Vegetarian cuisine

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A variety of vegetarian food ingredients that are also vegan.

Vegetarian cuisine is based on food that meets vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products (such as gelatin or animal-derived rennet).[1] For lacto-ovo vegetarianism (the most common type of vegetarianism in the Western world), eggs and dairy products (such as milk and cheese without rennet) are permitted. For lacto vegetarianism, dairy products are permitted but eggs are not, and for ovo vegetarianism eggs are permitted but dairy products are not.[2] The strictest form of vegetarianism is veganism, which excludes all animal products, including dairy, honey, and some refined sugars if filtered and whitened with bone char.[3] There are also partial vegetarians (flexitarians), such as pescetarians who may eat fish but avoid other types of meat.[3]

Vegetarian foods can be classified into several different types:

Commonly used vegetarian foods[edit]

Vegetable soup and cheese sandwich, a meal which is suitable for vegetarians but not vegans

Food regarded as suitable for all vegetarians (including vegans) typically includes:

Foods not suitable for vegans, but acceptable for some other types of vegetarians:

  • Dairy products (butter, cheese (except for cheese containing rennet of animal origin), milk, yogurt (excluding yogurt made with gelatin) etc.) – not eaten by vegans and pure ovo-vegetarians
  • Eggs – not eaten by pure vegetarians, vegans and lacto-vegetarians (most Indian vegetarians)
  • Honey – not eaten by most vegans

Traditional vegetarian cuisine[edit]

These are some of the most common dishes that vegetarians eat without substitution of ingredients. Such dishes include, from breakfasts to dinnertime desserts:

Vegetarian food products made from cereal grains.

National cuisines[edit]

Buddha's delight, a famous Chinese vegetarian dish.
Indian vegetarian thali
North Indian style vegetarian thali.
South Indian style vegetarian thali.
  • Georgian cuisine such as ajapsandali, nigvzinai badrijani, badrijnis borani, badrijnis khizilala, badrijani mtsvanilit, ekala nigvzit, ghomi, gogris gupta, khinkali with mushrooms, lobiani, lobio, lobio nigvzit, mchadi, mkhlovani, pkhali, salati nigvzit, shechamandi, shilaplavi, which feature eggplants, walnuts, kidney beans, mushrooms, pomegranates, garlic, squash, onions, tomatoes, cucumbers, bell peppers, chili peppers, beets, fresh herbs (coriander, parsley, basil etc.), smilax, cabbage, spinach, and red/white wine vinegar.
Sautéed tempeh with green beans, an Indonesian dish
Tolstoy's vegetarian breakfast

Desserts and sweets[edit]

Most desserts, including pies, cobblers, cakes, brownies, cookies, truffles, Rice Krispie treats (from gelatin-free marshmallows or marshmallow fluff), peanut butter treats, pudding, rice pudding, ice cream, crème brulée, etc., are free of meat and fish and are suitable for ovo-lacto vegetarians. Eastern confectionery and desserts, such as halva and Turkish delight, are mostly vegan, while others such as baklava (which often contains butter) are lacto vegetarian. Indian desserts and sweets are mostly vegetarian like peda, barfi, gulab jamun, shrikhand, basundi, kaju katri, rasgulla, cham cham, rajbhog, etc. Indian sweets are mostly made from milk products and are thus lacto vegetarian; dry fruit-based sweets are vegan.

Meat analogues[edit]

Pilaf with soya nuggets
A tempeh burger

A meat analogue is a meat-like substance made from plants. More common terms are plant-based meat, vegan meat, meat substitute, mock meat, meat alternative, imitation meat, or vegetarian meat, or, sometimes more pejoratively, fake meat or faux meat. Meat analogues typically approximate certain aesthetic qualities (such as texture, flavor, appearance) or chemical characteristics of specific types of meat. Generally, meat analogue means a food made from vegetarian ingredients, and sometimes without animal products such as dairy. Many analogues are soy-based (e.g. tofu, tempeh) or gluten-based, but now may also be made from pea protein. Other less common analogues include ingredients like mycoprotein.

Because of their similarity to meats, they are frequently used in dishes and food practices similar to meat.The target market for meat analogues includes vegetarians, vegans, non-vegetarians seeking to reduce their meat consumption, and people following religious dietary laws in Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism. Increasingly the global demand for sustainable diets in response to the outsized role animal products play in global warming and other environmental impacts has seen an increase in industries focused on finding substitutes similar to meat.

Meat substitution has a long history. Tofu, a popular meat analogue made from soybeans, was known in China during the period of the Western Han dynasty (206 BCE – 9 CE).[5] A document written by Tao Gu (903–970) describes how tofu was called "small mutton" and valued as an imitation meat. Meat analogues such as tofu and wheat gluten are associated with Buddhist cuisine in China and other parts of East Asia.[6] In Medieval Europe, meat analogues were popular during the Christian observance of Lent, when the consumption of meat from warm-blooded animals is forbidden.[7]

In the 2010s, owing to concern over global warming, human population size, and major investments by companies such as Impossible Foods and Beyond Meat, there was an increase in awareness and the market size for meat analogues in Western and Westernized markets.

Commercial products[edit]

Labeling used in India to distinguish vegetarian products (left) from non-vegetarian products (right).

Commercial products, marketed especially towards vegetarians and labeled as such, are available in most countries worldwide, in varying amounts and quality. As example, in Australia, various vegetarian products are available in most of supermarket chains and a vegetarian shopping guide is provided by Vegetarian/Vegan Society of Queensland.[8] However, the biggest market for commercially vegetarian-labeled foods is India, with official governmental laws regulating the "vegetarian" and "non vegetarian" labels.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Edible fungi include some mushrooms and cultured microfungi (yeasts and moulds) such as Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium venenatum, though some strict[clarification needed] Indian vegetarians do not eat mushrooms.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rosell, Magdalena S.; Appleby, Paul N.; Key, Timothy J. (February 2006). "Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 65 (1): 35–41. doi:10.1079/PNS2005481. ISSN 1475-2719. PMID 16441942.
  2. ^ "International Vegetarian Union - The Origins of Some Words".
  3. ^ a b Harvard Health Publishing (4 December 2017). "Becoming a vegetarian". Harvard Health Publishing. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  4. ^ a b Peter Brang. Ein unbekanntes Russland, Kulturgeschichte vegetarischer Lebensweisen von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart An ignored aspect of Russia. Vegetarian lifestyles from the very beginning till the present day. Böhlau Verlag, Köln 2002 ISBN 3-412-07902-2
  5. ^ DuBois, Christine; Tan, Chee-Beng; Mintz, Sidney (2008). The World of Soy. National University of Singapore Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-9971-69-413-5.
  6. ^ Anderson, E.N. (2014). "China". Food in Time and Place. University of California Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-520-95934-7.
  7. ^ Adamson, Melitta Weiss (2004). Food in Medieval Times. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-313-32147-4.
  8. ^ Vegetarian/Vegan Society of Queensland. "Vegetarian/Vegan Supermarket Shopping Guide". Archived from the original on 20 May 2009. Retrieved 7 May 2009.

External links[edit]