are due to have a weekly veggiedag ("vegetarian day") too.[199]

Public opinion and acceptance of meat-free food is expected to be more successful if its descriptive words focus less on the health aspects and more on the flavor.[200]

Labor conditions and diet


Some groups, such as PETA, promote vegetarianism as a way to offset poor treatment and working conditions of workers in the contemporary meat industry.[201] These groups cite studies showing the psychological damage caused by working in the meat industry, especially in factory and industrialised settings, and argue that the meat industry violates its labourers' human rights by assigning difficult and distressing tasks without adequate counselling, training and debriefing.[202][203][204] However, the working conditions of agricultural workers as a whole, particularly non-permanent workers, remain poor and well below conditions prevailing in other economic sectors.[205] Accidents, including pesticide poisoning, among farmers and plantation workers contribute to increased health risks, including increased mortality.[206] According to the International Labour Organization, agriculture is one of the three most dangerous jobs in the world[clarification needed].[207]

Economics and diet


Similar to environmental vegetarianism is the concept of economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint concerning issues such as public health and curbing world starvation, the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just out of necessity. According to the Worldwatch Institute, "Massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease their health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world's chronically hungry."[208] According to estimates in 2016, adoption of vegetarianism would contribute substantially to global healthcare and environmental savings.[209]



Prejudice researcher Gordon Hodson argues that vegetarians and vegans frequently face discrimination where eating meat is held as a cultural norm.[210]



Research suggests that, at least in the United States, vegetarianism has a high turnover rate, with less than 20% of adopters persisting for more than a year.[211] Research shows that lacking social support contributes to lapses.[212][213][better source needed] A 2019 analysis found that adhering to any kind of restricted diet (gluten-free, vegetarian, kosher, teetotal) was associated with feelings of loneliness and increased social isolation.[214]

Vegetarians or vegans who adopted their diet abruptly might be more likely to eventually abandon it when compared to individuals adopting their diet gradually with incremental changes.[215]

Country-specific information


The rate of vegetarianism by country varies substantially from relatively low levels in countries such as the Netherlands (5%)[216] to more considerable levels in India (20–40%).[217][218] Estimates for the number of vegetarians per country can be subject to methodological difficulties, as respondents may identify as vegetarian even if they include some meat in their diet, and thus some researchers suggest the percentage of vegetarians may be significantly overestimated.[219]



Vegetarianism is occasionally depicted in mass media. Some scholars have argued that mass media serves as a "source of information for individuals" interested in vegetarianism or veganism,[220] while there are "increasing social sanctions against eating meat".[221][222] Over time, societal attitudes of vegetarianism have changed, as have perceptions of vegetarianism in popular culture, leading to more "vegetarian sentiment".[223] Even so, there are still existing "meat-based" food metaphors which infuse daily speech,[224] and those who are vegetarian and vegan are met with "acceptance, tolerance, or hostility" after they divulge they are vegetarian or vegan.[225] Some writers, such as John L. Cunningham, editor of the Vegetarian Resource Group's newsletter, have argued for "more sympathetic vegetarian characters in the mass media".[226]



In Western literature, vegetarianism, and topics that relate to it, have informed a "gamut of literary genres", whether literary fiction or those fictions focusing on utopias, dystopias, or apocalypses, with authors shaped by questions about human identity and "our relation to the environment", implicating vegetarianism and veganism.[227][228] Others have pointed to the lack of "memorable characters" who are vegetarian.[229] There are also vegetarian themes in horror fiction,[230] science fiction[231] and poetry.[232]

In 1818, Mary Shelley published the novel Frankenstein. Writer and animal rights advocate Carol J. Adams argued in her seminal book, The Sexual Politics of Meat that the unnamed creature in the novel was a vegetarian.[233] She argued that the book was "indebted to the vegetarian climate" of its day and that vegetarianism is a major theme in the novel as a whole. She notes that the creature gives an "emotional speech" talking about its dietary principles, which makes it a "more sympathetic being" than others. She also said that it connected with Vegetarianism in the Romantic Era who believed that the Garden of Eden was meatless, rewrote the myth of Prometheus, the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and feminist symbolism. Adams concludes that it is more likely that the "vegetarian revelations" in the novel are "silenced" due to the lack of a "framework into which we can assimilate them." Apart from Adams, scholar Suzanne Samples pointed to "gendered spaces of eating and consumption" within Victorian England which influenced literary characters of the time.[234] This included works such as Alfred, Lord Tennyson's poem titled The Charge of the Light Brigade, Christina Rossetti's volume of poetry titled Goblin Market and Other Poems, Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Mary Seacole's autographical account titled Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands, and Anthony Trollope's novel titled Orley Farm. Samples also argued that vegetarianism in the Victorian era "presented a unique lifestyle choice that avoided meat but promoted an awareness of health", which initially was seen as rebellious but later became more normalized.[234]

In Irene Clyde's 1909 feminist utopian novel, Beatrice the Sixteenth, Mary Hatherley accidentally travels through time, discovering a lost world, which is a postgender society named Armeria, with the inhabitants following a strict vegetarian diet, having ceased to slaughter animals for over a thousand years. Some reviewers of the book praised the vegetarianism of the Armerians.[235]

James Joyce's 1922 novel, Ulysses is said to have vegetarian themes. Scholar Peter Adkins argued that while Joyce was critical of the vegetarianism of George A.E. Russell, the novel engages with "questions of animal ethics through its portrayal of Ireland's cattle industry, animal slaughter and the cultural currency of meat," unlike some of his other novels. He also stated that the novel "historicizes and theorizes animal life and death," and that it demonstrates the ways that symbolism and materiality of meat are "co-opted within patriarchal political structures," putting it in the same space as theorists like Carol J. Adams, Donna J. Haraway, Laura Wright, and Cary Wolfe, and writers such as J. M. Coetzee.[236]

In 1997, S. Reneé Wheeler wrote in the Vegetarian Journal, saying that "finding books with vegetarian themes" is important for helping children "feel legitimate in being vegetarian."[237] In 2004, writer J. M. Coetzee argued that since the "mode of consciousness of nonhuman species is quite different from human consciousness," it is hard for writers to realize this for animals, with a "temptation to project upon them feelings and thoughts that may belong only to our own human mind and heart," and stated that reviewers have ignored the presence of animals in his books. He also stated that animals are present in his "fiction either not at all or in a merely subsidiary role" because they occupy "a subsidiary place in our lives" and argued that it is not "possible to write about the inner lives of animals in any complex way."[238]

In 2014, The New Yorker published a short story by Jonathan Lethem titled "Pending Vegan"[239] which follows "one family, a husband and wife and their four-year-old twin daughters" on a trip to SeaWorld in San Diego, California. The protagonist of the story, Paul Espeseth, renames himself "Pending Vegan" in order to acknowledge his "increasing uneasiness with the relationship between man and beast."[240]

In 2016, a three-part Korean novel by Han Kang titled The Vegetarian was published in the U.S.,[b] which focuses a woman named Young-hye, who "sees vegetarianism as a way of not inflicting harm on anything," with eating meat symbolizing human violence itself, and later identifies as a plant rather than as a human "and stops eating entirely."[241] Some argued the book was more about mental illness than vegetarianism.[242] Others compared it to fictional works by Margaret Atwood.[243]



Vegetarians, and vegetarian themes, have appeared in various TV shows, such as Buffy the Vampire Slayer, True Blood, The Simpsons, King of the Hill, and South Park.[244][245][246][247]

Mr. Spock of Star Trek has been called "television's first vegetarian." He and his fellow Vulcans do not eat meat due to a "philosophy of non-violence."[248] He is identified as vegetarian following an episode where he was "transported back to pre-civilised times" and ate meat, and in Richard Marranca, in an issue of the Vegetarian Journal, said that for Spock, like Kwai Chang Caine in Kung Fu, "vegetarianism was something authentic and taken for granted; it was the right thing to do based on compassion and logic."[249]

In 1995, The Simpsons episode "Lisa the Vegetarian" aired. Before recording their lines for the episode, showrunner David Mirkin, who had recently stopped consuming meat, gave Linda and Paul McCartney "a container of his favorite turkey substitute," with both voicing characters in an episode which focused around vegetarianism.[246] Critic Alan Siegel said that before the episode vegetarians had been portrayed as "rarely as anything but one-dimensional hippies" but that this episode was different as it was "told from the point of view of the person becoming a vegetarian." He said that the episode was one of the "first times on television that vegetarians saw an honest depiction of themselves" and of people's reaction to their dietary choices. The idea for the episode was originally proposed by David X. Cohen and the McCartneys agreed on the condition that Lisa remain a vegetarian, with both satisfied with how the episode turned out.[246] In the episode, Lisa decides to stop eating meat after bonding with a lamb at a petting zoo. Her schoolmates and family members ridicule her for her beliefs, but with the help of Apu as well as Paul and Linda McCartney, she commits to vegetarianism.[250] The staff promised that she would remain a vegetarian,[251][252] resulting in one of the few permanent character changes made in the show.[253][254] In an August 2020 interview, McCartney said that he and is wife were worried that Lisa "would be a vegetarian for a week, then Homer would persuade her to eat a hot dog," but were assured by the producers that she would remain that way, and he was delighted that they "kept their word."[255]

In September 1998, the King of the Hill episode "And They Call It Bobby Love" aired on FOX. In the episode, "Bobby has a relationship with a vegetarian named Marie. She later dumps him after he eats a steak in front of her."[245] In the March 2002 South Park episode "Fun with Veal", Stan Marsh becomes a vegetarian after he learns that veal is made of baby cows, which Cartman makes fun of. The episode ends with the boys, including Stan, getting grounded, but not before going out with their parents for burgers, meaning that Stan is no longer a vegetarian. In the DVD commentary, the creators said they wanted to balance their message of not eating baby animals, by at the same time not advocating people abstain from meat consumption altogether.[247]

Aang, in the animated series Avatar: The Last Airbender and The Legend of Korra was vegetarian. According to the show's creators, "Buddhism and Taoism have been huge inspirations behind the idea for Avatar."[256] As shown in "The King of Omashu"[257] and "The Headband",[258] a notable aspect of Aang's character is his vegetarian diet,[259] which is consistent with Buddhism, Hinduism, and Taoism.[256] In the Brahmajala Sutra, a Buddhist code of ethics, vegetarianism is encouraged.[260]

Other fictional characters who are vegetarians include Count Duckula in Count Duckula,[261] Beast Boy in Teen Titans and Teen Titans Go!, Lenore in Supernatural,[262] and Norville "Shaggy" Rogers in the animated series What's New, Scooby Doo?.[263][264] Before the latter animated series, Shaggy was known for having an "enormous appetite" earlier in the Scooby-Doo franchise. The decision to make Shaggy a vegetarian occurred after his voice actor, Casey Kasem, convinced the producers to do so, since he was a vegan who supported animal rights and opposed factory farming, saying he would refuse to voice Shaggy unless the character was vegetarian.[263][248]

Also, a Netflix original, Okja, focused on vegetarianism, while a October 2019 South Park episode, "Let Them Eat Goo", featured a vegetarian character.[265][266] Additionally, Steven Universe, the protagonist in the show Steven Universe and the limited epilogue series, Steven Universe Future, is a vegetarian. In the episode "Snow Day" of Steven Universe Future, Steven tells the Gems he lives with that he has been a vegetarian for a month, drinks protein shakes and mentions that he does "his own skincare routine."[267]



In the 1999 film, Notting Hill, Keziah, played by Emma Bernard is a vegetarian. In one scene, Keziah tells William "Will" Thacker (played by Hugh Grant), that she is a fruitarian.[268] She says she believes that "fruits and vegetables have feeling", meaning she opposes cooking them, only eating things that have "actually fallen off a tree or bush" and that are dead already, leading to what some describe as a negative depiction.[269]

In the 2000 film, But I'm A Cheerleader, before Megan, one of the film's protagonists, is sent to a conversion therapy camp, her parents and others claim she is a lesbian because she is a vegetarian.[270] Legally Blonde, a 2001 film, also featured a vegetarian. When Elle Wood introduces herself at Harvard Law School, she describes herself and her dog as "Gemini vegetarians".[271]

In the 2018 Hollywood blockbuster, Black Panther, M’Baku (voiced by Winston Duke), the Jabari tribe leader who lives in the mountains of Wakanda, declares to a White CIA agent named Everett Ross (voiced by Martin Freeman), "if you say one more word, I'll feed you to my children!" After Everett is shaken by these words, he jokes, saying he is kidding because all those in his tribe, including himself, are vegetarians.[272] Some praised this scene for challenging a stereotype of Black culture and the perception of what vegetarians look like.[273] Duke later said that some Black outlets cooked vegan meals for him, and said that the scene is "kind of teaching kids that eating vegetables is cool," which is something he is for.[274]

Vegetarian themes have also been noted in the Twilight novel (2005–2008) and film franchise (2008–2012), The Road (2006) and The Year of the Flood (2009).[244] In March 2020, scholar Nathan Poirer reviewed Thinking Veganism in Literature and Culture: Towards a Vegan Theory, a book edited by Emelia Quinn and Benjamin Westwood, and he concluded that veganism could "infiltrate popular culture without being perceived as threatening," while noting others who contribute to the book examining vegan cinema that "challenges the normality of human supremacy by situating humans as potential prey," and stating that the essays outline ways veganism can be successful in popular culture.[275]

Other scholars noted vegetarian themes in the films The Fault in Our Stars,[276] The Princess Diaries series,[229][276] and the 2009 film, Vegetarian.[277]

See also



  1. ^ "The rule of vegetarianism was the fifth of a list of rules which Devadatta had proposed to the Buddha. Devadatta was the founder of the tapasa movement in Buddhism and his special rules involved ascetic and austere practices (forest-dwelling, wearing only rags, etc). The Buddha rejected all the proposed revisions of Devadatta, and it was in this context that he reiterated the tikoiparisuddha rule. (On this see the author's Western Buddhism and a Theravada heterodoxy, BSQ Tracts on Buddhism."[127]
  2. ^ It was published in 2015 in the U.K. and in South Korea in 2007
  1. ^ "What is a vegetarian?". Vegetarian Society. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d "Why Avoid Hidden Animal Ingredients?". North American Vegetarian Society. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  3. ^ "The vegetarian diet". nhs.uk. February 23, 2022. Archived from the original on August 15, 2022. Retrieved April 2, 2023.
  4. ^ a b "Fact Sheets: Things to look out for if you are a vegetarian/vegan". Vegetarian Society. September 2015. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  5. ^ a b Keevican, Michael (November 5, 2003). "What's in Your Cheese?". Vegetarian Resource Group. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  6. ^ "FAQ: Food Ingredients". Vegetarian Resource Group. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  7. ^ Preece, Rod (2008). The origins of the term "vegetarian". In: Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. ISBN 9780774858496. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  8. ^ "Definitions - IVU - International Vegetarian Union". ivu.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2021. Retrieved July 24, 2022.
  9. ^ "Vegetarian". Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper Inc. 2019. Archived from the original on July 6, 2020. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  10. ^ a b OED vol. 19, second edition (1989), p. 476; Webster's Third New International Dictionary p. 2537; The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Oxford, 1966, p. 972; The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology (1988), p. 1196; Colin Spencer, The Heretic's Feast. A History of Vegetarianism, London 1993, p. 252. The OED writes that the word came into general use after the formation of the Vegetarian Society at Ramsgate in 1847, though it offers two examples of usage from 1839 and 1842:
    • 1839: "If I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian." (F. A. Kemble, Jrnl. Residence on Georgian Plantation (1863) 251)
    • 1842: "To tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature." (Healthian, Apr. 34) The 1839 occurrence remains under discussion; the Oxford English Dictionary's 1839 source is in fact an 1863 publication: Fanny Kemble, Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation 1838–1839. The original manuscript has not been located.
  11. ^ a b c Davis, John. "History of Vegetarianism: Extracts from some journals 1842–48 – the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian'". International Vegetarian Union. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. In 1841 the [Alcott House] was re-invented as A Concordium, or Industry Harmony College though the building remained 'Alcott House'. Also in 1841 they began printing and publishing their own pamphlets, which now seem to be lost, but we have the relevant extracts, with the earliest known use of 'vegetarian', from their first journal which began in December 1841[.]
  12. ^ a b Davis, John. "History of Vegetarianism: Extracts from some journals 1842–48 – the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian' (Appendix 2 – The 1839 journal of Fanny Kemble)". International Vegetarian Union. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  13. ^ "FAQ: Definitions". IVU World Vegfest. International Vegetarian Union. March 8, 2013. Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2018. The term 'Vegetarian' was first used around 1840 by the community closely associated with Alcott House School, near London, and they used it to refer exclusively to foods derived from plants—plus all the ethical values associated today with Veganism. [...] The word 'Vegetarian' was first formally used on September 30th of 1847 at Northwood Villa in Kent, England. The occasion is the inaugural meeting of The Vegetarian Society.
  14. ^ Olivelle, transl. from the original Sanskrit by Patrick (1998). Upaniṣads (Reissued ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0192835765.
  15. ^ Bajpai, Shiva (2011). The History of India – From Ancient to Modern Times. Himalayan Academy Publications (Hawaii, USA). ISBN 978-1-934145-38-8.
  16. ^ Spencer, Colin (1996). The Heretic's Feast: A History of Vegetarianism. Fourth Estate Classic House. pp. 33–68, 69–84. ISBN 978-0874517606.
  17. ^ Singh, Kumar Suresh (2004). People of India: Maharashtra. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 9788179911006.
  18. ^ Fieldhouse, Paul (April 17, 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions [2 volumes]. Abc-Clio. ISBN 9781610694124. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
  19. ^ Walters, Kerry (June 7, 2012). Vegetarianism: A Guide for the Perplexed. A&C Black. ISBN 9781441115294. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
  20. ^ Religious Vegetarianism From Hesiod to the Dalai Lama, ed. Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess, Albany 2001, p. 13–46.
  21. ^ "The Acharang Sutra".
  22. ^ Kamil Zvelebil (1973). The Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. Leiden: E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-03591-5. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  23. ^ P.S. Sundaram (1990). Kural (Tiruvalluvar). Penguin Books. ISBN 978-93-5118-015-9. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved September 20, 2021.
  24. ^ A. A. Manavalan (2009). Essays and Tributes on Tirukkural (1886–1986 AD) (1 ed.). Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies.
  25. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil (1973). The Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. Leiden: E.J. Brill. ISBN 9004035915. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  26. ^ Dharani, D. (2018). "Medicine in Thirukkural, The Universal Veda of Tamil Literature". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 79 (2018–19): 101–108. JSTOR 26906235. Archived from the original on May 28, 2022. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  27. ^ Faxian (1886). "On To Mathura Or Muttra. Condition And Customs Of Central India; Of The Monks, Viharas, And Monasteries.". A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms. Translated by Legge, James. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  28. ^ Bodhipaksa (2016). Vegetarianism. Windhorse. ISBN 978-19093-14-740. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved June 20, 2022.
  29. ^ Spencer p. 38–55, 61–63; Haussleiter p. 79–157.
  30. ^ Livio, Mario (2003) [2002]. The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World's Most Astonishing Number (First trade paperback ed.). New York City: Broadway Books. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7679-0816-0. Archived from the original on March 13, 2023. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  31. ^ Zhmud, Leonid (2012). Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Translated by Windle, Kevin; Ireland, Rosh. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-928931-8. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  32. ^ a b Borlik, Todd A. (2011). Ecocriticism and Early Modern English Literature: Green Pastures. New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge. pp. 189–192. ISBN 978-0-203-81924-1.
  33. ^ Jones, Lindsay (2005). Encyclopedia of religion (13 ed.). Macmillan Reference USA. ISBN 9780028659824. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  34. ^ Watanabe, Zenjiro. "Removal of the Ban on Meat: The Meat-Eating Culture of Japan at the Beginning of Westernization" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 29, 2019. Retrieved April 26, 2020.
  35. ^ Koon, Wee Kek (November 21, 2019). "Vegetarianism in China is nothing new: meat-free diets have ancient origins". Archived from the original on March 24, 2020. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
  36. ^ Wang, Jenny (August 13, 2020). "Buddhist food: how the healthy, vegetarian dishes full of seasonal ingredients can imitate meat with funguses and plants". Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  37. ^ Datta, P. T. Jyothi (September 4, 2001). "Health goes dotty with brown eggs & green milk". Hindu Business Line. New Delhi: Kasturi & Sons (published September 5, 2001). Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. For discerning consumers, a recent Health Ministry notification had made it mandatory for packed food containing animal parts contained in a box, to sport a brown dot prominently on its label.
  38. ^ Passmore John (1975). "The Treatment of Animals". Journal of the History of Ideas. 36 (2): 196–201. doi:10.2307/2708924. ISSN 0022-5037. JSTOR 2708924. PMID 11610245. S2CID 43847928.
  39. ^ Lutterbach, Hubertus. "Der Fleischverzicht im Christentum", Saeculum 50/II (1999) p. 202.
  40. ^ Mortimer, Ian (January 2010) [Originally published in Great Britain in 2008 by Random House UK]. "What to Eat and Drink: Noble Households" (Hardcover). In Sulkin, Will; Hensgen, Jörg (eds.). The Time Traveler's Guide to Medieval England (1st Touchstone hardcover ed.). New York, NY: Touchstone (Simon & Schuster). p. 140. ISBN 978-1-4391-1289-2. Seals, porpoises, dolphins, barnacle geese, puffins, and beavers are all classed as fish as their lives begin in the sea or in a river. Hence they are eaten gleefully, even on nonmeat days.
  41. ^ Spencer p. 180–200.
  42. ^ Spencer p. 252–253, 261–262.
  43. ^ Bauer, K., "The Domestication of Radical Ideas and Colonial Spaces", in M. Schulze, et al., eds., German Diasporic Experiences (Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008), pp. 345–358 Archived April 5, 2023, at the Wayback Machine.
  44. ^ Craig WJ, Mangels AR (July 2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets". Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 109 (7): 1266–1282. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864. S2CID 7906168. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  45. ^ Engber, Daniel (July 30, 2008). "The Great Vegan Honey Debate: Is honey the dairy of the insect world?". Slate. Archived from the original on March 9, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  46. ^ Johnson, M.E. (2017). "A 100-Year Review: Cheese production and quality". Journal of Dairy Science. 100 (12): 9952–9965. doi:10.3168/jds.2017-12979. ISSN 0022-0302. PMID 29153182.
  47. ^ Barr SI, Chapman GE (March 2002). "Perceptions and practices of self-defined current vegetarian and nonvegetarian women". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 102 (3): 354–360. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90083-0. PMID 11902368.
  48. ^ a b Yabroff, Jennie (December 30, 2009). "Vegetarians Who Eat Meat". Newsweek. Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  49. ^ Gale, Catharine R. et al. "IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study" Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, British Medial Journal, December 15, 2006, vol 333, issue 7581, p. 245.
  50. ^ a b Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (2002 and 2007) defines "vegetarian" (noun) as "A person who on principle abstains from animal food; esp. one who avoids meat but will eat dairy produce and eggs and sometimes also fish (cf. VEGAN noun)."
  51. ^ "Meat". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. Definition of meat [2a]: 2b; also: flesh of a mammal as opposed to fowl or fish
  52. ^ a b "Vegetarians don't eat fish, shellfish or crustacea, but they can still enjoy one of the healthiest diets available". Vegetarian Society. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2018. Many things have changed since the Vegetarian Society was founded way back in 1847, but fish have always been cold-blooded water dwelling animals and vegetarians do not eat animals.
  53. ^ "2003 Words of the Year". American Dialect Society. January 13, 2004. Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. Most Useful: word or phrase which most fills a need for a new word – Winner flexitarian: noun, a vegetarian who occasionally eats meat. 31–41
  54. ^ "Chapter 5: Building Healthy Eating Patterns" (PDF). Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Report). 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 3, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  55. ^ "Study reveals biggest motivation for people to consider turning vegetarian". The Indian Express. April 7, 2020. Archived from the original on April 30, 2021. Retrieved March 26, 2021.
  56. ^ Hopwood, Christopher J.; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Schwaba, Ted; Chen, Sophia (April 2, 2020). "Health, environmental, and animal rights motives for vegetarian eating". PLOS ONE. 15 (4): e0230609. Bibcode:2020PLoSO..1530609H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0230609. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 7117663. PMID 32240198.
  57. ^ a b c Craig WJ, Mangels AR (July 2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 109 (7): 1266–82. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864. S2CID 7906168. Archived from the original on April 19, 2021. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
  58. ^ Fraser GE (2009). "Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases?". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (5): 1607S–1612S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736K. PMC 2677008. PMID 19321569.
  59. ^ a b Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ruiyun; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jianjun (2020). "Bone loss, low height, and low weight in different populations and district: a meta-analysis between vegans and non-vegans". Food and Nutrition Research. 64. doi:10.29219/fnr.v64.3315. ISSN 1654-661X. PMC 7534950. PMID 33061885.
  60. ^ Iguacel, Isabel; Miguel-Berges, María L; Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro; Moreno, Luis A; Julián, Cristina (January 2019). "Veganism, vegetarianism, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Nutrition Reviews. 77 (1): 1–18. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuy045. PMID 30376075. S2CID 53111636. Archived from the original on October 26, 2020. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
  61. ^ Comité Nacional de Crecimiento y Desarrollo (August 2021). "Growth in children and in the offspring whose mothers adhere to vegetarian diets: Literature review". Archivos Argentinos de Pediatria. 119 (4): S77–S106. doi:10.5546/aap.2021.S77. ISSN 1668-3501. PMID 34309323. S2CID 242376642.
  62. ^ Papamichou D, Panagiotakos DB, Itsiopoulos C (June 2019). "Dietary patterns and management of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of randomised clinical trials". Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis (Systematic Review). 29 (6): 531–543. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2019.02.004. PMID 30952576. S2CID 86497236.
  63. ^ Viguiliouk, Effie; Kendall, Cyril WC.; Kahleová, Hana; et al. (2019). "Effect of vegetarian dietary patterns on cardiometabolic risk factors in diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Clinical Nutrition. 38 (3): 1133–1145. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2018.05.032. ISSN 0261-5614. PMID 29960809. S2CID 49649078.
  64. ^ Zampelas, Antonis; Magriplis, Emmanuella (June 28, 2019). "Dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular diseases: a review of the evidence". The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 79 (1): 68–75. doi:10.1017/s0029665119000946. ISSN 0029-6651. PMID 31250769. S2CID 195757764.
  65. ^ Iguacel, Isabel; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno, Luis A.; Michels, Nathalie (June 1, 2020). "Vegetarianism and veganism compared with mental health and cognitive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Nutrition Reviews. 79 (4): 361–381. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuaa030. hdl:1854/LU-8680862. ISSN 0029-6643. PMID 32483598.
  66. ^ Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Borawski, Jette (November 1, 2021). "Vegetarian diet and depression scores: A meta-analysis". Journal of Affective Disorders. 294: 813–815. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2021.07.098. ISSN 0165-0327. PMID 34375207.
  67. ^ Askari, Mohammadreza; Daneshzad, Elnaz; Mofrad, Manije Darooghegi; Bellissimo, Nick; Suitor, Katherine; Azadbakht, Leila (2020). "Vegetarian diet and the risk of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 4 (1): 261–271. doi:10.1080/10408398.2020.1814991. PMID 32885996. S2CID 221497075.
  68. ^ Craig WJ, Mangels AR (2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets" (PDF). Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 109 (7): 1266–1282. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864. S2CID 7906168. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 6, 2020. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  69. ^ Huang, Tao; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Jusheng; et al. (2012). "Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review". Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 60 (4): 233–240. doi:10.1159/000337301. ISSN 1421-9697. PMID 22677895. S2CID 3671512.
  70. ^ Dinu, Monica; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco (June 13, 2017). "Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 57 (17): 3640–3649. doi:10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447. hdl:2158/1079985. ISSN 1040-8398. PMID 26853923. S2CID 10073754.
  71. ^ Key TJ, Appleby PN, Rosell MS (2006). "Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 65 (1): 35–41. CiteSeerX doi:10.1079/PNS2005481. PMID 16441942. S2CID 3796770.
  72. ^ Craig, W. J. (2009). "Health effects of vegan diets". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (5): 1627S–33S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736n. PMID 19279075.
  73. ^ a b Davey GK, Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Allen NE, Knox KH, Key TJ (2003). "EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK". Public Health Nutrition. 6 (3): 259–69. doi:10.1079/PHN2002430. PMID 12740075.
  74. ^ "Vegetarian and vegan eating | Better Health Channel". Betterhealth.vic.gov.au. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  75. ^ Peter Emery, Tom Sanders (2002). Molecular Basis of Human Nutrition. Taylor & Francis Ltd. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-7484-0753-8.
  76. ^ Brenda Davis, Vesanto Melina (2003). The New Becoming Vegetarian. Book Publishing Company. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-1-57067-144-9.
  77. ^ "Vegetarian Society - Factsheet - Iron". Vegsoc.org. September 22, 2014. Archived from the original on April 29, 2013. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  78. ^ "Vegetarianism in a Nutshell". Vrg.org. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  79. ^ "// Health Issues // Optimal Vegan Nutrition". Goveg.com. Archived from the original on April 4, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  80. ^ Waldmann A, Koschizke JW, Leitzmann C, Hahn A (2004). "Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study". Ann Nutr Metab. 48 (2): 103–108. doi:10.1159/000077045. PMID 14988640. S2CID 21370991. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  81. ^ Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, Simoncic R, Béderová A, Grancicová E, Magálová T (1997). "Influence of vegetarian and mixed nutrition on selected haematological and biochemical parameters in children". Nahrung. 41 (5): 311–14. doi:10.1002/food.19970410513. PMID 9399258.
  82. ^ Craig WJ, Mangels AR (2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 109 (7): 1266–82. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864. S2CID 7906168. Archived from the original on April 19, 2021. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
  83. ^ a b c d "Vitamin B12". Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. June 4, 2015. Archived from the original on November 17, 2021. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  84. ^ a b c "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12". US National Institutes of Health: Office of Dietary Supplements. Archived from the original on November 25, 2009. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
  85. ^ "What Every Vegan Should Know About Vitamin B12". Vegan Society. October 31, 2001. Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2010.
  86. ^ "Vitamins and minerals - B vitamins and folic acid". UK National Health Service. March 3, 2017. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  87. ^ a b Obersby, Derek; Chappell, David C.; Dunnett, Andrew; Tsiami, Amalia A. (January 8, 2013). "Plasma total homocysteine status of vegetarians compared with omnivores: a systematic review and meta-analysis" (PDF). British Journal of Nutrition. 109 (5): 785–794. doi:10.1017/s000711451200520x. ISSN 0007-1145. PMID 23298782. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 25, 2020. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
  88. ^ Rosell MS, Lloyd-Wright Z, Appleby PN, Sanders TA, Allen NE, Key TJ (2003). "Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men". Am J Clin Nutr. 82 (2): 327–34. doi:10.1093/ajcn.82.2.327. PMID 16087975.
  89. ^ Babadzhanov A; Abdusamatova N; Yusupova F; Faizullaeva N; Mezhlumyan LG; Malikova MKh (2004). "Chemical Composition of Spirulina platensis Cultivated in Uzbekistan". Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 40 (3): 276–279. doi:10.1023/B:CONC.0000039141.98247.e8. S2CID 23130198.
  90. ^ Tokuşoglu Ö, Uunal MK (2003). "Biomass Nutrient Profiles of Three Microalgae: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Isochrisis galena". Journal of Food Science. 68 (4): 1144–1148. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb09615.x.
  91. ^ a b c d "Meeting Calcium Recommendations on a Vegan Diet" (PDF). Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  92. ^ a b c d e f "Calcium Fact Sheet". Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  93. ^ a b c Mangels, Reed. "Calcium in the Vegan Diet". Archived from the original on May 30, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  94. ^ a b Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium (2011). Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, et al. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (Report). Vol. 2, Overview of Calcium. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  95. ^ "Vitamin D is Synthesized From Cholesterol and Found in Cholesterol-Rich Foods". Cholesterol and Health. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  96. ^ Crissey SD, Ange KD, Jacobsen KL, Slifka KA, Bowen PE, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Langman CB, Sadler W, Kahn S, Ward A (2003). "Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin D metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos". The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (1): 160–6. doi:10.1093/jn/133.1.160. PMID 12514284.
  97. ^ "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on July 16, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2007.
  98. ^ "Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases". Sun.ars-grin.gov. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  99. ^ "USDA nutrient database – use the keyword 'portabella' and then click submit". Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  100. ^ Bowerman, Susan (March 31, 2008). "If mushrooms see the light". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 4, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
  101. ^ P Urbain; F Singler; G Ihorst; H-K Biesalski; H Bertz (May 4, 2011). "Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomized controlled trial". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 65 (8): 965–971. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.53. PMID 21540874.
  102. ^ Hohman EE, Martin BR, Lachcik PJ, Gordon DT, Fleet JC, Weaver CM (May 24, 2012). "Bioavailability and Efficacy of Vitamin D 2 from UV-Irradiated Yeast in Growing, Vitamin D-Deficient Rats". J. Agric. Food Chem. 59 (6): 2341–6. doi:10.1021/jf104679c. PMC 3235799. PMID 21332187.
  103. ^ Koyyalamudi SR, Jeong SC, Song CH, Cho KY, Pang G (2009). "Vitamin D2 formation and bioavailability from Agaricus bisporus button mushrooms treated with ultraviolet irradiation". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57 (8): 3351–5. doi:10.1021/jf803908q. PMID 19281276.
  104. ^ Using Fresh Mushrooms as a Source of Vitamin D. "Using Fresh Mushrooms as a Source of Vitamin D / Nutrition / Healthy Eating". Fitday.com. Archived from the original on September 23, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  105. ^ "Bringing Mushrooms Out of the Dark". MSNBC. April 18, 2006. Archived from the original on November 1, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  106. ^ Parkinson, Caroline (August 30, 2019). "The brain nutrient vegans need to know about". BBC News. Archived from the original on May 21, 2020. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  107. ^ Gorvett, Zaria. "The hidden biases that drive anti-vegan hatred". www.bbc.com. Archived from the original on February 9, 2020. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  108. ^ "Review of Adam D. Shprintzen's "The Vegetarian Crusade"". History News Network. November 11, 2013. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  109. ^ Searchinger, T.D., Wirsenius, S., Beringer, T. et al. Assessing the efficiency of changes in land use for mitigating climate change. Nature 564, 249–253 (2018). doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0757-z
  110. ^ Lindeman M., Väänänen M. (2000). "Measurement of ethical food choice motives". Appetite. 34 (1): 55–59. doi:10.1006/appe.1999.0293. PMID 10744892. S2CID 37406748.
  111. ^ David Benatar (2001). "Why the Naive Argument against Moral Vegetarianism Really is Naive". Environmental Values. 10 (1): 103–112. doi:10.3197/096327101129340769.
  112. ^ McMahan, Jeff (2002). The Ethics of Killing. Oxford University Press.
  113. ^ "Animals and Ethics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]". Iep.utm.edu. January 13, 2010. Archived from the original on July 5, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  114. ^ Erik Marcus (2000). Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating. McBooks Press, Incorporated. ISBN 9781590133446. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  115. ^ Vegetarian Society. "Dairy cows and welfare". Archived from the original on May 6, 2013. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
  116. ^ Ruby, Matthew B. (2012). "Vegetarianism. A blossoming field of study". Appetite. 58 (1): 141–150. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2011.09.019. ISSN 1095-8304. PMID 22001025. S2CID 30991920.
  117. ^ Kochhal, M. (October 2004). "Vegetarianism: Jainism and vegetarianism (ahisma)". Archived from the original on July 20, 2011.
  118. ^ Teachings on Love, Thich Nhat Hanh, Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1998.
  119. ^ Junior Encyclopaedia of Sikhism (1985)l by H. S. Singha; p. 124 ISBN 0-7069-2844-X / 0-7069-2844-X
  120. ^ "Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandhak Committee". Sgpc.net. Archived from the original on May 25, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  121. ^ "The Sikhism Home Page". Sikhs.org. February 15, 1980. Archived from the original on June 7, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  122. ^ a b c d Smith, Peter (2000). "Diet". A concise encyclopedia of the Baháʼí Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-1-85168-184-6.
  123. ^ Esslemont, J.E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Baháʼí Publishing Trust. ISBN 978-0-87743-160-2. Archived from the original on November 7, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
  124. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá (1912). MacNutt (ed.). The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette, Illinois, US: Bahá'í Publishing Trust (published 1982). ISBN 978-0-87743-172-5. Archived from the original on April 26, 2020. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
  125. ^ Research Department, Universal House of Justice. "Writings Concerning Health, Healing, and Nutrition". Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved May 25, 2009.
  126. ^ "Buddhist Studies: Vegetarianism". Buddhanet.net. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  127. ^ a b V. A. Gunasekara. "Buddhism and Vegetarianism, The Rationale for the Buddha's Views on the Consumption of Meat". Buddhanet.net. Archived from the original on October 7, 2013.
  128. ^ Mahavagga Pali – Bhesajjakkhandhaka – Vinaya Pitaka
  129. ^ "Buddhism and Eating Meat". Urbandharma.org. Archived from the original on August 15, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  130. ^ "Life as a Vegetarian Tibetan Buddhist Practitioner". Serv-online.org. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  131. ^ Gyatso, Janet (November 1999). Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary - Google Books. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691009483. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  132. ^ The Life of Shabkar: The Autobiography of a Tibetan Yogin. Shambhala. June 3, 2014. ISBN 9781559398749. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  133. ^ "Tathagatagarbha Buddhism (18)". webspawner.com. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013.
  134. ^ "Vegetarianism and Animal Ethics in Tibetan Buddhism". international.ucla.edu. Archived from the original on May 21, 2022. Retrieved March 14, 2022.
  135. ^ Bodiford, William M., ed. (2017). Going Forth. doi:10.1515/9780824851774. ISBN 9780824851774.
  136. ^ Kieschnick, John (2005), Sterckx, Roel (ed.), "Buddhist Vegetarianism in China", Of Tripod and Palate: Food, Politics, and Religion in Traditional China, New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, pp. 186–212, doi:10.1057/9781403979278_10, ISBN 978-1-4039-7927-8
  137. ^ Shabkar Tsogdruk Rangdrol (2004). Food of Bodhisattvas: Buddhist teachings on abstaining from meat. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 978-08-3482-410-2.
  138. ^ Yujin Lee. The nutritional status of vegetarian Buddhist nuns compared to omnivorous women in South Korea (PDF) (Thesis). Giessen, Germany: Justus-Liebig-University. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2022. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
  139. ^ Ho-Pham, LT; Nguyen, PLT; Le, TTT; Doan, TAT; Tran, NT; Le, TA; Nguyen, TV (April 7, 2009). "Veganism, bone mineral density, and body composition: a study in Buddhist nuns". Osteoporosis International. 20 (12): 2087–2093. doi:10.1007/s00198-009-0916-z. ISSN 1433-2965. PMID 19350341. S2CID 20305849.
  140. ^ Davidson, Jo Ann (2007). "World Religions and the Vegetarian Diet". Perspective Digest. Vol. 12, no. 1. Article 3. Archived from the original on July 31, 2021. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
  141. ^ "Code of Canon Law". vatican.va. Archived from the original on November 29, 2020. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
  142. ^ Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.22.4
  143. ^ Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, VIII.v.36
  144. ^ "The Bible Christian Church". International Vegetarian Union. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
  145. ^ "History of Vegetarianism – Early Ideas". The Vegetarian Society. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2008.; Gregory, James (2007) Of Victorians and Vegetarians. London: I. B. Tauris pp. 30–35.
  146. ^ "William Cowherd (brief information)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Archived from the original on March 31, 2019. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
  147. ^ a b "Position Statement on Vegetarian Diet". Sdada.org. Archived from the original on May 29, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  148. ^ "The Vegetarian Food Pyramid". Archived from the original on May 13, 2013.
  149. ^ "The Seventh-day Adventist Health Message". Sdada.org. Archived from the original on May 13, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  150. ^ "Living an Orthodox Life: Fasting". Orthodoxinfo.com. May 27, 1997. Archived from the original on September 25, 2010. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
  151. ^ "The Great War and the Interwar Period". ivu.org. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
  152. ^ "breakfast cereal". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  153. ^ Kress, Daniel; Kress, Loretta (1932). Under the Guiding Hand: Life Experiences of the Doctors Kress. Washington, DC: College Press.
  154. ^ Buettner, Dan (November 16, 2005). "The Secrets of Long Life". National Geographic. Vol. 208, no. 5. pp. 2–27. ISSN 0027-9358. Archived from the original on November 30, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2006. Excerpt Archived November 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. See also National Geographic, "Sights & Sounds of Longevity Archived July 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine"
  155. ^ Kolata, Gina (January 3, 2007). "A Surprising Secret to a Long Life: Stay in School". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  156. ^ Elizabeth Lechleitner (May 27, 2008). "Researcher says California Adventists are America's 'Blue Zone'". Adventist News Network. Archived from the original on February 25, 2009.
  157. ^ "Three Strategic Issues: A World Survey". General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2002. See question 26, on page 14 etc. Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  158. ^ See also "The Myth of Vegetarianism" Keith Lockhart. Spectrum 34 (Winter 2006), p22–27
  159. ^ "Adventist Health Study-2 | Adventist Health Study". adventisthealthstudy.org. Archived from the original on January 7, 2021. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  160. ^ "Sci Tech / Speaking Of Science : Changes in the Indian menu over the ages". The Hindu. October 21, 2004. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
  161. ^ Tähtinen, Unto: Ahimsa. Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London 1976, p. 107–109.
  162. ^ Paul Insel (2013), Discovering Nutrition, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, ISBN 978-1284021165, page 231
  163. ^ "The states where cow slaughter is legal in India". The Indian Express. October 8, 2015. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  164. ^ "Vegetarian Muslim: Turning Away From a Meat-Based Diet". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on June 14, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  165. ^ a b "Muslims can't be Vegetarian? : Islam : Dietery Law". Ipaki.com. Archived from the original on December 20, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  166. ^ "APJ Abdul Kalam's Death Anniversary: 10 Lesser Known Facts About the 11th President of India". News18. July 27, 2019. Archived from the original on February 11, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  167. ^ "lokpriya!". Lokpriya.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  168. ^ "IVU News – Islam and Vegetarianism". Ivu.org. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  169. ^ "Vegetarianism Good For The Self And Good For The Environment" Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine at The Jain Study Circle
  170. ^ "Spiritual Traditions and Vegetarianism" at the Vegetarian Society of Colorado website. Archived March 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  171. ^ Matthews, Warren: World Religions, 4th edition, Belmont: Thomson/Wadsworth 2005, p. 180. ISBN 0-534-52762-0
  172. ^ Noah Lewis. "Why honey is not vegan". vegetus.org. Archived from the original on January 5, 2019. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
  173. ^ "Jainism Sect". JainUniversity.org. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013.
  174. ^ Mary L. Zamore, ed. The Sacred Table: Creating a Jewish Food Ethic (New York, NY: CCAR Press, 2011).
  175. ^ Labendz, Jacob Ari; Yanklowitz, Shmuly (March 25, 2019). Jewish Veganism and Vegetarianism: Studies and New Directions. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-7361-1. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved November 27, 2019.
  176. ^ Kalechofsky, Roberta (1995). Rabbis and Vegetarianism: An Evolving Tradition. Micah Publications.
  177. ^ "Judaism & Vegetarianism". Jewishveg.com. Archived from the original on September 2, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  178. ^ "How Israel Became the Global Center of Veganism". The Tower. Archived from the original on December 23, 2020. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  179. ^ "The Rise of Israel's Orthodox Vegan Movement". Tablet Magazine. February 16, 2016. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  180. ^ Osborne, L (1980), The Rasta Cookbook, 3rd ed. Mac Donald, London.
  181. ^ "Ital Cooking". Eat Jamaican. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  182. ^ Kebede A, Knotternus D (1998). "Beyond the pales of babylon: the ideational components and social psychological foundations of rastafari". Sociological Perspectives. 41 (3): 499–517. doi:10.2307/1389561. JSTOR 1389561. S2CID 147000068.
  183. ^ a b "Sikhism Religion of the Sikh People". Sikhs.org. Archived from the original on December 28, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  184. ^ I.J. Singh, Sikhs and Sikhism, Manohar, Delhi ISBN 978-81-7304-058-0: "Throughout Sikh history, there have been movements or subsects of Sikhism which have espoused vegetarianism. I think there is no basis for such dogma or practice in Sikhism."
  185. ^ Surindar Singh Kohli, Guru Granth Sahib, An Analytical Study, Singh Bros. Amritsar ISBN 81-7205-060-7: "The ideas of devotion and service in Vaishnavism have been accepted by Adi Granth, but the insistence of Vaishnavas on vegetarian diet has been rejected."
  186. ^ a b Gopal Singh, History of the Sikh People, World Sikh Univ. Press, Delhi, ISBN 978-81-7023-139-4: "Nowadays in the Community Kitchen attached to the Sikh temples, and called the Guru's Kitchen (or Guru-ka-langar), meat dishes are not served at all. Maybe it is on account of its being, perhaps, expensive or not easy to keep for long. Or perhaps the Vaishnava tradition is too strong to be shaken off."
  187. ^ a b c d e Randip Singh, Fools Who Wrangle Over Flesh Archived June 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Sikh Philosophy Network, December 7, 2006. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
  188. ^ "Sikh Reht Maryada, The Definition of Sikh, Sikh Conduct & Conventions, Sikh Religion Living, India". sgpc.net. Archived from the original on August 20, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  189. ^ Jane Srivastava, "Vegetarianism and Meat-Eating in 8 Religions Archived June 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine", Hinduism Today, Spring 2007. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
  190. ^ Gyani Sher Singh, Philosophy of Sikhism, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar: "As a true Vaisnavite, Kabir remained a strict vegetarian. Kabir, far from defying Brahmanical tradition as to the eating of meat, would not permit so much as the plucking of a flower (G.G.S. p. 479), whereas Nanak deemed all such scruples to be superstitions."
  191. ^ "Volunteer. Guru Ka Langar. Mata Khivi Made Langar a Reality". Sikhwomen.com. March 6, 2005. Archived from the original on May 2, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  192. ^ "Sikhism Home Page". Sikhs.org. Archived from the original on June 27, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  193. ^ Singh, Prithi Pal (2006). "3 Guru Amar Das". The History of Sikh Gurus. New Delhi: Lotus Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.
  194. ^ "Livestock's Long Shadow – Environmental issues and options". Fao.org. Archived from the original on July 26, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  195. ^ EPA. 2011. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2009. United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 430-R-11-005. 459 pp.
  196. ^ Olsson, Anna (July 8, 2008). "Comment: Lab-grown meat could ease food shortage". New Scientist. Archived from the original on December 27, 2008. Retrieved November 17, 2008.
  197. ^ Izundu, Chi Chi (February 23, 2012). "Could vegetarians eat a 'test tube' burger? - BBC News". BBC News. Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  198. ^ "Why eating less meat could cut global warming | Environment". Guardian.co.uk. November 10, 2007. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  199. ^ Mason, Chris (May 12, 2009). "Europe | Belgian city plans 'veggie' days". News.bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  200. ^ "How To Get Meat Eaters To Eat More Plant-Based Foods? Make Their Mouths Water". NPR.org. Archived from the original on February 11, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  201. ^ "Killing for a Living: How the Meat Industry Exploits Workers". Archived from the original on March 10, 2009. Retrieved July 16, 2009.
  202. ^ "Worker Health and Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry". Hrw.org. Archived from the original on June 12, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  203. ^ "Food Safety, the Slaughterhouse, and Rights". Ncrlc.com. March 30, 2004. Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  204. ^ Positive Safety Culture. The key to a safer meat industry Archived April 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, A literature review July 2000, safework.sa.gov.au
  205. ^ "Sectoral Policies Department (SECTOR)". Ilo.org. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  206. ^ "Working conditions in agriculture". Archived from the original on December 3, 2013.
  207. ^ World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development, Published by World Bank Publications p. 207
  208. ^ "United States Leads World Meat Stampede". WorldWatch Institute. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  209. ^ Springmann, Marco; Godfray, H.C.J.; Raynar, Mike; Scarborough, Peter (February 9, 2016). "Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenefits of dietary change" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (15): 4146–4151. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113.4146S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1523119113. PMC 4839446. PMID 27001851. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 8, 2019. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  210. ^ Hodson, Gordon (September 1, 2012). "Prejudice Against "Group X" (Asexuals)". Psychology Today. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
  211. ^ Martinelli, Dario; Berkmanienė, Aušra (2018). "The Politics and the Demographics of Veganism: Notes for a Critical Analysis". International Journal for the Semiotics of Law. 31 (3): 501–530. doi:10.1007/s11196-018-9543-3. S2CID 149235953.
  212. ^ Melnick, Meredith (May 12, 2014). "Turns Out, Your Vegetarianism Probably Is Just A Phase". HuffPost. Archived from the original on March 23, 2021. Alt URL Archived October 23, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
  213. ^ Schultz, Colin (December 9, 2014). "Most Vegetarians Lapse After Only a Year". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on March 5, 2021. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  214. ^ Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet; Wang, Ronghan (Michelle) (2020). "Food restriction and the experience of social isolation". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 119 (3): 657–671. doi:10.1037/pspi0000223. PMID 31724417. S2CID 208018174.
  215. ^ Haverstock, Katie; Forgays, Deborah Kirby (June 1, 2012). "To eat or not to eat. A comparison of current and former animal product limiters". Appetite. 58 (3): 1030–1036. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.02.048. ISSN 0195-6663. PMID 22387715. S2CID 13886878. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
  216. ^ "Hoeveel vegetariërs zijn er?". vegetariers.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  217. ^ "The myth of the Indian vegetarian nation". BBC News. April 3, 2018. Archived from the original on August 8, 2018. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  218. ^ Shridhar, Krithiga; Dhillon, Preet Kaur; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, Ankalmadugu Venkatsubbareddy; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Ebrahim, Shah (June 4, 2014). "Nutritional profile of Indian vegetarian diets – the Indian Migration Study (IMS)". Nutrition Journal. 13: 55. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-55. PMC 4055802. PMID 24899080.
  219. ^ Herzog, Hal (September 6, 2011). "Why Are There So Few Vegetarians?". Psychology Today. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  220. ^ Reymond, Stephane (June 1, 2016). Vegetarianism/Veganism: A Sociological Analysis (PDF) (Masters). Texas A&M University. pp. 39, 41, 57. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  221. ^ Rothgerber, Hank (November 12, 2012). "Real Men Don't Eat (Vegetable) Quiche: Masculinity and the Justification of Meat Consumption" (PDF). Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 14 (4): 2–3. doi:10.1037/a0030379. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 20, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  222. ^ Sanchez-Sabate, Ruben; Sabaté, Joan (April 2019). "Consumer Attitudes Towards Environmental Concerns of Meat Consumption: A Systematic Review". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16 (7): 1220. doi:10.3390/ijerph16071220. PMC 6479556. PMID 30959755.
  223. ^ Kim, Elizabeth Solis (June 29, 2018). "What the Caged Bird Feels: A List of Writers in Support of Vegetarianism". The Millions. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved December 3, 2020.
  224. ^ Hazmah, Shareena Z. (November 22, 2018). "How the rise of veganism may tenderise fictional language". The Conversation. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved December 3, 2020.
  225. ^ Lindquist, Anna (May 2013). "Introduction". Beyond Hippies and Rabbit Food: The Social Effects of Vegetarianism and Veganism (Undergraduate). University of Puget Sound. pp. 1, 3, 6. Archived from the original on October 9, 2020. Retrieved December 3, 2020.
  226. ^ Cunningham, June L. (June 2002). "Notes from the Editor". The Vegetarian Resource Group Newsletter. Vegetarian Resource Group. Archived from the original on June 18, 2017. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  227. ^ Kirshenbaum, Binnie (November 20, 2019). "Top 10 books about vegetarians". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  228. ^ Khulusi, Ella (September 1, 2020). "Love, death and Quorn: vegetarianism in literature". The Oxford Blue. Archived from the original on October 12, 2020. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  229. ^ a b Martin, Kristen (August 17, 2016). "5 Fictional Vegetarians Who Defy Stereotypes". Lit Hub. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  230. ^ Packham, Jimmy (September 14, 2019). "Children of the Quorn: The Vegetarian, Raw, and the Horrors of Vegetarianism" (PDF). Gothic Nature. 1: 78–102. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 31, 2022. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  231. ^ Bulleid, Joshua (2020). "Better Societies for the Ethical Treatment of Animals: Vegetarianism and the Utopian Tradition". In Kendal, Zachary; Smith, Aisling; Champion, Giulia; Milner, Andrew (eds.). Ethical Futures and Global Science Fiction. London: Springer Nature. pp. 65–66. ISBN 9783030278939. Archived from the original on December 12, 2022. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  232. ^ Rourke, Lee (May 11, 2015). "Trauma, vegetarianism, and poetry: the best new novels". New Humanist. London. Archived from the original on July 24, 2020. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  233. ^ Adams, Carol J. (2010) [1990]. "Frankenstein's Vegetarian Monster". The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (20th Anniversary ed.). London: A&C Black. pp. 148–161. ISBN 978-1441173287. Archived from the original on December 12, 2022. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  234. ^ a b Samples, Suzanne (August 3, 2013). Disorderly Eating in Victorian England (PhD). Auburn University. pp. ii, 1–31, 39–40, 57–58. Archived from the original on October 8, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  235. ^ G., A. (January 1910). "In Womanland" (PDF). The Theosophist. 31 (4): 538. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 27, 2022. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  236. ^ Adkins, Peter (2017). "The Eyes of That Cow: Eating Animals and Theorizing Vegetarianism in James Joyce'sUlysses". Humanities. 6 (46): 2–6. doi:10.3390/H6030046. hdl:20.500.11820/9ff4960b-064d-4cc4-a54c-a0a1f50fbff9. S2CID 157246928. ALT URL Archived December 12, 2022, at the Wayback Machine
  237. ^ Wheeler, S. Reneé (September–October 1997). "The Importance of Vegetarian Culture". Vegetarian Journal. 16 (5). Archived from the original on January 19, 2018. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  238. ^ Coetzee, J.M. (May 2004). "Animals, Humans, Cruelty and Literature: A Rare Interview with J. M. Coetzee". Djurens Rätt (Interview). Interviewed by Henrik Engström. Sweden: Setya. Archived from the original on October 14, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020. Reprinted from Djurens Rätt (magazine)
  239. ^ Lethem, Jonathan (March 31, 2014). "Pending Vegan". The New Yorker. United States. Archived from the original on October 22, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  240. ^ Lethem, Jonathan (March 30, 2014). "This Week in Fiction: Jonathan Lethem". The New Yorker (Interview). Interviewed by Cressida Leyshon. United States. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  241. ^ Kang, Han (October 20, 2014). "K-Literature Writers: Han Kang" (Interview). Online: Digital Library of Korean Literature. Archived from the original on December 10, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  242. ^ Jacobs, George (2020). "Reading While Vegan: Review of 'Sapiens'". Center for a Responsible Future. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  243. ^ Taylor, Chloë (2020). "Vegan madness: Han Kang's The Vegetarian". In Jenkins, Stephanie; Montford, Kelly Struthers; Taylor, Chloë (eds.). Disability and Animality Crip Perspectives in Critical Animal Studies. London: Taylor & Francis. doi:10.4324/9781003014270. ISBN 9781003014270. S2CID 214241975. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  244. ^ a b Zieger, Susan (July 26, 2017). "The Vegan Resistance". Public Books. Archived from the original on March 23, 2020. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  245. ^ a b Koski, Genevieve (July 3, 2013). "10 episodes that made King Of The Hill one of the most human cartoons ever". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  246. ^ a b c Siegel, Alan (October 12, 2015). "Celebrating "Lisa the Vegetarian," the Simpsons Episode That Changed the Image of Vegetarians on TV". Slate. Archived from the original on March 28, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  247. ^ a b Trey Parker, Matt Stone (2005). South Park: The Complete Sixth Season: "Freak Strike" (DVD). Comedy Central.
  248. ^ a b Laughton, Ellen (September 21, 2015). "'You don't win friends with salad': TV's best (and worst) vegetarians". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  249. ^ Marranca, Richard (2007). "Vegging Out with Kung Fu and Star Trek". Vegetarian Journal (4). Archived from the original on December 11, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  250. ^ Martyn, Warren; Wood, Adrian (2000). "Lisa the Vegetarian". British Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on March 9, 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
  251. ^ "Sideswipe: McCartney keeps Lisa vegetarian". The New Zealand Herald. August 28, 2009. Archived from the original on February 20, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
  252. ^ Schneider, Michael (March 16, 2007). "'Simpsons' chat closes Paley fest". Variety. Archived from the original on March 24, 2007. Retrieved December 28, 2008.
  253. ^ Groening, Matt (2005). Commentary for "Lisa the Vegetarian", in The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  254. ^ French, Dan (August 24, 2009). "David Mirkin ('The Simpsons')". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on May 28, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
  255. ^ McCartney, Paul (August 4, 2020). "At home with Paul McCartney: His most candid interview yet". GQ (Online). Interviewed by Dylan Jones. Archived from the original on December 10, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  256. ^ a b DiMartino, Michael Dante; Konietzko, Bryan (2006). "Myth Conceptions". Nickelodeon Magazine (Winter 2006): 7.
  257. ^ Director: Anthony Lioi; Writer: John O'Bryan (March 18, 2005). "The King of Omashu". Avatar: The Last Airbender. Season 1. Episode 5. Nickelodeon.
  258. ^ Director: Joaquim dos Santos; Writer: John O'Bryan (September 28, 2007). "The Headband". Avatar: The Last Airbender. Season 3. Episode 2. Nickelodeon.
  259. ^ Dean, Anthony (November 5, 2017). "10 noteworthy vegetarian cartoon characters". Diverse Tech Geek. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  260. ^ Jing, Fanwang. "Brahmajala Sutra Translated Text". Purify Out Mind. p. 4. Archived from the original on February 4, 2008. Retrieved February 12, 2008. He must not create the causes ... and shall not intentionally kill any living creature.
  261. ^ "Count Duckula". VIVA!. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  262. ^ Bayley, Leanne (March 2017). "The Buffy the Vampire Slayer cast 20 years later..." Glamour. Archived from the original on July 15, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  263. ^ a b Raymond, Nicholas (May 25, 2020). "Why Scooby-Doo Made Shaggy A Vegetarian: True Story Explained". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  264. ^ Thienenkamp, Marius (January 26, 2015). "Saving Human Lives Only? Vegetarian Superheroes and Animal Rights". Comicsverse. Archived from the original on December 29, 2021. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  265. ^ Do, Tiffany (February 7, 2018). "Why Okja Is A More Convincing Case For Vegetarianism". Food Republic. Archived from the original on October 11, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  266. ^ Hugar, John (October 17, 2019). "South Park takes on the Impossible Burger, while Cartman and Randy's antics drive another strong episode". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on November 3, 2019. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  267. ^ Searles, Jourdain (December 21, 2019). "Everyone is growing up fast on Steven Universe Future". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on June 7, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  268. ^ Marthe, Emalie (September 3, 2016). "Inside the Strange World of 'Fruitarians,' Who Only Eat Raw Fruit". Vice News. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  269. ^ Tyrone, Nick (March 15, 2019). "What will the woke folk make of Notting Hill?". UnHerd. Archived from the original on December 11, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  270. ^ Paris, Barry (September 15, 2000). "It's hard to know what to make of 'But I'm a Cheerleader'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  271. ^ Olivia, Blair (May 19, 2010). "Legally Blonde 3: Release Date, Spoilers, Cast, Trailer And Plot Lines". Elle. Archived from the original on June 8, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  272. ^ Giorgis, Hannah (February 20, 2018). "M'Baku Is the Best Surprise of 'Black Panther'". The Ringer. Archived from the original on April 17, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  273. ^ Selvam, Ashok (February 16, 2018). "'Black Panther' Challenges a Bogus Food Stereotype". Eater. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  274. ^ Elder, Sajae (April 24, 2018). "'Black Panther' Star Winston Duke Talks M'Baku's Vegetarian Co-Signs". Complex. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  275. ^ Poirier, Nathan (March 13, 2020). "Thinking Veganism in Literature and Culture: Towards a Vegan Theory [Review]". The Journal of Popular Culture. 53 (1): 235–237. doi:10.1111/jpcu.12876.
  276. ^ a b Lind, Jessica (October 23, 2013). "Celebrate Vegetarian Awareness Month with Vegetarian Characters in YA Lit". Young Adult Library Services Association. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  277. ^ Chang, Justin (February 1, 2010). "Review: 'Vegetarian'". Variety. Archived from the original on July 3, 2018. Retrieved October 21, 2016.