From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

DescriptionDiet derived from plants, with or without eggs and dairy
VarietiesOvo, lacto, ovo-lacto, veganism, raw veganism, fruitarianism, Buddhist vegetarianism, Jain vegetarianism, Jewish vegetarianism, Christian vegetarianism

Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and it may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.[1][2]

Vegetarianism may be adopted for various reasons. Many people object to eating meat out of respect for sentient life. Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs, as well as animal rights advocacy. Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political, environmental, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or personal preference. There are variations of the diet as well: an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products, an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs. A vegan diet excludes all animal products, including eggs and dairy. Avoidance of animal products may require dietary supplements to prevent deficiencies such as vitamin B12 deficiency, which leads to pernicious anemia.[3][4] Psychologically, preference for vegetarian foods can be affected by one's own socio-economic status and evolutionary factors.[5][6][7]

Packaged and processed foods, such as cakes, cookies, candies, chocolate, yogurt, and marshmallows, often contain unfamiliar animal ingredients, and so may be a special concern for vegetarians due to the likelihood of such additives.[2][8] Feelings among vegetarians vary concerning these ingredients. Some vegetarians scrutinize product labels for animal-derived ingredients, such as cheese made with rennet,[8] while other vegetarians do not object to consuming them or are unaware of their presence.[2][9][10]

Semi-vegetarian diets consist largely of vegetarian foods but may include fish or poultry, or sometimes other meats, on an infrequent basis. Those with diets containing fish or poultry may define meat only as mammalian flesh and may identify with vegetarianism.[11][12] A pescetarian diet has been described as "fish but no other meat".[13]


The first written use of the term "vegetarian" originated in the early 19th century, when authors referred to a vegetable regimen diet.[14] Modern dictionaries explain its origin as a compound of vegetable (adjective) and the suffix -arian (in the sense of agrarian).[15] The term was popularized with the foundation of the Vegetarian Society in Manchester in 1847,[16] although it may have appeared in print before 1847.[16][17][18] The earliest occurrences of the term seem to be related to Alcott House—a school on the north side of Ham Common, London—which was opened in July 1838 by James Pierrepont Greaves.[17][18][19] From 1841, it was known as A Concordium, or Industry Harmony College, from which time the institution began to publish its own pamphlet entitled The Healthian, which provides some of the earliest appearances of the term "vegetarian".[17]


Vegetarianism in ancient India

India is a strange country. People do not kill
any living creatures, do not keep pigs and fowl,
and do not sell live cattle.

Faxian, 4th/5th century CE
Chinese pilgrim to India[20]

Parshwanatha founded Jain vegetarianism in 9th century BCE, which is widely considered to be the earliest form of planned vegetarian diet.

The earliest record of vegetarianism comes from the 9th century BCE,[21] inculcating tolerance towards all living beings.[22][23] Parshwanatha and Mahavira, the 23rd and 24th tirthankaras in Jainism, respectively, revived and advocated ahimsa and Jain vegetarianism between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE; the most comprehensive and strictest form of vegetarianism.[24][25][26] In Indian culture, vegetarianism has been closely connected with the attitude of nonviolence towards animals (called ahimsa in India) for millennia and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers.[27] The Acharanga Sutra from 5th century BCE advocates Jain-vegetarianism; and forbids the monks from walking on grass in order to avoid inflicting pain on them and prevent small insects dwelling inside from getting killed.[28] The ancient Indian work of Tirukkural, dated before 5th century CE, explicitly and unambiguously emphasizes shunning meat and non-killing as a common man's virtues.[29]: 156–171 [30]: 13 [31]: 127–129  Chapter 26 of the Tirukkural, particularly couplets 251–260, deals exclusively on vegetarianism or veganism.[32]

Among the Hellenes, Egyptians, and others, vegetarianism had medical or ritual purification purposes. Vegetarianism was also practiced in ancient Greece and the earliest reliable evidence for vegetarian theory and practice in Greece dates from the 6th century BC. The Orphics, a religious movement spreading in Greece at that time, also practiced and promoted vegetarianism.[33] Greek teacher Pythagoras, who promoted the altruistic doctrine of metempsychosis, may have practiced vegetarianism,[34] but is also recorded as eating meat.[35] A fictionalized portrayal of Pythagoras appears in Ovid's Metamorphoses, in which he advocates a form of strict vegetarianism.[36] It was through this portrayal that Pythagoras was best known to English-speakers throughout the early modern period and, prior to the coinage of the word "vegetarianism", vegetarians were referred to in English as "Pythagoreans".[36] Vegetarianism was also practiced about six centuries later in another instance (30 BCE–50 CE) in the northern Thracian region by the Moesi tribe (who inhabited present-day Serbia and Bulgaria), feeding themselves on honey, milk, and cheese.[37]

Emperor Tenmu began bans on killing and eating meat in 675 in Japan.

In Japan in 675, the Emperor Tenmu prohibited the killing and the eating of meat during the busy farming period between April and September but excluded the eating of wild birds and wild animals. These bans and several others that followed over the centuries were overturned in the nineteenth century during the Meiji Restoration.[38] In China, during the Song Dynasty, Buddhist cuisine became popular enough that vegetarian restaurants appeared where chefs used ingredients such as beans, gluten, root vegetables and mushrooms to create meat analogues including pork, fowl, eggs and crab roe[39][40] and many meat substitutes used even today such as tofu, seitan and konjac originate in Chinese Buddhist cuisine.

Labeling is mandatory in India to distinguish vegetarian products (green) from non-vegetarian products (brown).[41]

Following the Christianization of the Roman Empire in late antiquity, vegetarianism practically disappeared from Europe, as it did elsewhere, except in India.[42] Several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them eschewed fish.[43] Moreover, the medieval definition of "fish" included such animals as seals, porpoises, dolphins, barnacle geese, puffins, and beavers.[44] Vegetarianism re-emerged during the Renaissance,[45] becoming more widespread in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1847, the first Vegetarian Society was founded in the United Kingdom;[46] Germany, the Netherlands, and other countries followed. In 1886, the vegetarian colony Nueva Germania was founded in Paraguay, though its vegetarian aspect would prove short-lived.[47]: 345–358  The International Vegetarian Union, an association of the national societies, was founded in 1908. In the Western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the 20th century as a result of nutritional, ethical, and—more recently—environmental and economic concerns.


A variety of vegan and vegetarian deli foods.
A vegetarian hamburger with potato slices.
Comparison of the main vegetarian diets
Meat Eggs Dairy
Ovo-lacto vegetarianism No Yes Yes
Ovo vegetarianism No Yes No
Lacto vegetarianism No No Yes
Vegan diet No No No

There are a number of vegetarian diets that exclude or include various foods:

Within the "ovo-" groups, there are many who refuse to consume fertilized eggs (with balut being an extreme example); however, such distinction is typically not specifically addressed.

Some vegetarians also avoid products that may use animal ingredients not included in their labels or which use animal products in their manufacturing. For example, sugars that are whitened with bone char, cheeses that use animal rennet (enzymes from animal stomach lining), gelatin (derived from the collagen inside animals' skin, bones, and connective tissue), some cane sugar (but not beet sugar) and beverages (such as apple juice and alcohol) clarified with gelatin or crushed shellfish and sturgeon, while other vegetarians are unaware of, or do not mind, such ingredients.[2][8][9] In the 21st century, 90% of rennet and chymosin used in cheesemaking are derived from industrial fermentation processes, which satisfy both kosher and halal requirements.[50]


Individuals sometimes label themselves "vegetarian" while practicing a semi-vegetarian diet,[12][51][52] as some dictionary definitions describe vegetarianism as sometimes including the consumption of fish,[11] or only include mammalian flesh as part of their definition of meat,[11][53] while other definitions exclude fish and all animal flesh.[54] In other cases, individuals may describe themselves as "flexitarian".[51][55] These diets may be followed by those who reduce animal flesh consumed as a way of transitioning to a complete vegetarian diet or for health, ethical, environmental, or other reasons. Semi-vegetarian diets include:

  • Pescetarianism, which includes fish and possibly other forms of seafood.
  • Pollotarianism, which includes chicken and possibly other poultry.
  • Pollo-pescetarianism, which includes poultry and fish, or "white meat" only.

Semi-vegetarianism is contested by vegetarian groups, such as the Vegetarian Society, which states that vegetarianism excludes all animal flesh.[54]

Health research[edit]

On average, vegetarians consume a lower proportion of calories from fat (particularly saturated fatty acids), fewer overall calories, more fiber, potassium, and vitamin C, than do non-vegetarians. Vegetarians generally have a lower body mass index. These characteristics and other lifestyle factors associated with a vegetarian diet may contribute to the positive health outcomes that have been identified among vegetarians.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 – A report issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services[56]

Acorn soup
A fruit stall in Barcelona

In western countries, the most common motive for people to consider turning vegetarian has to do with health consciousness.[57][58][59]

The American Dietetic Association has stated that at all stages of life, a properly planned vegetarian diet can be "healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases." By adequately planned, they meant eating a variety of foods (especially fruits and vegetables), and minimizing foods high in sodium, sweeteners, or fat.[60] Vegetarian diets offer lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals.[61][62]


Studies have shown that a vegetarian diet may increase the risk of vitamin B 12 deficiency, calcium deficiency and low bone mineral density.[63]

A 2019 review found that vegetarians have lower bone mineral density at the femoral neck and lumbar spine compared to omnivores.[64]

A 2020 meta-analysis found that infants with a precise vegetarian diet containing milk and dairy products exhibit normal growth and development.[63] A 2021 did not find any evidence for differences in growth when comparing vegetarian and meat eating children.[65]


Vegetarian diets might reduce the risk of developing diabetes.[66] There is evidence that a vegetarian diet may help people with type 2 diabetes achieve glycemic control.[67][68]

Cardiovascular system[edit]

Meta-analyses have reported a reduced risk of death from ischemic heart disease and from cerebrovascular disease, among vegetarians.[69]

Mental health[edit]

A 2020 review of vegan and vegetarian diets showed association with a higher risk of depression and anxiety, particularly among people under 26 years old.[70]

The authors of a 2021 meta study with similar findings[71] see no causal relation. They give two possible reasons for the association: One being that depressed people try to find a cure by switching to a vegetarian diet, the other being that people who got depressed by seeing factory farmed animals suffering may switch to a vegetarian diet.[72]

A different study published in the same year found no significant associations between a vegetarian diet and depression or anxiety.[73]

Eating disorders[edit]

The American Dietetic Association discussed that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders indicating that vegetarian diets do not cause eating disorders, but rather "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder".[74]

Mortality risk[edit]

A 1999 meta-analysis combined data from five studies from western countries, finding that mortality ratios – where lower numbers indicated fewer deaths – were 1.0 for regular meat eaters as a base mortality rate compared to 0.84 for vegetarians.[75] The study concluded that "...vegetarians had a 24% lower mortality from ischemic heart disease than non-vegetarians".[75]

A 2012 study also found a reduced risk in all cause mortality with a risk factor of 0.91.[76] A 2017 review found a lower mortality from ischemic heart disease (-25%) and incidence from total cancer (-8%). A vegan diet conferred a significant reduced risk (-15%) of incidence from total cancer.[77]

An analysis pooling two large studies found vegetarians in the UK have similar all cause mortality as meat eaters that eat meat <5 times per week.[78]

Rheumatoid arthritis[edit]

As of 2009 there is no good evidence that vegetarian diets reduce the risk or symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.[79]

Diet composition and nutrition[edit]

Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12.[80] Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin B and calcium if they do not eat enough items such as collard greens, leafy greens, tempeh and tofu (soy).[81] High levels of dietary fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat are all considered to be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet.[82] A well planned vegetarian diet will provide all nutrients in a meat-eater's diet to the same level for all stages of life.[83]


Protein intake in vegetarian diets tends to be lower than in meat diets but can meet the daily requirements for most people.[84] Studies at Harvard University as well as other studies conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and various European countries, confirmed vegetarian diets provide sufficient protein intake as long as a variety of plant sources are available and consumed.[85]


Vegetarian diets typically contain similar levels of iron to non-vegetarian diets, but this has lower bioavailability than iron from meat sources, and its absorption can sometimes be inhibited by other dietary constituents.[86] According to the Vegetarian Resource Group, consuming food that contains vitamin C, such as citrus fruit or juices, tomatoes, or broccoli, is a good way to increase the amount of iron absorbed at a meal.[87] Vegetarian foods rich in iron include black beans, cashews, hempseed, kidney beans, broccoli, lentils, oatmeal, raisins, jaggery, spinach, cabbage, lettuce, black-eyed peas, soybeans, many breakfast cereals, sunflower seeds, chickpeas, tomato juice, tempeh, molasses, thyme, and whole-wheat bread.[88] The related vegan diets can often be higher in iron than vegetarian diets, because dairy products are low in iron.[82] Iron stores often tend to be lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, and a few small studies report very high rates of iron deficiency (up to 40%,[89] and 58%[90] of the respective vegetarian or vegan groups). However, the American Dietetic Association states that iron deficiency is no more common in vegetarians than non-vegetarians (adult males are rarely iron deficient); iron deficiency anaemia is rare no matter the diet.[91]

Vitamin B12[edit]

Vitamin B12 is not generally present in plants but is naturally found in foods of animal origin.[3][92] Lacto-ovo vegetarians can obtain B12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from manufactured fortified foods (including plant-based products and breakfast cereals) and dietary supplements.[3][93][94] A strict vegan diet avoiding consumption of all animal products risks vitamin B12 deficiency, which can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for several health disorders, including anemia, neurological deficits, gastrointestinal problems, platelet disorders, and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.[3][4] The recommended daily dietary intake of B12 in the United States and Canada is 0.4 mcg (ages 0–6 months), rising to 1.8 mcg (9–13 years), 2.4 mcg (14+ years), and 2.8 mcg (lactating female).[92] While the body's daily requirement for vitamin B12 is in microgram amounts, deficiency of the vitamin through strict practice of a vegetarian diet without supplementation can increase the risk of several chronic diseases.[3][4][92]

Fatty acids[edit]

Plant-based, or vegetarian, sources of Omega 3 fatty acids include soy, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, canola oil, kiwifruit, hempseed, algae, chia seed, flaxseed, echium seed and leafy vegetables such as lettuce, spinach, cabbage and purslane. Purslane contains more Omega 3 than any other known leafy green. Olives (and olive oil) are another important plant source of unsaturated fatty acids. Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. EPA and DHA can be obtained directly in high amounts from oily fish or fish oils. Vegetarians, and particularly vegans, have lower levels of EPA and DHA than meat-eaters. While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels.[95][clarification needed] Recently, some companies have begun to market vegetarian DHA supplements containing seaweed extracts. Whole seaweeds are not suitable for supplementation because their high iodine content limits the amount that may be safely consumed. However, certain algae such as spirulina are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA).[96][97]


Calcium intake in vegetarians and vegans can be similar to non-vegetarians, as long as the diet is properly planned.[98] Lacto-ovo vegetarians that include dairy products can still obtain calcium from dairy sources like milk, yogurt, and cheese.[99]

Non-dairy milks that are fortified with calcium, such as soymilk and almond milk can also contribute a significant amount of calcium in the diet.[100] Broccoli, bok choy, and kale have also been found to have calcium that is well absorbed in the body.[98][99][101] Though the calcium content per serving is lower in these vegetables than a glass of milk, the absorption of the calcium into the body is higher.[99][101] Other foods that contain calcium include calcium-set tofu, blackstrap molasses, turnip greens, mustard greens, soybeans, tempeh, almonds, okra, dried figs, and tahini.[98][100] Though calcium can be found in Spinach, swiss chard, beans and beet greens, they are generally not considered to be a good source since the calcium binds to oxalic acid and is poorly absorbed into the body.[99] Phytic acid found in nuts, seeds, and beans may also impact calcium absorption rates.[99] See the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements for calcium needs for various ages,[99] the Vegetarian Resource Group[100] and the Vegetarian Nutrition Calcium Fact Sheet from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics[98] for more specifics on how to obtain adequate calcium intake on a vegetarian or vegan diet.

Vitamin D[edit]

Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and sensible exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in sunlight.[102][103] Products including milk, soy milk and cereal grains may be fortified to provide a source of Vitamin D.[104] For those who do not get adequate sun exposure or food sources, Vitamin D supplementation may be necessary.

Vitamin D2[edit]

  • Plants
    • Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), shoot: 4.8 μg (192 IU) vitamin D2, 0.1 μg (4 IU) vitamin D3[105]
  • Fungus, from USDA nutrient database,[106] per 100 g:
    • Mushrooms, portabella, exposed to ultraviolet light, raw: Vitamin D2: 11.2 μg (446 IU)
    • Mushrooms, portabella, exposed to ultraviolet light, grilled: Vitamin D2: 13.1 μg (524 IU)
    • Mushrooms, shiitake, dried: Vitamin D2: 3.9 μg (154 IU)
    • Mushrooms, shiitake, raw: Vitamin D2: 0.4 μg (18 IU)
    • Mushrooms, portabella, raw: Vitamin D2: 0.3 μg (10 IU)
    • Mushroom powder, any species, illuminated with sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light sources

Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol is found in fungus (except alfalfa which is a plantae) and created from viosterol, which in turn is created when ultraviolet light activates ergosterol (which is found in fungi and named as a sterol from ergot). Any UV-irradiated fungus including yeast form vitamin D2.[107] Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation is effective in improving vitamin D status and not different from a vitamin D2 supplement according to study.[108] For example, Vitamin D2 from UV-irradiated yeast baked into bread is bioavailable.[109] By visual assessment or using a chromometer, no significant discoloration of irradiated mushrooms, as measured by the degree of "whiteness", was observed[110] making it hard to discover if they have been treated without labeling. Claims have been made that a normal serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup, or 60 grams) of mushrooms treated with ultraviolet light increase their vitamin D content to levels up to 80 micrograms,[111] or 2700 IU if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested.[112]


Choline is a nutrient that helps transfer signals between nerve cells and is involved in liver function. It is highest in dairy foods and meat but it is possible to be obtained through a vegan diet.[113]

Ethics and diet[edit]


With regard to the ethics of eating meat, scholars consider vegetarianism an ideology and a social movement.[114][115] Ethical reasons for choosing vegetarianism vary and are usually predicated on the interests of non-human animals. In many societies, controversy and debate have arisen over the ethics of eating animals. Some people, while not vegetarians, refuse to eat the flesh of certain animals due to cultural taboo, such as cats, dogs, horses or rabbits. Others support meat eating for scientific, nutritional and cultural reasons, including religious ones. Some meat eaters abstain from the meat of animals reared in particular ways, such as factory farms, or avoid certain meats, such as veal or foie gras. Some people follow vegetarian or vegan diets not because of moral concerns involving the raising or consumption of animals in general, but because of concerns about the specific treatment and practices involved in the processing of animals for food. Others still avoid meat out of concern that meat production places a greater burden on the environment than production of an equivalent amount of plant protein.[116] Ethical objections based on consideration for animals are generally divided into opposition to the act of killing in general, and opposition to certain agricultural practices surrounding the production of meat.

Ethics of killing for food[edit]

Ethical vegetarians believe that killing an animal, like killing a human, especially one who has equal or lesser cognitive abilities than the animals in question, can only be justified in extreme circumstances and that consuming a living creature for its enjoyable taste, convenience, or nutrition value is not a sufficient cause.[117] Another common view is that humans are morally conscious of their behavior in a way other animals are not, and therefore subject to higher standards.[118] Jeff McMahan proposes that denying the right to life and humane treatment to animals with equal or greater cognitive abilities than mentally disabled humans is an arbitrary and discriminatory practice based on habit instead of logic.[119] Opponents of ethical vegetarianism argue that animals are not moral equals to humans and so consider the comparison of eating livestock with killing people to be fallacious. This view does not excuse cruelty, but maintains that animals do not possess the rights a human has.[120]

Dairy and eggs[edit]

One of the main differences between a vegan and a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet is the avoidance of both eggs and dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter and yogurt. Ethical vegans do not consume dairy or eggs because they state that their production causes the animal suffering or a premature death.[121]

To produce milk from dairy cattle, farmers separate calves from their mothers soon after birth to retain cow milk for human consumption.[122]

Treatment of animals[edit]

Ethical vegetarianism has become popular in developed countries particularly because of the spread of factory farming, faster communications,[citation needed] and environmental consciousness. Some believe that the current mass-demand for meat cannot be satisfied without a mass-production system that disregards the welfare of animals, while others believe that practices like well-managed free-range farming or the consumption of game (particularly from species whose natural predators have been significantly eliminated) could substantially alleviate consumer demand for mass-produced meat.[123]

Religion and diet[edit]

Jainism teaches vegetarianism as moral conduct, as do some [124] sects of Hinduism. Buddhism in general does not prohibit meat eating, while Mahayana Buddhism encourages vegetarianism as beneficial for developing compassion.[125] Other denominations that advocate a vegetarian diet include the Seventh-day Adventists, the Rastafari movement, the Ananda Marga movement and the Hare Krishnas. Sikhism[126][127][128] does not equate spirituality with diet and does not specify a vegetarian or meat diet.[129]

Baháʼí Faith[edit]

While there are no dietary restrictions in the Baháʼí Faith, `Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the religion's founder, noted that a vegetarian diet consisting of fruits and grains was desirable, except for people with a weak constitution or those that are sick.[130] He stated that there are no requirements that Baháʼís become vegetarian, but that a future society should gradually become vegetarian.[130][131][132] `Abdu'l-Bahá also stated that killing animals was contrary to compassion.[130] While Shoghi Effendi, the head of the Bahá'í Faith in the first half of the 20th century, stated that a purely vegetarian diet would be preferable since it avoided killing animals,[133] both he and the Universal House of Justice, the governing body of the Baháʼís have stated that these teachings do not constitute a Baháʼí practice and that Baháʼís can choose to eat whatever they wish but should be respectful of others' beliefs.[130]


Sign promoting vegetarianism at Key Monastery, Spiti, India.

Theravadins in general eat meat.[134] If Buddhist monks "see, hear or know" a living animal was killed specifically for them to eat, they must refuse it or else incur an offense.[135] However, this does not include eating meat which was given as alms or commercially purchased. In the Theravada canon, Buddha did not make any comment discouraging them from eating meat (except specific types, such as human, elephant, horse, dog, snake, lion, tiger, leopard, bear, and hyena flesh[136]) but he specifically refused to institute vegetarianism in his monastic code when a suggestion had been made.[137][138]

In several Sanskrit texts of Mahayana Buddhism, Buddha instructs his followers to avoid meat.[139][140][141][142] However, each branch of Mahayana Buddhism selects which sutra to follow, and some branches, including the majority of Tibetan and Japanese Buddhists, do eat meat, while many Chinese Buddhist branches do not.

Different Buddhist traditions have differing teachings on diet, which may also vary for ordained monks and nuns compared to others. Many interpret the precept "not to kill" to require abstinence from meat, but not all. In Taiwan, su vegetarianism excludes not only all animal products but also vegetables in the allium family (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and garlic): onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, chives, or shallots.


Various groups within Christianity have practiced specific dietary restrictions for various reasons.[143] The Council of Jerusalem in around 50 AD, recommended Christians keep following some of the Jewish food laws concerning meat. The early sect known as the Ebionites are considered to have practiced vegetarianism. Surviving fragments from their Gospel indicate their belief that – as Christ is the Passover sacrifice and eating the Passover lamb is no longer required – a vegetarian diet may (or should) be observed. However, orthodox Christianity does not accept their teaching as authentic. Indeed, their specific injunction to strict vegetarianism was cited as one of the Ebionites' "errors".[144][145]

At a much later time, the Bible Christian Church founded by Reverend William Cowherd in 1809 followed a vegetarian diet.[146] Cowherd was one of the philosophical forerunners of the Vegetarian Society.[147] Cowherd encouraged members to abstain from eating of meat as a form of temperance.[148]

Seventh-day Adventists are encouraged to engage in healthy eating practices, and ovo-lacto-vegetarian diets are recommended by the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Nutrition Council (GCNC). They have also sponsored and participated in many scientific studies exploring the impact of dietary decisions upon health outcomes.[149] The GCNC has in addition adapted the USDA's food pyramid for a vegetarian dietary approach.[149][150] However, the only kinds of meat specifically frowned upon by the SDA health message are unclean meats, or those forbidden in scripture.[151]

Additionally, some monastic orders follow a pescatarian diet, and members of the Eastern Orthodox Church follow a vegan diet during fasts.[152] There is also a strong association between the Quakers and vegetarianism dating back at least to the 18th century. The association grew in prominence during the 19th century, coupled with growing Quaker concerns in connection with alcohol consumption, anti-vivisection and social purity. The association between the Quaker tradition and vegetarianism, however, becomes most significant with the founding of the Friends' Vegetarian Society in 1902 "to spread a kindlier way of living amongst the Society of Friends."[153]

According to Canon Law, Roman Catholics ages 14 and older are required to abstain from meat, other than fish, on Ash Wednesday and all Fridays of Lent including Good Friday. Canon Law also obliges Catholics to abstain from meat, other than fish, on the Fridays of the year outside of Lent (excluding certain holy days) unless, with the permission of the local conference of bishops, another penitential act is substituted. The restrictions on eating meat on these days is solely as an act of penance and not because of a religious objection to eating meat.[154]

Seventh-day Adventist[edit]

Sanitarium products for sale.

Since the formation of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the 1860s when the church began, wholeness and health have been an emphasis of the Adventist church, and has been known as the "health message" belief of the church.[155] Adventists are well known for presenting a health message that recommends vegetarianism and expects adherence to the kosher laws in Leviticus 11. Obedience to these laws means abstinence from pork, shellfish, and other animals proscribed as "unclean". The church discourages its members from consuming alcoholic beverages, tobacco or illegal drugs (compare Christianity and alcohol). In addition, some Adventists avoid coffee, tea, cola, and other beverages containing caffeine.

The pioneers of the Adventist Church had much to do with the common acceptance of breakfast cereals into the Western diet, and the "modern commercial concept of cereal food" originated among Adventists.[156] John Harvey Kellogg was one of the early founders of Adventist health work. His development of breakfast cereals as a health food led to the founding of Kellogg's by his brother William. In both Australia and New Zealand, the church-owned Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company is a leading manufacturer of health and vegetarian-related products, most prominently Weet-Bix.

Research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health has shown that the average Adventist in California lives 4 to 10 years longer than the average Californian. The research, as cited by the cover story of the November 2005 issue of National Geographic, asserts that Adventists live longer because they do not smoke or drink alcohol, have a day of rest every week, and maintain a healthy, low-fat vegetarian diet that is rich in nuts and beans.[157][158] The cohesiveness of Adventists' social networks has also been put forward as an explanation for their extended lifespan.[159] Since Dan Buettner's 2005 National Geographic story about Adventist longevity, his book, The Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who've Lived the Longest, named Loma Linda, California a "blue zone" because of the large concentration of Seventh-day Adventists. He cites the Adventist emphasis on health, diet, and Sabbath-keeping as primary factors for Adventist longevity.[160][161]

An estimated 35% of Adventists practice vegetarianism or veganism, according to a 2002 worldwide survey of local church leaders.[162][163] North American Adventist health study recruitments from 2001 to 2007 found a similar prevalence of vegetarianism/veganism. A small majority of Adventists, 54%, were conventional meat-eaters. Of the remaining 46% it was found that 28% were Ovo/Lacto-vegetarians, 10% were Pesco-vegetarians and 8% were vegans. It is common for Adventists who choose to eat meat to follow highly vegetarian diets; 6% of the “meat-eaters” group restricted their intake of meat/fish to no more than once per week.[164]


Illustrative of vegetarian Hindu meals.

Though there is no strict rule on what to consume and what not to, paths of Hinduism hold vegetarianism as an ideal. Some reasons are: the principle of nonviolence (ahimsa) applied to animals;[165] the intention to offer only "pure" (vegetarian) food to a deity and then to receive it back as prasad; and the conviction that a satvic diet is beneficial for a healthy body and mind and that non-vegetarian food is not recommended for a better mind and for spiritual development. A sattvic diet is lacto-vegetarian where it can include dairy, but excludes eggs.[166]

However, the food habits of Hindus vary according to their community, location, custom and varying traditions. Historically and currently, those Hindus who eat meat prescribe jhatka meat,[167] Hindus believe that the cow is a holy animal whose processing for meat is forbidden.[168]


Some followers of Islam, or Muslims, chose to be vegetarian for health, ethical, or personal reasons. However, the choice to become vegetarian for non-medical reasons can sometimes be controversial due to conflicting fatwas and differing interpretations of the Quran. Though some more traditional Muslims may keep quiet about their vegetarian diet, the number of vegetarian Muslims is increasing.[169][170]

Vegetarianism has been practiced by some influential Muslims including the Iraqi theologian, female mystic and poet Rabia of Basra, who died in the year 801, the Sufi mystic and poet Rumi[171] and the Sri Lankan Sufi master Bawa Muhaiyaddeen, who established The Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship of North America in Philadelphia. The former Indian president Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was also famously a vegetarian.[172][173]

In January 1996, The International Vegetarian Union announced the formation of the Muslim Vegetarian/Vegan Society.[174]

Many non-vegetarian Muslims will select vegetarian (or seafood) options when dining in non-halal restaurants. However, this is a matter of not having the right kind of meat rather than preferring not to eat meat on the whole.[170]


The food choices of Jains are based on the value of Ahimsa (non-violence).

Followers of Jainism believe that all living organisms, including microorganisms, are living and have a soul, and have one or more senses out of five senses. They go to great lengths to minimise any harm to any living organism. Most Jains are lacto-vegetarians, but more devout Jains do not eat root vegetables, because they believe that root vegetables contain many more microorganisms as compared to other vegetables, and that, by eating them, violence against these microorganisms is inevitable. They therefore prefer eating beans and fruits, whose cultivation involves killing fewer microorganisms. No products obtained from already-dead animals are allowed because of potential violence against decomposing microorganisms.[175][176] Some particularly dedicated individuals are fruitarians.[177] Honey is forbidden, being the regurgitation of nectar by bees [178] and potentially containing eggs, excreta and dead bees. Many Jains do not consume plant parts that grow underground such as roots and bulbs, because the plants themselves and tiny animals may be killed when the plants are pulled up.[179]


While classical Jewish law neither requires nor prohibits the consumption of meat, Jewish vegetarians often cite Jewish principles regarding animal welfare, environmental ethics, moral character, and health as reasons for adopting a vegetarian or vegan diet.[180]

Rabbis may advocate vegetarianism or veganism primarily because of concerns about animal welfare, especially in light of the traditional prohibition on causing unnecessary "pain to living creatures" (tza'ar ba'alei hayyim).[181][182] Some Jewish vegetarian groups and activists believe that the halakhic permission to eat meat is a temporary leniency for those who are not ready yet to accept the vegetarian diet.[183]

The book of Daniel starts in its first chapter with the benefits of vegetarianism. Due to its size, its late time of origin and its revealing content, the book is of particular importance for the time of the following exile, which lasts now for 2000 years and technically still goes on until the Temple in Jerusalem is rebuilt. A diet described as “pulse and water” is presented along benefits such as accordance with the biblical dietary laws, health, beauty, wisdom and visions. Vegetarianism can be seen as a safeguard around the dietary laws or the beautification of them.

Jewish vegetarianism and veganism have become especially popular among Israeli Jews. In 2016, Israel was described as "the most vegan country on Earth", as five percent of its population eschewed all animal products.[184] Interest in veganism has grown among both non-Orthodox and Orthodox Jews in Israel.[185]


Within the Afro-Caribbean community, a minority are Rastafari and follow the dietary regulations with varying degrees of strictness. The most orthodox eat only "Ital" or natural foods, in which the matching of herbs or spices with vegetables is the result of long tradition originating from the African ancestry and cultural heritage of Rastafari.[186] "Ital", which is derived from the word vital, means essential to human existence. Ital cooking in its strictest form prohibits the use of salt, meat (especially pork), preservatives, colorings, flavorings and anything artificial.[187] Most Rastafari are vegetarian.[188]


At the Sikh langar, all people eat a vegetarian meal as equals.

The tenets of Sikhism do not advocate a particular stance on either vegetarianism or the consumption of meat,[189][190][191][192] but leave the decision of diet to the individual.[193] The tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, however, prohibited "Amritdhari" Sikhs, or those that follow the Sikh Rehat Maryada (the Official Sikh Code of Conduct)[194] from eating Kutha meat, or meat which has been obtained from animals which have been killed in a ritualistic way. This is understood to have been for the political reason of maintaining independence from the then-new Muslim hegemony, as Muslims largely adhere to the ritualistic halal diet.[189][193]

"Amritdharis" that belong to some Sikh sects (e.g. Akhand Kirtani Jatha, Damdami Taksal, Namdhari[195] and Rarionwalay,[196] etc.) are vehemently against the consumption of meat and eggs (though they do consume and encourage the consumption of milk, butter and cheese).[197] This vegetarian stance has been traced back to the times of the British Raj, with the advent of many new Vaishnava converts.[193] In response to the varying views on diet throughout the Sikh population, Sikh Gurus have sought to clarify the Sikh view on diet, stressing their preference only for simplicity of diet. Guru Nanak said that over-consumption of food (Lobh, Greed) involves a drain on the Earth's resources and thus on life.[198][199] Passages from the Guru Granth Sahib (the holy book of Sikhs, also known as the Adi Granth) say that it is "foolish" to argue for the superiority of animal life, because though all life is related, only human life carries more importance: "Only fools argue whether to eat meat or not. Who can define what is meat and what is not meat? Who knows where the sin lies, being a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian?"[193] The Sikh langar, or free temple meal, is largely lacto-vegetarian, though this is understood to be a result of efforts to present a meal that is respectful of the diets of any person who would wish to dine, rather than out of dogma.[192][193]

Environment and diet[edit]

Environmental vegetarianism is based on the concern that the production of meat and animal products for mass consumption, especially through factory farming, is environmentally unsustainable. According to a 2006 United Nations initiative, the livestock industry is one of the largest contributors to environmental degradation worldwide, and modern practices of raising animals for food contribute on a "massive scale" to air and water pollution, land degradation, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The initiative concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global."[200]

In addition, animal agriculture is a large source of greenhouse gases. According to a 2006 report it is responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions as estimated in 100-year CO2 equivalents. Livestock sources (including enteric fermentation and manure) account for about 3.1 percent of US anthropogenic GHG emissions expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents.[201] This EPA estimate is based on methodologies agreed to by the Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC, with 100-year global warming potentials from the IPCC Second Assessment Report used in estimating GHG emissions as carbon dioxide equivalents.

Meat produced in a laboratory (called in vitro meat) may be more environmentally sustainable than regularly produced meat.[202] Reactions of vegetarians vary.[203] Rearing a relatively small number of grazing animals can be beneficial, as the Food Climate Research Network at Surrey University reports: "A little bit of livestock production is probably a good thing for the environment".[204]

In May 2009, Ghent, Belgium, was reported to be "the first [city] in the world to go vegetarian at least once a week" for environmental reasons, when local authorities decided to implement a "weekly meatless day". Civil servants would eat vegetarian meals one day per week, in recognition of the United Nations' report. Posters were put up by local authorities to encourage the population to take part on vegetarian days, and "veggie street maps" were printed to highlight vegetarian restaurants. In September 2009, schools in Ghent are due to have a weekly veggiedag ("vegetarian day") too.[205]

Public opinion and acceptance of meat-free food is expected to be more successful if its descriptive words focus less on the health aspects and more on the flavor.[206]

Labor conditions and diet[edit]

Some groups, such as PETA, promote vegetarianism as a way to offset poor treatment and working conditions of workers in the contemporary meat industry.[207] These groups cite studies showing the psychological damage caused by working in the meat industry, especially in factory and industrialised settings, and argue that the meat industry violates its labourers' human rights by assigning difficult and distressing tasks without adequate counselling, training and debriefing.[208][209][210] However, the working conditions of agricultural workers as a whole, particularly non-permanent workers, remain poor and well below conditions prevailing in other economic sectors.[211] Accidents, including pesticide poisoning, among farmers and plantation workers contribute to increased health risks, including increased mortality.[212] According to the International Labour Organization, agriculture is one of the three most dangerous jobs in the world[clarification needed].[213]

Economics and diet[edit]

Similar to environmental vegetarianism is the concept of economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint concerning issues such as public health and curbing world starvation, the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just out of necessity. According to the Worldwatch Institute, "Massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease their health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world's chronically hungry."[214] According to estimates in 2016, adoption of vegetarianism would contribute substantially to global healthcare and environmental savings.[215]


Prejudice researcher Gordon Hodson argues that vegetarians and vegans frequently face discrimination where eating meat is held as a cultural norm.[216]

Compared to omnivores, vegetarians were more open to new experiences but were also more neurotic and depressed.[217]


Research suggests that, at least in the United States, vegetarianism has a high turnover rate, with less than 20% of adopters persisting for more than a year.[218] A 2014 study found that 84% of Americans who started a vegetarian or vegan diet eventually abandoned it, with higher retention among individuals who stayed committed for over a year.[219] Research shows various reasons contribute to lapsing, such as lacking social support.[220][221] Subsequent research supports the idea that social connection is negatively impacted by dietary restrictions. A 2019 analysis found that adhering to any kind of restricted diet (eg; gluten-free, vegetarian, kosher, teetotal) was associated with feelings of loneliness and increased social isolation.[222]

Vegetarians or vegans who adopted their diet abruptly might be more likely to eventually abandon their diet when compared to individuals adopting their diet gradually with incremental changes.[219][223][224][225]


A 1992 market research study conducted by the Yankelovich research organisation concluded that "of the 12.4 million people [in the US] who call themselves vegetarian, 68% are female, while only 32% are male".[226] Subsequent research has consistently found that vegetarians are more likely to be female than male. In 2019 the female-to-male ratio of vegetarians was similar to what was found in the 1992 study.[227][58][228] Multiple causes may explain this, including gendered differences in values, attitudes towards dieting, gender roles and socialisation and differences in health concerns. Women are more likely than men to be vegetarian for prosocial and values-based reasons. They are also more likely to adhere to their vegetarian diets than men.[229][230]

At least one study indicates that vegetarian women are more likely to have female babies. A study of 6,000 pregnant women in 1998 "found that while the national average in Britain is 106 boys born to every 100 girls, for vegetarian mothers the ratio was just 85 boys to 100 girls".[231]

Age group[edit]

In 2018 Ipsos MORI conducted a worldwide survey and found that vegetarianism was strongly correlated with young adulthood. Only 3% of adults 35 years old & older were ovo/lacto-vegetarians, meanwhile the prevalence of vegetarianism was twice as high among respondents below 35 years old.[232] In 2020 YouGov published the results of 2019 research surveying 1,491 Americans. The results showed 7.17% of respondents followed some type of meatless diet: 2.26% reported being vegan, 4.91% reported being vegetarian. In addition 2.58% reported being pescetarian.[233] A major finding in this study was that meat-consumption was positively correlated with higher age. The younger Americans were less likely to be meat-eaters; a total of 15 percent of adults under 39 say they are vegan or vegetarian.[58] Other research has estimated a lower prevalence; one study found that 7.5% Millennials and Gen-Z were vegetarian/vegan, but this prevalence is still significantly higher than that of older generations.[234]

Country-specific information[edit]

The rate of vegetarianism by country can vary substantially from relatively low levels in countries such as the Netherlands (5%)[235] to more considerable levels in India (20–40%).[236][237] Estimates for the number of vegetarians per country can be subject to methodological difficulties, as respondents may identify as vegetarian even if they include some meat in their diet, and thus some researchers suggest the percentage of vegetarians may be significantly overestimated.[238][239]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "What is a vegetarian?". Vegetarian Society. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. A vegetarian is someone who lives on a diet of grains, pulses, legumes, nuts, seeds, vegetables, fruits, fungi, algae, yeast and/or some other non-animal-based foods (e.g. salt) with, or without, dairy products, honey and/or eggs. A vegetarian does not eat foods that consist of, or have been produced with the aid of products consisting of or created from, any part of the body of a living or dead animal.
  2. ^ a b c d "Why Avoid Hidden Animal Ingredients?". North American Vegetarian Society. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. Surprisingly, some people who consider themselves vegetarian continue to consume products that contain remains of slaughtered animals such as gelatin (made from ground-up skin and bones, found in Jell-O, supplement capsules, and photographic film) and rennet (made from the lining of calves' stomachs, used to coagulate hard cheese). Some of these people may be unaware that these hidden animal ingredients even exist. Others know about them but feel that they are just minor components of a product, and that their presence is therefore not important. [...] Many people who do not eat meat for ethical reasons do use animal by-products that are obtained while the animals are still alive. Dairy is a good example, as many vegetarians who consume it rationalize their behavior by pointing out that cows are not killed in order to provide humans with this particular by-product.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Vitamin B12". Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. June 4, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Obersby, Derek; Chappell, David C.; Dunnett, Andrew; Tsiami, Amalia A. (January 8, 2013). "Plasma total homocysteine status of vegetarians compared with omnivores: a systematic review and meta-analysis" (PDF). British Journal of Nutrition. 109 (5): 785–794. doi:10.1017/s000711451200520x. ISSN 0007-1145. PMID 23298782.
  5. ^ Chan, EY; Zlatevska, N (2019). "Is meat sexy? Meat preference as a function of the sexual motivation system". Food Quality and Preference. 74: 78–87. doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2019.01.008. S2CID 150715843.
  6. ^ Chan, EY; Zlatevska, N (2019). "Jerkies, tacos, and burgers: Subjective socioeconomic status and meat preference". Appetite. 132: 257–266. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2018.08.027. PMID 30172366. S2CID 52145793.
  7. ^ Clonan, A; Roberts, KE; Holdsworth, M (2016). "Socioeconomic and demographic drivers of red and processed meat consumption: implications for health and environmental sustainability". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 75 (3): 367–373. doi:10.1017/S0029665116000100. PMC 4974628. PMID 27021468.
  8. ^ a b c "Fact Sheets: Things to look out for if you are a vegetarian/vegan". Vegetarian Society. September 2015. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  9. ^ a b Keevican, Michael (November 5, 2003). "What's in Your Cheese?". Vegetarian Resource Group. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. Many vegetarians don't consider that some of the cheeses they are eating could actually contain unfamiliar animal ingredients. That's right cheese, a common staple in many vegetarian diets, is often made with rennet or rennin, which is used to coagulate the dairy product.
  10. ^ "FAQ: Food Ingredients". Vegetarian Resource Group. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved March 18, 2018. Why are some cheeses labeled as 'vegetarian cheese'? Why wouldn't cheese be vegetarian? What is rennet?
  11. ^ a b c Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (2002 and 2007) defines "vegetarian" (noun) as "A person who on principle abstains from animal food; esp. one who avoids meat but will eat dairy produce and eggs and sometimes also fish (cf. VEGAN noun)."
  12. ^ a b Barr SI, Chapman GE (March 2002). "Perceptions and practices of self-defined current vegetarian and nonvegetarian women". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 102 (3): 354–360. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90083-0. PMID 11902368.
  13. ^ "Pescetarian". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. Definition of pescatarian: one whose diet includes fish but no other meat
  14. ^ Preece, Rod (2008). The origins of the term "vegetarian". In: Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. ISBN 9780774858496.
  15. ^ "Vegetarian". Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper Inc. 2019. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  16. ^ a b OED vol. 19, second edition (1989), p. 476; Webster’s Third New International Dictionary p. 2537; The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Oxford, 1966, p. 972; The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology (1988), p. 1196; Colin Spencer, The Heretic's Feast. A History of Vegetarianism, London 1993, p. 252. The OED writes that the word came into general use after the formation of the Vegetarian Society at Ramsgate in 1847, though it offers two examples of usage from 1839 and 1842:
    • 1839: "If I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian." (F. A. Kemble, Jrnl. Residence on Georgian Plantation (1863) 251)
    • 1842: "To tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature." (Healthian, Apr. 34) The 1839 occurrence remains under discussion; the Oxford English Dictionary's 1839 source is in fact an 1863 publication: Fanny Kemble, Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation 1838–1839. The original manuscript has not been located.
  17. ^ a b c Davis, John. "History of Vegetarianism: Extracts from some journals 1842–48 – the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian'". International Vegetarian Union. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. In 1841 the [Alcott House] was re-invented as A Concordium, or Industry Harmony College though the building remained 'Alcott House'. Also in 1841 they began printing and publishing their own pamphlets, which now seem to be lost, but we have the relevant extracts, with the earliest known use of 'vegetarian', from their first journal which began in December 1841[.]
  18. ^ a b Davis, John. "History of Vegetarianism: Extracts from some journals 1842–48 – the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian' (Appendix 2 – The 1839 journal of Fanny Kemble)". International Vegetarian Union. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  19. ^ "FAQ: Definitions". IVU World Vegfest. International Vegetarian Union. March 8, 2013. Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2018. The term 'Vegetarian' was first used around 1840 by the community closely associated with Alcott House School, near London, and they used it to refer exclusively to foods derived from plants—plus all the ethical values associated today with Veganism. [...] The word 'Vegetarian' was first formally used on September 30th of 1847 at Northwood Villa in Kent, England. The occasion is the inaugural meeting of The Vegetarian Society.
  20. ^ Anand M. Saxena (2013). The Vegetarian Imperative. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 201–202. ISBN 978-14214-02-420.
  21. ^ Olivelle, transl. from the original Sanskrit by Patrick (1998). Upaniṣads (Reissued ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0192835765.
  22. ^ Bajpai, Shiva (2011). The History of India – From Ancient to Modern Times. Himalayan Academy Publications (Hawaii, USA). ISBN 978-1-934145-38-8.
  23. ^ Spencer, Colin (1996). The Heretic's Feast: A History of Vegetarianism. Fourth Estate Classic House. pp. 33–68, 69–84. ISBN 978-0874517606.
  24. ^ Singh, Kumar Suresh (2004). People of India: Maharashtra. ISBN 9788179911006.
  25. ^ Fieldhouse, Paul (April 17, 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions [2 volumes]. ISBN 9781610694124.
  26. ^ Walters, Kerry (June 7, 2012). Vegetarianism: A Guide for the Perplexed. ISBN 9781441115294.
  27. ^ Religious Vegetarianism From Hesiod to the Dalai Lama, ed. Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess, Albany 2001, p. 13–46.
  28. ^ "The Acharang Sutra".
  29. ^ Kamil Zvelebil (1973). The Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. Leiden: E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-03591-5. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  30. ^ P.S. Sundaram (1990). Kural (Tiruvalluvar). Penguin Books. ISBN 978-93-5118-015-9.
  31. ^ A. A. Manavalan (2009). Essays and Tributes on Tirukkural (1886–1986 AD) (1 ed.). Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies.
  32. ^ Pope, GU (1886). Thirukkural English Translation and Commentary (PDF). W.H. Allen, & Co. p. 160.
  33. ^ Spencer p. 38–55, 61–63; Haussleiter p. 79–157.
  34. ^ Livio, Mario (2003) [2002]. The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World's Most Astonishing Number (First trade paperback ed.). New York City: Broadway Books. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7679-0816-0.
  35. ^ Zhmud, Leonid (2012). Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Translated by Windle, Kevin; Ireland, Rosh. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-928931-8.
  36. ^ a b Borlik, Todd A. (2011). Ecocriticism and Early Modern English Literature: Green Pastures. New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge. pp. 189–192. ISBN 978-0-203-81924-1.
  37. ^ Jones, Lindsay (2005). Encyclopedia of religion (13 ed.). ISBN 9780028659824.
  38. ^ Watanabe, Zenjiro. "Removal of the Ban on Meat: The Meat-Eating Culture of Japan at the Beginning of Westernization" (PDF). Retrieved April 26, 2020.
  39. ^ Koon, Wee Kek (November 21, 2019). "Vegetarianism in China is nothing new: meat-free diets have ancient origins". Retrieved May 1, 2020.
  40. ^ Wang, Jenny (August 13, 2020). "Buddhist food: how the healthy, vegetarian dishes full of seasonal ingredients can imitate meat with funguses and plants". Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  41. ^ Datta, P. T. Jyothi (September 4, 2001). "Health goes dotty with brown eggs & green milk". Hindu Business Line. New Delhi: Kasturi & Sons (published September 5, 2001). Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. For discerning consumers, a recent Health Ministry notification had made it mandatory for packed food containing animal parts contained in a box, to sport a brown dot prominently on its label.
  42. ^ Passmore John (1975). "The Treatment of Animals". Journal of the History of Ideas. 36 (2): 196–201. doi:10.2307/2708924. JSTOR 2708924. PMID 11610245. S2CID 43847928.
  43. ^ Lutterbach, Hubertus. "Der Fleischverzicht im Christentum", Saeculum 50/II (1999) p. 202.
  44. ^ Mortimer, Ian (January 2010) [Originally published in Great Britain in 2008 by Random House UK]. "What to Eat and Drink: Noble Households" (Hardcover). In Sulkin, Will; Hensgen, Jörg (eds.). The Time Traveler's Guide to Medieval England (1st Touchstone hardcover ed.). New York, NY: Touchstone (Simon & Schuster). p. 140. ISBN 978-1-4391-1289-2. Seals, porpoises, dolphins, barnacle geese, puffins, and beavers are all classed as fish as their lives begin in the sea or in a river. Hence they are eaten gleefully, even on nonmeat days.
  45. ^ Spencer p. 180–200.
  46. ^ Spencer p. 252–253, 261–262.
  47. ^ Bauer, K., "The Domestication of Radical Ideas and Colonial Spaces", in M. Schulze, et al., eds., German Diasporic Experiences (Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008), pp. 345–358.
  48. ^ Craig WJ, Mangels AR (July 2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets". Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 109 (7): 1266–1282. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  49. ^ Engber, Daniel (July 30, 2008). "The Great Vegan Honey Debate: Is honey the dairy of the insect world?". Slate. Archived from the original on March 9, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  50. ^ Johnson, M.E. (2017). "A 100-Year Review: Cheese production and quality". Journal of Dairy Science. 100 (12): 9952–9965. doi:10.3168/jds.2017-12979. ISSN 0022-0302. PMID 29153182.
  51. ^ a b Yabroff, Jennie (December 30, 2009). "Vegetarians Who Eat Meat". Newsweek. Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  52. ^ Gale, Catharine R. et al. "IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study" Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, British Medial Journal, December 15, 2006, vol 333, issue 7581, p. 245.
  53. ^ "Meat". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. Definition of meat [2a]: 2b; also: flesh of a mammal as opposed to fowl or fish
  54. ^ a b "Vegetarians don't eat fish, shellfish or crustacea, but they can still enjoy one of the healthiest diets available". Vegetarian Society. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2018. Many things have changed since the Vegetarian Society was founded way back in 1847, but fish have always been cold-blooded water dwelling animals and vegetarians do not eat animals.
  55. ^ "2003 Words of the Year". American Dialect Society. January 13, 2004. Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. Most Useful: word or phrase which most fills a need for a new word – Winner flexitarian: noun, a vegetarian who occasionally eats meat. 31–41
  56. ^ DietaryGuidelines Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. (PDF) . Retrieved on May 25, 2011.
  57. ^ "Study reveals biggest motivation for people to consider turning vegetarian". The Indian Express. April 7, 2020. Retrieved March 26, 2021.
  58. ^ a b c Frankovic, Kathy (January 21, 2020). "Young Americans less likely to be meat-eaters | YouGov". Archived from the original on January 27, 2021. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
  59. ^ Asher, Kathryn; Green, Che; Gutbrod, Hans; Jewell, Mirna; Hale, Galina; Bastian, Brock (December 2014). "Study of Current and Former Vegetarians and Vegans" (PDF). Faunalytics. Humane Research Council. pp. 6–7. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  60. ^ Craig WJ, Mangels AR (July 2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets". J Am Diet Assoc. 109 (7): 1266–82. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864.
  61. ^ American Dietetic Association (2003). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets" (PDF). Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103 (6): 748–65. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12778049.
  62. ^ Fraser GE (2009). "Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases?". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (5): 1607S–1612S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736K. PMC 2677008. PMID 19321569.
  63. ^ a b Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ruiyun; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jianjun (2020). "Bone loss, low height, and low weight in different populations and district: a meta-analysis between vegans and non-vegans". Food and Nutrition Research. 64. doi:10.29219/fnr.v64.3315. ISSN 1654-661X. PMC 7534950. PMID 33061885.
  64. ^ Iguacel, Isabel; Miguel-Berges, María L; Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro; Moreno, Luis A; Julián, Cristina (January 2019). "Veganism, vegetarianism, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Nutrition Reviews. 77 (1): 1–18. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuy045. PMID 30376075. S2CID 53111636.
  65. ^ Comité Nacional de Crecimiento y Desarrollo (August 2021). "[Growth in children and in the offspring whose mothers adhere to vegetarian diets: Literature review]". Archivos Argentinos De Pediatria. 119 (4): S77–S106. doi:10.5546/aap.2021.S77. ISSN 1668-3501. PMID 34309323.
  66. ^ American Dietetic Association (2003). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103 (6): 748–65. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12778049. ProQuest 218406489.
  67. ^ Papamichou D, Panagiotakos DB, Itsiopoulos C (June 2019). "Dietary patterns and management of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of randomised clinical trials". Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis (Systematic Review). 29 (6): 531–543. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2019.02.004. PMID 30952576. S2CID 86497236.
  68. ^ Effie Viguiliouk et al. (2019). "Effect of vegetarian dietary patterns on cardiometabolic risk factors in diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Clin Nutr 38 (3): 1133-1145.
  69. ^ Zampelas A, Magriplis E (February 2020). "Dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular diseases: a review of the evidence". Proc Nutr Soc. 79 (1): 68–75. doi:10.1017/S0029665119000946. PMID 31250769.
  70. ^ Iguacel, Isabel; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno, Luis A; Michels, Nathalie (June 1, 2020). "Vegetarianism and veganism compared with mental health and cognitive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Nutrition Reviews. 79 (4): 361–381. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuaa030. ISSN 0029-6643. PMID 32483598.
  71. ^ Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Borawski, Jette (November 1, 2021). "Vegetarian diet and depression scores: A meta-analysis". Journal of Affective Disorders. 294: 813–815. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2021.07.098. ISSN 0165-0327.
  72. ^ "Wie Vegetarismus und depressive Stimmung zusammenhängen". (in German). Retrieved November 20, 2021.
  73. ^ Askari, Mohammadreza; Daneshzad, Elnaz; Mofrad, Manije Darooghegi; Bellissimo, Nick; Suitor, Katherine; Azadbakht, Leila (2020). "Vegetarian diet and the risk of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 4: 1–11. doi:10.1080/10408398.2020.1814991. PMID 32885996. S2CID 221497075.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  74. ^ Craig WJ, Mangels AR (2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets" (PDF). J Am Diet Assoc. 109 (7): 1266–1282. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864.
  75. ^ a b Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K (September 1999). "Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 70 (3): 516S–524S. doi:10.1079/phn19980006. PMID 10479225.
  76. ^ Huang, Tao; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Jusheng; Li, Guipu; Wahlqvist, Mark L.; Li, Duo (2012). "Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review". Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 60 (4): 233–240. doi:10.1159/000337301. ISSN 1421-9697. PMID 22677895.
  77. ^ Dinu, Monica; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco (June 13, 2017). "Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 57 (17): 3640–3649. doi:10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447. hdl:2158/1079985. ISSN 1040-8398. PMID 26853923. S2CID 10073754.
  78. ^ Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J (January 20, 2017). "Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom123". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 103 (1): 218–230. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.119461. ISSN 0002-9165. PMC 4691673. PMID 26657045.
  79. ^ Hagen KB, Byfuglien MG, Falzon L, Olsen SU, Smedslund G (2009). Hagen, Kåre Birger (ed.). "Dietary interventions for rheumatoid arthritis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD006400. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006400.pub2. PMID 19160281.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  80. ^ Key TJ, Appleby PN, Rosell MS (2006). "Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 65 (1): 35–41. CiteSeerX doi:10.1079/PNS2005481. PMID 16441942. S2CID 3796770.
  81. ^ Craig, W. J. (2009). "Health effects of vegan diets". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (5): 1627S–33S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736n. PMID 19279075.
  82. ^ a b Davey GK, Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Allen NE, Knox KH, Key TJ (2003). "EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK". Public Health Nutrition. 6 (3): 259–69. doi:10.1079/PHN2002430. PMID 12740075.
  83. ^ "Vegetarian and vegan eating | Better Health Channel". Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  84. ^ Peter Emery, Tom Sanders (2002). Molecular Basis of Human Nutrition. Taylor & Francis Ltd. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-7484-0753-8.
  85. ^ Brenda Davis, Vesanto Melina (2003). The New Becoming Vegetarian. Book Publishing Company. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-1-57067-144-9.
  86. ^ "Vegetarian Society - Factsheet - Iron". September 22, 2014. Archived from the original on April 29, 2013. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  87. ^ "Vegetarianism in a Nutshell". Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  88. ^ "// Health Issues // Optimal Vegan Nutrition". Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  89. ^ Waldmann A, Koschizke JW, Leitzmann C, Hahn A (2004). "Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study". Ann Nutr Metab. 48 (2): 103–108. doi:10.1159/000077045. PMID 14988640. S2CID 21370991.
  90. ^ Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, Simoncic R, Béderová A, Grancicová E, Magálová T (1997). "Influence of vegetarian and mixed nutrition on selected haematological and biochemical parameters in children". Nahrung. 41 (5): 311–14. doi:10.1002/food.19970410513. PMID 9399258.
  91. ^ Craig WJ, Mangels AR (2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 109 (7): 1266–82. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864.
  92. ^ a b c "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12". US National Institutes of Health: Office of Dietary Supplements. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
  93. ^ "What Every Vegan Should Know About Vitamin B12". Vegan Society. October 31, 2001. Retrieved October 27, 2010.
  94. ^ "Vitamins and minerals - B vitamins and folic acid". UK National Health Service. March 3, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  95. ^ Rosell MS, Lloyd-Wright Z, Appleby PN, Sanders TA, Allen NE, Key TJ (2003). "Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men". Am J Clin Nutr. 82 (2): 327–34. doi:10.1093/ajcn.82.2.327. PMID 16087975.
  96. ^ Babadzhanov A; Abdusamatova N; Yusupova F; Faizullaeva N; Mezhlumyan LG; Malikova MKh (2004). "Chemical Composition of Spirulina platensis Cultivated in Uzbekistan". Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 40 (3): 276–279. doi:10.1023/B:CONC.0000039141.98247.e8. S2CID 23130198.
  97. ^ Tokuşoglu Ö, Uunal MK (2003). "Biomass Nutrient Profiles of Three Microalgae: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Isochrisis galena". Journal of Food Science. 68 (4): 1144–1148. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb09615.x.
  98. ^ a b c d "Meeting Calcium Recommendations on a Vegan Diet" (PDF). Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  99. ^ a b c d e f "Calcium Fact Sheet". Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  100. ^ a b c Mangels, Reed. "Calcium in the Vegan Diet". Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  101. ^ a b NIH. "Overview of Calcium". Retrieved April 29, 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  102. ^ "Vitamin D is Synthesized From Cholesterol and Found in Cholesterol-Rich Foods". Cholesterol and Health. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  103. ^ Crissey SD, Ange KD, Jacobsen KL, Slifka KA, Bowen PE, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Langman CB, Sadler W, Kahn S, Ward A (2003). "Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin D metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos". The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (1): 160–6. doi:10.1093/jn/133.1.160. PMID 12514284.
  104. ^ "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on July 16, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2007.
  105. ^ "Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases". Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  106. ^ "USDA nutrient database – use the keyword 'portabella' and then click submit".
  107. ^ Bowerman, Susan (March 31, 2008). "If mushrooms see the light". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
  108. ^ P Urbain; F Singler; G Ihorst; H-K Biesalski; H Bertz (May 4, 2011). "Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomized controlled trial". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 65 (8): 965–971. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.53. PMID 21540874.
  109. ^ Hohman EE, Martin BR, Lachcik PJ, Gordon DT, Fleet JC, Weaver CM (May 24, 2012). "Bioavailability and Efficacy of Vitamin D 2 from UV-Irradiated Yeast in Growing, Vitamin D-Deficient Rats". J. Agric. Food Chem. 59 (6): 2341–6. doi:10.1021/jf104679c. PMC 3235799. PMID 21332187.
  110. ^ Koyyalamudi SR, Jeong SC, Song CH, Cho KY, Pang G (2009). "Vitamin D2 formation and bioavailability from Agaricus bisporus button mushrooms treated with ultraviolet irradiation". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57 (8): 3351–5. doi:10.1021/jf803908q. PMID 19281276.
  111. ^ Using Fresh Mushrooms as a Source of Vitamin D. "Using Fresh Mushrooms as a Source of Vitamin D / Nutrition / Healthy Eating". Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  112. ^ "Bringing Mushrooms Out of the Dark". MSNBC. April 18, 2006. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  113. ^ Parkinson, Caroline (August 30, 2019). "The brain nutrient vegans need to know about". BBC News.
  114. ^ Gorvett, Zaria. "The hidden biases that drive anti-vegan hatred". Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  115. ^ "Review of Adam D. Shprintzen's "The Vegetarian Crusade" | History News Network". Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  116. ^ Searchinger, T.D., Wirsenius, S., Beringer, T. et al. Assessing the efficiency of changes in land use for mitigating climate change. Nature 564, 249–253 (2018).
  117. ^ Lindeman M., Väänänen M. (2000). "Measurement of ethical food choice motives". Appetite. 34 (1): 55–59. doi:10.1006/appe.1999.0293. PMID 10744892. S2CID 37406748.
  118. ^ David Benatar (2001). "Why the Naive Argument against Moral Vegetarianism Really is Naive". Environmental Values. 10 (1): 103–112. doi:10.3197/096327101129340769.
  119. ^ McMahan, Jeff (2002). The Ethics of Killing. Oxford University Press.
  120. ^ "Animals and Ethics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]". January 13, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  121. ^ Erik Marcus (2000). Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating. ISBN 9781590133446.
  122. ^ Vegetarian Society. "Dairy cows and welfare". Archived from the original on May 6, 2013. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
  123. ^ Ruby, Matthew B. (2012). "Vegetarianism. A blossoming field of study". Appetite. 58 (1): 141–150. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2011.09.019. ISSN 1095-8304. PMID 22001025. S2CID 30991920.
  124. ^ Kochhal, M. (October 2004). "Vegetarianism: Jainism and vegetarianism (ahisma)". Archived from the original on July 20, 2011.
  125. ^ Teachings on Love, Thich Nhat Hanh, Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1998.
  126. ^ Junior Encyclopaedia of Sikhism (1985)l by H. S. Singha; p. 124 ISBN 0-7069-2844-X / 0-7069-2844-X
  127. ^ Kakshi, S.R. (2007). "12". In S. R. Bakshi; Rashmi Pathak (eds.). Punjab Through the Ages. 4 (1st ed.). New Delhi: Sarup and Sons. p. 241. ISBN 978-81-7625-738-1.
  128. ^ "Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandhak Committee". Archived from the original on May 25, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  129. ^ "The Sikhism Home Page". February 15, 1980. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  130. ^ a b c d Smith, Peter (2000). "Diet". A concise encyclopedia of the Baháʼí Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-1-85168-184-6.
  131. ^ Esslemont, J.E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Baháʼí Publishing Trust. ISBN 978-0-87743-160-2.
  132. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá (1912). MacNutt (ed.). The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette, Illinois, US: Bahá'í Publishing Trust (published 1982). ISBN 978-0-87743-172-5.
  133. ^ Research Department, Universal House of Justice. "Writings Concerning Health, Healing, and Nutrition". Retrieved May 25, 2009.
  134. ^ "Buddhist Studies: Vegetarianism". Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  135. ^ [1] Archived October 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  136. ^ Mahavagga Pali – Bhesajjakkhandhaka – Vinaya Pitaka
  137. ^ "Buddhism and Vegetarianism, The Rationale for the Buddha's Views on the Consumption of Meat" Archived October 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine by Dr V. A. Gunasekara" 'The rule of vegetarianism was the fifth of a list of rules which Devadatta had proposed to the Buddha. Devadatta was the founder of the tapasa movement in Buddhism and his special rules involved ascetic and austere practices (forest-dwelling, wearing only rags, etc). The Buddha rejected all the proposed revisions of Devadatta, and it was in this context that he reiterated the tikoiparisuddha rule. (On this see the author's Western Buddhism and a Theravada heterodoxy, BSQ Tracts on Buddhism'
  138. ^ "Buddhism and Eating Meat". Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  139. ^ "Life as a Vegetarian Tibetan Buddhist Practitioner". Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  140. ^ Gyatso, Janet (November 1999). Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary - Google Books. ISBN 978-0691009483. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  141. ^ The Life of Shabkar: The Autobiography of a Tibetan Yogin - Google Books. June 3, 2014. ISBN 9781559398749. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  142. ^ [2] Archived November 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  143. ^ "Code of Canon Law". Retrieved July 28, 2013.
  144. ^ Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.22.4
  145. ^ Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, VIII.v.36
  146. ^ "The Bible Christian Church". International Vegetarian Union.
  147. ^ "History of Vegetarianism – Early Ideas". The Vegetarian Society. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2008.; Gregory, James (2007) Of Victorians and Vegetarians. London: I. B. Tauris pp. 30–35.
  148. ^ "William Cowherd (brief information)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
  149. ^ a b "Position Statement on Vegetarian Diet". Archived from the original on May 29, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  150. ^ [3] Archived May 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  151. ^ "The Seventh-day Adventist Health Message". Archived from the original on May 13, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  152. ^ "Living an Orthodox Life: Fasting". May 27, 1997. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
  153. ^ "The Great War and the Interwar Period". Retrieved August 14, 2009.
  154. ^ "Fast and Abstinence". EWTN. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
  155. ^ "Health". Archived from the original on October 3, 2006. Retrieved October 6, 2006. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  156. ^
  157. ^ Buettner, Dan (November 16, 2005). "The Secrets of Long Life". National Geographic. 208 (5): 2–27. ISSN 0027-9358. Retrieved June 6, 2006. Excerpt Archived November 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. See also National Geographic, "Sights & Sounds of Longevity"
  158. ^ Anderson Cooper, Gary Tuchman (November 16, 2005). "CNN Transcripts on Living Longer". Retrieved August 25, 2006. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) See CNN excerpt on YouTube
  159. ^ Kolata, Gina (January 3, 2007). "A Surprising Secret to a Long Life: Stay in School". The New York Times.
  160. ^ [4] Archived February 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  161. ^ The Blue Zone on YouTube
  162. ^ "Three Strategic Issues: A World Survey". General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2002. See question 26, on page 14 etc. Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  163. ^ See also "The Myth of Vegetarianism" Keith Lockhart. Spectrum 34 (Winter 2006), p22–27
  164. ^ "Adventist Health Study-2 | Adventist Health Study". Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  165. ^ Tähtinen, Unto: Ahimsa. Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London 1976, p. 107–109.
  166. ^ Paul Insel (2013), Discovering Nutrition, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, ISBN 978-1284021165, page 231
  167. ^ "The Hindu : Sci Tech / Speaking Of Science : Changes in the Indian menu over the ages". October 21, 2004. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. Retrieved February 3, 2010.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  168. ^ "The states where cow slaughter is legal in India". The Indian Express. October 8, 2015.
  169. ^ "Vegetarian Muslim: Turning Away From a Meat-Based Diet". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  170. ^ a b "Muslims can't be Vegetarian? : Islam : Dietery Law". Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  171. ^ Gandhi, Maneka Sanjay (December 3, 2018). "What the great Sufi mystic Rumi wrote on Vegetarianism". New Delhi Times.
  172. ^ "APJ Abdul Kalam's Death Anniversary: 10 Lesser Known Facts About the 11th President of India". News18. July 27, 2019. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  173. ^ "lokpriya!". Archived from the original on March 21, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  174. ^ "IVU News – Islam and Vegetarianism". Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  175. ^ "Vegetarianism Good For The Self And Good For The Environment" Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine at The Jain Study Circle
  176. ^ "Spiritual Traditions and Vegetarianism" at the Vegetarian Society of Colorado website. Archived March 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  177. ^ Matthews, Warren: World Religions, 4th edition, Belmont: Thomson/Wadsworth 2005, p. 180. ISBN 0-534-52762-0
  178. ^ Noah Lewis. "Why honey is not vegan". Retrieved December 30, 2015.
  179. ^ [5] Archived October 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  180. ^ Mary L. Zamore, ed. The Sacred Table: Creating a Jewish Food Ethic (New York, NY: CCAR Press, 2011).
  181. ^ Labendz, Jacob Ari; Yanklowitz, Shmuly (March 25, 2019). Jewish Veganism and Vegetarianism: Studies and New Directions. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-7361-1.
  182. ^ Kalechofsky, Roberta (1995). Rabbis and Vegetarianism: An Evolving Tradition. Micah Publications.
  183. ^ "Judaism & Vegetarianism". Archived from the original on September 2, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  184. ^ "How Israel Became the Global Center of Veganism". The Tower. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  185. ^ "The Rise of Israel's Orthodox Vegan Movement – Tablet Magazine". February 16, 2016. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  186. ^ Osborne, L (1980), The Rasta Cookbook, 3rd ed. Mac Donald, London.
  187. ^ "Ital Cooking". Eat Jamaican. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  188. ^ Kebede, A., & Knotternus, D. (1998). "Beyond the pales of babylon: the ideational components and social psychological foundations of rastafari". Sociological Perspectives. 41 (3): 499–517. doi:10.2307/1389561. JSTOR 1389561. S2CID 147000068.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  189. ^ a b "Sikhism Religion of the Sikh People". Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  190. ^ I.J. Singh, Sikhs and Sikhism, Manohar, Delhi ISBN 978-81-7304-058-0: "Throughout Sikh history, there have been movements or subsects of Sikhism which have espoused vegetarianism. I think there is no basis for such dogma or practice in Sikhism."
  191. ^ Surindar Singh Kohli, Guru Granth Sahib, An Analytical Study, Singh Bros. Amritsar ISBN 81-7205-060-7: "The ideas of devotion and service in Vaishnavism have been accepted by Adi Granth, but the insistence of Vaishnavas on vegetarian diet has been rejected."
  192. ^ a b Gopal Singh, History of the Sikh People, World Sikh Univ. Press, Delhi, ISBN 978-81-7023-139-4: "Nowadays in the Community Kitchen attached to the Sikh temples, and called the Guru's Kitchen (or Guru-ka-langar), meat dishes are not served at all. Maybe it is on account of its being, perhaps, expensive or not easy to keep for long. Or perhaps the Vaishnava tradition is too strong to be shaken off."
  193. ^ a b c d e Randip Singh, Fools Who Wrangle Over Flesh, Sikh Philosophy Network, December 7, 2006. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
  194. ^ "Sikh Reht Maryada, The Definition of Sikh, Sikh Conduct & Conventions, Sikh Religion Living, India". Archived from the original on August 20, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  195. ^ Jane Srivastava, "Vegetarianism and Meat-Eating in 8 Religions", Hinduism Today, Spring 2007. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
  196. ^ Gyani Sher Singh, Philosophy of Sikhism, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar: "As a true Vaisnavite, Kabir remained a strict vegetarian. Kabir, far from defying Brahmanical tradition as to the eating of meat, would not permit so much as the plucking of a flower (G.G.S. p. 479), whereas Nanak deemed all such scruples to be superstitions."
  197. ^ "Volunteer. Guru Ka Langar. Mata Khivi Made Langar a Reality". March 6, 2005. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  198. ^ "Sikhism Home Page". Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  199. ^ Singh, Prithi Pal (2006). "3 Guru Amar Das". The History of Sikh Gurus. New Delhi: Lotus Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.
  200. ^ "Livestock's Long Shadow – Environmental issues and options". Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  201. ^ EPA. 2011. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2009. United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 430-R-11-005. 459 pp.
  202. ^ Olsson, Anna (July 8, 2008). "Comment: Lab-grown meat could ease food shortage". New Scientist. Retrieved November 17, 2008.
  203. ^ Izundu, Chi Chi (February 23, 2012). "Could vegetarians eat a 'test tube' burger? - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  204. ^ "Why eating less meat could cut global warming | Environment". November 10, 2007. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  205. ^ Mason, Chris (May 12, 2009). "Europe | Belgian city plans 'veggie' days". Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  206. ^ "How To Get Meat Eaters To Eat More Plant-Based Foods? Make Their Mouths Water". Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  207. ^ "Killing for a Living: How the Meat Industry Exploits Workers". Retrieved July 16, 2009.
  208. ^ "Worker Health and Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry". Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  209. ^ "Food Safety, the Slaughterhouse, and Rights". March 30, 2004. Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  210. ^ Positive Safety Culture. The key to a safer meat industry Archived April 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, A literature review July 2000,
  211. ^ "Sectoral Policies Department (SECTOR)". Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  212. ^ [6] Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  213. ^ World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development, Published by World Bank Publications p. 207
  214. ^ "United States Leads World Meat Stampede". WorldWatch Institute. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  215. ^ Springmann, Marco; Godfray, H.C.J.; Raynar, Mike; Scarborough, Peter (February 9, 2016). "Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenefits of dietary change" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (15): 4146–4151. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113.4146S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1523119113. PMC 4839446. PMID 27001851. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  216. ^ Hodson, Gordon (September 1, 2012). "Prejudice Against "Group X" (Asexuals)". Psychology Today. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
  217. ^ Forestell, Catherine A., and John B. Nezlek. "Vegetarianism, depression, and the five factor model of personality." Ecology of food and nutrition 57, no. 3 (2018): 246-259.
  218. ^ Martinelli, Dario; Berkmanienė, Aušra (2018). "The Politics and the Demographics of Veganism: Notes for a Critical Analysis". International Journal for the Semiotics of Law. 31 (3): 501–530. doi:10.1007/s11196-018-9543-3. S2CID 149235953.
  219. ^ a b Asher, Kathryn; Green, Che; Gutbrod, Hans; Jewell, Mirna; Hale, Galina; Bastian, Brock (December 2014). "Study of Current and Former Vegetarians and Vegans" (PDF). Faunalytics. Humane Research Council. pp. 1–3, 5. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  220. ^ Melnick, Meredith (May 12, 2014). "Turns Out, Your Vegetarianism Probably Is Just A Phase". HuffPost. Archived from the original on March 23, 2021. Alt URL
  221. ^ Schultz, Colin (December 9, 2014). "Most Vegetarians Lapse After Only a Year". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  222. ^ Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet; Wang, Ronghan (Michelle) (2020). "Food restriction and the experience of social isolation". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 119 (3): 657–671. doi:10.1037/pspi0000223. PMID 31724417. S2CID 208018174.
  223. ^ Haverstock, Katie; Forgays, Deborah Kirby (June 1, 2012). "To eat or not to eat. A comparison of current and former animal product limiters". Appetite. 58 (3): 1030–1036. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.02.048. ISSN 0195-6663. PMID 22387715. S2CID 13886878.
  224. ^ Maurer, D. (2002). Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment? Philadelphia: Temple University Press
  225. ^ "Going Vegan Or Vegetarian: Many Paths To One Goal". Faunalytics. June 30, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  226. ^ Joanne McAllister Smart (February 1995). "The gender gap: if you're a vegetarian, odds are you're a woman. Why?". Vegetarian Times (210): 74. ISSN 0164-8497. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  227. ^ "CrunchBox: Interactive Data Visualization". Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  228. ^ "Who Are The Vegetarians?: Part 2". Faunalytics. April 17, 2019. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
  229. ^ Rosenfeld, Daniel L. "Gender differences in vegetarian identity: How men and women construe meatless dieting." Food Quality and Preference 81 (2020): 103859.
  230. ^ Modlinska, Klaudia, Dominika Adamczyk, Dominika Maison, and Wojciech Pisula. "Gender Differences in Attitudes to Vegans/Vegetarians and Their Food Preferences, and Their Implications for Promoting Sustainable Dietary Patterns–A Systematic Review." Sustainability 12, no. 16 (2020): 6292.
  231. ^ "'More girl babies' for vegetarians". BBC News. August 7, 2000. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  232. ^ "An exploration into diets around the world" (PDF). Ipsos. UK. August 2018. pp. 2, 10, 11.
  233. ^ Frankovic, Kathy (January 21, 2020). "CrunchBox: Interactive Data Visualization". Archived from the original on February 6, 2021. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
  234. ^ "Consumers who are vegan or vegetarian by age U.S. 2018". Statista. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  235. ^ "Hoeveel vegetariërs zijn er?". (in Dutch). Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  236. ^ "The myth of the Indian vegetarian nation". BBC News. April 3, 2018. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  237. ^ Shridhar, Krithiga; Dhillon, Preet Kaur; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, Ankalmadugu Venkatsubbareddy; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Ebrahim, Shah (June 4, 2014). "Nutritional profile of Indian vegetarian diets – the Indian Migration Study (IMS)". Nutrition Journal. 13: 55. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-55. PMC 4055802. PMID 24899080.
  238. ^ Mann, Stefan, and Raluca Necula. "Are vegetarianism and veganism just half the story? Empirical insights from Switzerland." British Food Journal (2020).
  239. ^ Herzog, Hal (September 6, 2011). "Why Are There So Few Vegetarians?". Psychology Today. Retrieved January 20, 2021.

Further reading[edit]

  • Adam D. Shprintzen. The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817–1921. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013.

External links[edit]